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Sensors, MEMS, Internet of Things

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These slides discuss the falling cost of sensors, MEMs, and the Internet of Things. The costs of MEMs, transceivers and other components are falling and making the IoT economically feasible. These slides discusses these cost reductions in detail and many examples of how the IoT is emerging for many types of industrial products.

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Sensors, MEMS, Internet of Things

  1. 1. Jeffrey Funk Division of Engineering and Technology Management National University of Singapore Sensors, MEMS, and the Internet of Things 5th Session in MT5009 For information on other technologies, see http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations
  2. 2. Let’s Connect the “Things” of theWorld
  3. 3. http://tarrysingh.com/2014/07/fog-computing-happens-when-big-data-analytics-marries-internet-of-things/ Billions of Devices Connected Online
  4. 4. Doug Hohulin, Nokia Networks, Internet ofThings: Enabling a connected world by leveraging the power of 5G mobile technology in the 2020s to support of sensors, Presented at Sensor Summit, 2015.
  5. 5. According to Cisco's Connection Counter, there are approximately 10,700,000,000 “ people, processes, data, and things" currently connected to the internet.The internet of things is already comprised of 10 billion moving parts. http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/the-internet-of-things-could-be-the-biggest-business-in-the-history-of-electronics Number of Connected Sensors is Exploding
  6. 6. Drivers of IoT  Rapidly falling cost of  Sensors, MEMS  Transceivers, GPS  Energy harvesters, other components  Emergence of better software  Borrowed from other sectors  Open Source Software  Large system inefficiencies that exist in many sectors of the global economy  What are the benefits from doing IoT?  What connections provide the largest benefits and how is this changing?
  7. 7. Why DoWe Care about IoT: It can reduce large system inefficiencies (low capital utilization, high labor costs, large material wastage) that currently exist Source: IBM Institute for Business Value,TheWorld’s 4 trillion dollar exchange
  8. 8. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/bu siness_technology/The_Internet_of_Thi ngs_The_value_of_digitizing_the_physic al_world
  9. 9. Source:The Internet ofThings for Business,Aeris IoT Involves Hardware, Software, Services
  10. 10. The Big Winners Will Probably be Suppliers of Software and Services  Jasper is billion dollar startup that provides IoT platform  Other suppliers provide  Big Data services and software (Cloudera, Hortonworks) or  Database or data storage software (Nutanix,Actifio, Simplivity, MarkLogic, PureStorage)  Or will a different set of startups succeed?  Fundamental questions: How will the data be  transmitted? analyzed? presented?  with high security and no hacking http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/09/ opinion/sunday/regulators-should-develop-rules-to-protect-cars-from-hackers.html?_r=0  What are the key parameters of performance and cost for transmission, analysis, and presentation of data?
  11. 11. Session Technology 1 Objectives and overview of course 2 How do improvements in cost and performance occur? 3 How/when do new technologies become economically feasible? 4 Semiconductors, ICs, electronic systems 5 Sensors, MEMS and the Internet of Things 6 Bio-electronics, Wearable Computing, Health Care, DNA Sequencers 7 Lighting, Lasers, and Displays 8 Human-Computer Interfaces, Wearable Computing 9 Information Technology and Land Transportation 10 Nano-technology and Superconductivity This is Fifth Session of MT5009
  12. 12. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc. (how are their economics changing?)  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  13. 13. http://www.businessinsider.com/four-elements-driving-iot-2014-10 8.2% per year Cost of Many Sensors is Low (also falling, but not so fast)
  14. 14. Doug Hohulin, Nokia Networks, Internet ofThings: Enabling a connected world by leveraging the power of 5G mobile technology in the 2020s to support of sensors, Presented at Sensor Summit, 2015.
  15. 15. Power Needs of Sensors is Also Falling
  16. 16. These Power Needs can be Met by Energy Harvester Vibration Sensors are getting better Eliminates batteries and wires!!
  17. 17. These Power Needs can be Met by Energy Harvesters (no wire needed) Thermal electric sensors are getting better Eliminates batteries and wires!!
  18. 18. Rising Speeds and Falling Cost of DataTransmission, Computing, Big Data Support IoT
  19. 19. New Forms ofTransceivers Complement Existing Ones: Many new ones are more appropriate for low and intermittent data rates of IoT
  20. 20. NewTechnologies have Different Ranges and DataVolumes, Use Different Frequencies, and Support Different Applications
  21. 21. Many Benefits to Connecting Things  Basically: monitor, control, optimize, automate, and update  What is status, location, usage?  Examples  Infrastructure: strength of bridges, dams  Environment: temperature, pressure, air/water quality  Medical equipment: status, location  Product usage:Amazon Kindle, washing machine  Update software on equipment  Health: heart rate, brain wave, blood pressure)  Location: vehicle, plane, medical equipment, anything expensive or benefits to self-assembly  Big Data is used to analyze data NewTechnologies have Different ranges and Data Rates use Different Frequencies, and Support Different Applications (2)
  22. 22. (E.g.,Weightless on previous slide)
  23. 23. (E.g., weightless on previous slide)
  24. 24. Location is Also Important  Could be outdoors/global  GPS – global positioning system  Very cheap: <15$ for chip withWiFi, GPS, Bluetooth, FM (see third and fourth sessions)  Could be indoors/local  RTLS: real-time location service; usually radio frequency communication; for very expensive items  UHF: ultra hi-frequency (activated by signal; for cheaper items)  Bar codes: for cheapest items  Cost of monitoring location varies and thus expensive things are monitored more closely  Airplanes, Ships,Automobiles  People, Money
  25. 25. Improvements in Accuracy of GPS for Outdoor/Global Tracking Ref: http://www.gps.gov ErrorsFall (6.5% per year)
  26. 26. Falling Prices of RFIDTransponders (passive types) forTracking Source: http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?9589/3 19.1% per year Be careful, many types of RFID tags!And there costs vary!
  27. 27. All ofThese Components can be Embedded in Smart Plastics Source: Fall 2015 MT5016 project
  28. 28. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  29. 29. MEMS are Key Part of Internet ofThings  Many types of sensors  Some experience cost reductions more than do others  On average, only 8.2% per year  MEMS are one type of sensor that is experiencing more rapid rates of improvement than other sensors  They are similar to ICs  Some MEMS benefit from reductions in scale as ICs do  Those that benefit from reductions in scale are experiencing very rapid reductions in cost  Bio-electronic ICs have micro-fluidic channels and thus are one type of MEMS: they benefit from reductions in scale  This session focuses on MEMS, next session bio- electronic ICs
  30. 30. Ratchet Mechanism Actuator Torsional Actuator Early Optical Switch Clutch Mechanism Anti-reverse mechanism http://www.memx.com/
  31. 31. Increasingly DetailedView of a Micro-Engine Source: http://www.memx.com/ Micro-engine GearTrain Multi-level springs that that are part of Micro-Engine Side view of springs
  32. 32. Accelerometer less detail more detail Inertial Sensor (includes accelerometer and gyroscope) less detail more detail
  33. 33. Source:Yole, July 2013
  34. 34. Source: Janusz Bryszek, MEMS and Sensors a Journey to Mainstream, Santa Clara, CA, September 12, 2013
  35. 35. Source: MEMSTechnology Roadmapping, Michael Gaitan, NIST Chair, iNEMI and ITRS MEMSTechnologyWorking Groups Nano-TecWorkshop 3, 31 May 2012
  36. 36. Source:AStar MEMS are often Defined as Part of More than Moore
  37. 37. http://www2.imec.be/content/user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf AnotherWay to Look at “More than Moore (MtM)”
  38. 38. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Accelerometer AnotherWay to Look at “More than Moore”
  39. 39. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures EarlyApplication:
  40. 40. Limitations of Scaling for Accelerometers  Since displacement is proportional to size of mass in accelerometer  Smaller mass leads to weaker sensitivity to displacement  Thus smaller features (e.g., springs) are bad  This led to pessimistic view towards MEMS  Solution for MEMS-based accelerometers  Integrate transistors with MEMS device to compensate for the poor sensitivity of MEMS-based accelerometers  put transistors close to the MEMS device in order to reduce parasitic capacitance Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
  41. 41. Nevertheless, improvements were made to accelerometers in the form of smaller size chips. Source: Trends and frontiers of MEMS,Wen H. Ko; Cs: sensing capacitance
  42. 42. But then other Applications Began to Emerge  Gyroscopes  Micro-fluidics  Digital mirror device  Optical switches  These applications benefited from smaller sizes! Emphasis changed  from “adding transistors” to “reducing feature size”  from “integration of transistors and mechanical functions” to chips with only mechanical functions/devices Source: Ngyuen, Berkeley lecture
  43. 43. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
  44. 44. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
  45. 45. Benefits of Size Reduction: MEMS (2)  Feature sizes are currently much larger on MEMS than those on ICs (40 years behind)  MEMS: around or less than one micron  ICs: 10 nanometers (0.01 microns)  Partly because  devices are different (e.g., much overlap of layers)  processes (e.g., wet vs. plasma etching) are slightly different……  As feature sizes get smaller, we can expect large changes in our world  Current feature sizes of 0.5 to 1.0 microns for MEMS and thus industry is like ICs were in 1980  Improvements in MEMS will probably have similar impact as ICs have had since 1980 Source: Nyugen’s Berkeley lectures and http://www.boucherlensch.com/bla/IMG/pdf/BLA_MEMS_Q4_010.pdf
  46. 46. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  47. 47. http://semimd.com/blog/2011/12/06/silicon-foundries-to-expand-into-mems-business/
  48. 48. Bottom Line: development costs are very high so applications must have very high volumes Integrated Circuits (CMOS) MEMS Materials Roughly the same for each application Often different for each application Processes Roughly the same for each application (CMOS) Often different for each application Equipment Roughly the same for each application Often different for each application Masks Different for each application. But common solutions exist!ASICs (application specific ICs), Microprocessors Often different for each application and thus high volumes are needed
  49. 49. Solutions?  Can we identify a set of common materials, processes and equipment that can be used to make many types of MEMS?  Using common materials, processes and equipment involve tradeoffs  Use sub-optimal ones for each application  But benefit overall from economies of scale; similar things occurred with silicon-based CMOS devices  Some MEMS are being made with materials, processes, and equipment that are used to fabricate CMOS ICs  Many foundries do this  Or should we look for a different set of materials, processes and equipment?
  50. 50. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  51. 51. Micro-Gas Analyzers: Gas Chromatography  Gases must be separated, analyzed, and purified for a wide variety of applications  These include laboratories, factories, water treatment plants, fish farms, and many more  Separation, which is the first step in any analysis is usually called gas chromatography and involves columns that are made of glass or other materials  MEMS enables much smaller gas chromatographs
  52. 52. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; ppb: parts per billion; ppt: parts per trillion
  53. 53. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
  54. 54. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures (1)
  55. 55. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures (2)
  56. 56. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  57. 57. Ink Jet Printers  While their hardware costs are much lower than those of laser printer (perhaps 1/10)  the annual cost of their cartridges can be much higher than the cost of their hardware  e.g., higher maintenance costs due to clogging,  they print much more slowly than do laser printers  Gradually changing because MEMS reduces the amount of ink and thus the time for printing and the frequency of installing a new cartridge
  58. 58. Fires ink drops of between less than 1 pico-liter and these drops can be made smaller.The smaller drops increase resolution, allowing faster drying, and reduce ink consumption
  59. 59. Ink Jet Printers can also be used to Print Biological Materials  Ink jet printing can be used to print all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix) to generate structures analogous to tissue (bio printing)  Smaller feature sizes on these MEMS enable better resolution of tissue  1 pico-liter volumes have 10 micron feature sizes, which is about the size of a cell  Need the right material, a bio-reactor, and the ejection of the bio- material may adversely impact on the cell  This can also be done with 3D printers,  Sources: Brian Derby, Printing and Prototyping ofTissues and Scaffolds, Science 338, 16 Nov 2012, p 921. Thermal Inkjet Printing inTissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Xiaofeng Cui,Thomas Boland, Darryl D. D’Lima, and Martin K. Lotz
  60. 60. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  61. 61. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Mass is function of length (L), width (W), and h (height); Q is amplification factor, V is voltage; d is distance between bottom of beam and underlying material
  62. 62. Scaling of Mechanical Resonator  Operates slightly different from guitar string  Calculations show that frequency rises as 1/L2  Replacing anchored beam with free-free beam and reducing L (length) to 2 microns,W and H to nano-dimensions, causes frequency to rise to above 1 GHz  Inexpensive mechanical resonators can replace electrical filters  Which also enables the use of multiple filters and thus communication at many frequency bands (and thus cognitive radio)  There is no theoretical limit to reducing sizes and thus increasing frequencies Source: EE C245/ME C218: Introduction to MEMS, Lecture 2m: Benefits of Scaling I
  63. 63. Making Resonators with semiconductor processes/equipment
  64. 64. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures But calculations show that disks scale better than do beams or springs (t = inner radius)
  65. 65. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Multiple Disks Provide Better Performance
  66. 66. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; RF BPF: radio frequency bypass filter
  67. 67. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures RF = radio frequency; SAW = surface acoustic wave:VCO: voltage controlled oscillators Other Discrete Components can also be Replaced by Smaller MEMS components
  68. 68. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
  69. 69. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures PutAll the Passive Devices on a Single Chip,Thus enabling very small sizes.Why do we want small sizes? Aren’t phones small enough
  70. 70. Source: Clark Ngyuen,August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Another application for MEMs in phones, GPS, and other devices
  71. 71. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  72. 72. Sampoong Department Store Collapse due to Overload in Seoul, South Korea (1995). Historical Archive of the City Collapse due to Ground Deformation in Cologne, Germany (2009) Tacoma Bridge Collapse due to Wind in Tacoma, US (1940) Sung-Su Bridge Collapse in Korea (1994) I-35 Bridge Collapse in Minessota, US (2007) Nicoll Highway Collapse due to Construction Failure and Overload, Singapore (2004) Source: Structural Health Monitoring, Group Presentation, Spring 2015
  73. 73. Monitoring Structures to Reduce Chance of Catastrophic Failure  MEMS  Piezo-electric sensors:Translates mechanical (deformation) to electrical energy  Ultrasonic Sensors: generate and measure waves to detect deformation (see right)  Fiber optic sensors (FOS): measure deformation through windings (see right)  Wireless Sensors and RFID Systems
  74. 74. Location: Hongkong Year: 1997 Structure Cost: 929 Million SHM Cost: USD 8 Million 350 Sensors Cost per Sensor: USD 22,875 Technology: FOS, Wireless  Includes sensory, data acquisition, local centralised computer and global central computer systems
  75. 75.  Cable-stayed bridge across Mississippi River, Missouri, USA. Origin: Missouri, USA Year: 2003 Structure Cost: USD 100 Million SHM Cost: USD 1.3 Million 86 Sensors Cost per Sensor: USD 15,116 Technology: Wireless
  76. 76. The I-35 bridge replaced the Minneapolis bridge that collapsed. This SHM is saving 15 to 25 percent of maintenance costs Origin: Minneapolis, USA. Year: 2008 Structure Cost: USD 234 Million SHM Cost: USD 1 Million 500 Sensors Cost per Sensor: USD 2,000 Technology: Wireless
  77. 77. Item Tsing Ma Bridge Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge I-35 bridge Total Structure Cost USD 929 mil. USD 100 mil. USD 234 mil. Year 1997 2003 2008 SHM cost USD 8 mil. USD 1.3 mil. USD 1 mil. SHM cost (%) 0.9% 1.3% 0.4% Total sensors 350 sensors 86 sensors 500 sensors Cost per sensor USD 22,875 USD 15,116 USD 2,000 Sensor technology FOS, Wireless Wireless wireless -15% SHM Cost decrease 15% each year.
  78. 78. 1. Can be applied to almost any structure 2. Perhaps even to small devices like artificial heart, skin and limbs. 3. Use in daily life:  Self healing / self patching (hole in) tire  Self inflating tire.  Self healing from scratch in any surface  Monitoring stress, load, fatigue in furniture.  SHM in home appliances. • Crack in gas regulator / gas tank. • Exposed cable. 4. New protocols to reduce energy usage.  Bluetooth 4, Zigbee, Thread, MiWi, Allseen, etc. Part of Smart City. Internet of Things.
  79. 79. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  80. 80. Fracking and Modern Day Drilling Drilling has changed………. Better sensors, ICs, control monitors, joy sticks, other controls, and horizontal drilling (with computers and sensors). Force sensors and computers for horizontal drilling, temperature and pressure sensors to monitor chemical based slurrieshttps://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=292&c_id=24
  81. 81. The drilling rigs can move on tracks or legs Many wells are drilled near each other Multiple ones may be drilled simultaneously This reduces the time to drill each well and begin production http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/12/business/energy-environment/drillers-answer-low-oil-prices-with-cost-saving- innovations.html?rref=homepage&module=Ribbon&version=origin&region=Header&action=click&contentCollection=Home%20Page&pgtype=article
  82. 82. Fiber-optic sensors (like those used in structural health monitoring) are gathering data several thousands of feet below the ground Sensors determine how much a fracturing job is penetrating the hard rocks to plan the spacing of wells more accurately Also by tracking temperatures, pressure and vibrations, sensors and advanced software can predict when equipment needs servicing before it breaks down
  83. 83. Pipeline Inspections  Smart Pigs  Small devices put through pipelines to look for signs of weakness in metal  Return large amounts of data  Can determine if pipeline walls have become thinner  Has reduced the number of severe (> 50 barrels) spills from 20 in 2005 to 7 in 2015  Pipeline operators don’t always act on the data  Big pipeline spill in July 2015 near Santa Barbara California  Reported to local authorities by beachcombers and not by pipeline company http://www.wsj.com/articles/pipeline-inspection-tools-are-far-from-perfect-1435875737
  84. 84. Applications Also in Mining  Using RFID sensors,Wi-Fi Networks, fiber-optic cables, and military grade communications devices  Uses RFID tags to track everything and the locations are presented on a 3D map  Enables better management of equipment and people  Also enables better safety  Monitor equipment for better maintenance  CEO claims these technologies helped reduce production costs by 1/3  Mining Sensor Data to Run a Better Gold Mine (WiFi and RFID) http://www.wsj.com/articles/mining-sensor-data-to-run-a-better-gold-mine-1424226463
  85. 85. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  86. 86. Farming and IoT  Farms are major users of IoT in U.S. Farmers spend their time in front of computer monitors http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/08/03/the-internet-of-things-and-the-future-of- farming/?ref=technology&_r=0. up to 2 minutes. http://www.wsj.com/articles/to-feed-billions-farms-are-about-data-as-much-as-dirt-1439160264  Equipment is monitored, controlled, and automated with GPS, lasers, and other electronics (one startup: OnFarm)  Fields must be perfectly level for irrigation  Seeds must be accurately placed  Harvesting must be done at right speeds, with automated tractors  Everything depends on the weather!  All of these things will be adopted by the rest of the world (including the use of corporate farms)  If you grew up in a rural area, you have valuable skills  Most of us don’t know a cabbage plant from an apple tree
  87. 87. Farming and IoT (2)  Precision Planting  Tells farmers with great precision seeds to plant and how to cultivate them in each patch of land  Special seed drills and other devices plant the seeds as they are pulled behind tractors, facilitated by GPS  Laser leveled fields facilitate irrigation  Better control of water  Can also use lasers to determine height and density of fruit trees  Helps farmers more accurately apply water, pesticides and fertilizers
  88. 88. Farming and IoT (3)  John Deere is the world’s largest producer of autonomous four-wheeled vehicles (been producing them for 15 years)  Cabs are full of screens and tablets, they resemble the cockpit of a passenger jet  2,600 software engineers work at John Deere  Also many startups  Granular is providing the enterprise resource planning software of farming  Surveillance Startup DroneDeploy helps farms gather and analyze data  This will eventually happen in the rest of the world http://www.wsj.com/articles/to-feed-billions-farms-are-about-data-as-much-as-dirt-1439160264
  89. 89. Robots and Agriculture  Robots for picking strawberries and other fragile fruit  Moving potted plants around nurseries  Drones (see below) http://www.wsj.com/articles/robots-step-into-new-planting-harvesting-roles-1429781404
  90. 90. Skyscraper or vertical farming is facilitated by falling cost of sensors for PH, temperature, air quality, nutrient uptake Food can be grown in water (hydroponics), dirt, or on thin-film substrates Vertical farming reduces transportation and logistic costs, and need for land improves freshness and thus quality of food
  91. 91. http://www.wsj.com/articles/silicon-valley-firms-plant-roots-in-farm-belt- 1428348765?mod=LS1
  92. 92. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  93. 93. Food Poisoning is Very Common  According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  One in six people in the U.S. experience food poisoning every year  128,000 are hospitalized, 3,000 die https://www.moh.gov.sg/content/dam/moh_web/Statistics/Epidemiological_News_Bulletin/2012/ENB03Q_12.pdf  Larger problems exist in developing world (China and India)  One solution is highly accurate, cheap, and portable sensors for fresh and prepared food http://www.wsj.com/articles/startups-take-bite-out-of-food-poisoning-1450069262  Nima from 6SensorLabs – detects gluten, but in future proteins of bacteria  C2Sense – detects ripeness of fruit through gas analysis  SCiO – detects molecules at surface through light reflection  Another solution is smart packaging that includes better sensors
  94. 94. Sensors for Food  Need better information on history of packaged food (and raw fruits and vegetables)  What are the ingredients and where are they from?  Can we trust the ingredients?  Also spoilage dates on packages are very rough  Food may spoil sooner or later than date  Causes food to be discarded too early or eaten when dangerous  So more information than just recommended dates  Need better sensors for food spoilage  Measure temperature and sunlight at various points in value chain  Track when they are placed in refrigerators and appliances  This information can be stored in RFID tags and read by phones
  95. 95. Some Smart Packaging isAlready Available containers that monitor shelf life of fresh seafood and alcohol content using smart phone with NFC http://www.packworld.com/sites/default/files/styles/lightbox/public/field/ image/manlypicsushi_0.jpg?itok=6MGFyBW4 http://www.packagingdigest.com/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_750x422/public/Remy%20Martin% 2072%20dpi.jpg?itok=HSL3dtJ0
  96. 96. Many Changes in Food Packaging From http://www.packaging.org.sg/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Mr-Rick-Yeo.pdf
  97. 97. Better IT can Reduce Food Spoilage  Inefficient supply chains exist in much of Asia andAfrica  Too many layers in supply chain  Too many small buyers and sellers  Not enough temperature, sunlight, humidity controls  UN estimates 42% of fruit and vegetables and 20% of grain perish before reaching consumers  India may be largest source of waste  Inefficient supply chains, small food stalls and politically influential traders  UN estimates 40% of India’s fruit and vegetables perish before reaching consumers – worth $8.3 billion http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/c1f2856e-a518-11e3-8988-00144feab7de.html#axzz3hLjYuym0
  98. 98. Smart Chopsticks For detecting bad oil and other ingredients Can also use spectrometers attached to phones to detect ingredients
  99. 99. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors;Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  100. 100. Environmental Sensors and Phones  Would you avoid places if you knew these places caused problems to your health?  There are many allergies  Allergies to pollen are common in US – called asthma  Others are sensitive to various chemicals  Most of us are sensitive to viruses  All of us hate dengue fever mosquitoes  Environmental sensors can gather lots of data  Sensors on buildings or on phones  Show position on phone map using GPS  Build a map of asthma and other hot spots?  Roadside sensors monitor automobiles http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/01/opinion/test-emissions-where-cars-pollute-on-the-road.html?ref=opinion
  101. 101. Commercial Fishing  One in five fish sold in restaurants or shops are caught illegally  Put transponders (and other forms ofAutomatic Identification System) on fishing boats to monitor their location, speed, and direction with satellites  VHF transceiver and coastal base station  GPS  Satellite  When they enter restricted areas, watch them closely with satellites  Synthetic aperture can detect zigzagging, which is used for fishing  High resolution cameras can add additional info
  102. 102. Open Source Systems  Pull data from satellites, drones, and other monitoring systems to help identify illegal and unregulated fishing  Similar systems for monitoring illegal wildlife tracking and threats to water and air quality  For example, some systems detected changes in water’s pH levels in Okavango Delta, because too many boats were idling in one spot  Noise sensors can detect noise from fishing vessels entering protected ocean waters http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rocket-science- environmentalist-1450368433
  103. 103. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  104. 104. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/technology/personaltech/a-teardown-of-the-phantom-2-vision-plus-drone-from-dji.html?_r=0 Drone mostly consist of Electronics and cost of Electronics (but not batteries) is Falling Rapidly
  105. 105. Commercial Drones  Current applications are movie production and news reporting  DJI is biggest supplier  sales over $1Billion and member of Billion Dollar Club  But other applications might become bigger markets  Problems  Safety, licenses, regulations  Batteries have low energy densities  can distributed network of charging help?  Wibotic and Laser offer wireless charging service  Or should they be attached to ground via tethers  Accuracy of GPS – land in a swimming pool? http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/tech/innovation/underwater-drones/index.html?hpt=te_t1 http://www.wsj.com/articles/chinese-drone-maker-dji-raises-75-million-from-accel-partners-1430915407 Economist, June 27, 2015, Coiled and Ready to Strike. http://www.wsj.com/articles/some-drones-are-put-on-a-leash-1438557521
  106. 106. Inspecting Airplanes (and other things)  Drones can do the inspections faster than can humans  Uses video cameras and smart algorithms to check for problems  One problem is that drones must operate inside a hanger (not currently allowed outside hangar at airports)  GPS doesn’t work in a hanger  But lidar can (like radar, but uses lasers) enable drone positioning  Blue Bear Research Systems’ drone, called Riser, inspects aircraft in about 20 minutes and thus enable faster turnaround Strike Out, Economist, July 4, 2015, p. 67
  107. 107. Agriculture, Forestry, Sheep Herding  Agriculture  Gather data on plant’s size and health (level of moisture in top soil, the chlorophyll content of crop and biomass)  helps with fertilizer application, saves money  Spraying crops with pesticides and herbicides  Forestry  Cameras detect diseases in trees so they can be cut down before disease spreads  Sheep herding  Find, guide, and count sheep and cattle  Attach tracking devices to sheep  Drones operated remotely by rancher http://www.wsj.com/articles/chinese-drone-maker-plows-into-agriculture- 1448573490 http://www.wsj.com/articles/theyre-using-drones-to-herd-sheep- 1428441684The robot overhead, Economist, December 6, 2014. p. 13
  108. 108. Underwater drones for moving fish farms  About > 50% of fish is grown in farms, usually along coast lines  For example, almost 100% of shrimp is grown in farms  Fish farms require food and create concentrated waste that damage the environment  Drones can move fish farms around ocean  And thus to food  And reduce concentration of waste  IoT is important  sensors, wireless data, and big data  Control and monitor fish farms
  109. 109. Other Services  Solar power for drones that provide internet services? (economist, the west wind blows afresh, August 30, 2014)  Secom offers security drone  Captures pictures of intruders and also chases them  $6,620 for drone plus $41 per month for service  Europe wants to monitor ship emissions with Sniffer Drones  Amazon wants to deliver items to homes http://www.wsj.com/articles/europe-tries-out-sniffer- drones-for-policing-ship-emissions-1448454246 http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2015/11/29/amazon-touts- new-drone-prototype-plans-multiple-designs/
  110. 110. Investments in Drone Startups by Venture Capitalists
  111. 111. Robots are like Drones
  112. 112. Many Applications for Robots (and Drones)  Harvest ripe fruits, pick crops, do manufacturing operations, load trucks, clean floors  Paint walls and houses, weed garden, load trucks, cook meals, clean tables, make beds, walk dogs, wash sidewalk  Control with Phones? http://www.wsj.com/articles/smart-little- suckers-next-gen-robot-vacuums-1443037516
  113. 113. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  114. 114. Logistics is still very inefficient  Food delivery trucks are transporting goods only 10% of the time (empty 90% of the time)  Logistics accounts for >10% of finished product’s cost and about 15% of world’s GNP  We need more standardization of containers and communication protocols for communication (e.g., radio tags), more sharing of trucks and warehouse (too many in proprietary networks)  Improvements in ICs, computers, and other aspects of the Internet support this standardization and optimization of supply chains Source: Science, 6 June 2014,Vol 344, Issue 6188
  115. 115. “Uber” for Logistics  Can transportation assets be shared more widely across different companies?  Thus leading to greater efficiencies?  Could this be achieved through greater use of third parties such as Uber?  Reduce number of empty  Trucks, warehouses  Ships, containers  Cranes  One study concluded that 16% of third-party logistics will be enabled through mobile platforms by 2025 http://ww2.frost.com/news/press- releases/uber-trucking-ushering-new-era-north-american-freight-movement-logistics-market/  Discussed more in Session 9
  116. 116. Warehouse and Store Levels  Keep track of stock, misplaced items, item locations  Warehouse level  Store level  Totally manual – even with Barcodes and RFID – process is easier but still manual  Time consuming, difficult to reach higher shelves especially in warehouses  Prone to error https://www.salesvu.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/ga.jpg https://www.salesvu.com/blog/wp- content/uploads/2014/11/ga.jpg http://www.aristidenkoumondo.co.ke/w p-content/uploads/2015/09/inventm.jpg
  117. 117. Inventory management - The future  Robotics  Autonomous navigation – easy and accurate planogram generation  RFID and Barcode scanning  Image recognition  Drones  Most importantly – they are connected  Everyone from the store managers to the customers can easily look up availability, price and other things about the products http://images.sciencedaily.com/20 14/12/141215084424_1_900x600. jpg http://www.technologyreview.com/sites/default/files/legacy/shop-botx220.jpg
  118. 118. Warehouse Inventory - Future  InventAIRy Project at Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics  Flying robots (drones) – autonomous navigation  Perceives environment dynamically  Motion and camera sensors inside the warehouse  GPS for navigating outside  Tracks objects with barcodes and RFID  Planograms – using lasers, 3D cameras, etc. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141215084424.htm http://www.autonomik40.de/en/InventAIRy.php
  119. 119. Internet of Trash  Part of logistics is how to deal with trash  Monitor fullness of trash cans?  Monitor citizen compliance with recycling/separation?  Can we use RFID tags to more accurately separate trash at processing site?  So that for example plastics can be separated and recycled  Different plastics should not be recycled together  Or can something else be embedded in the product or in multiple parts of the product?  https://reason.com/blog/2015/07/31/recycling-cameras-privacy-surveillance
  120. 120. Free Routing vs. Existing Method  Better computers enable better flight paths  Existing method  Planes follow one another along established corridors much like lanes on a highway  Managed by flight controllers through voice communication with planes  Free routing  Aircraft can fly more directly between cities, thus saving fuel, reducing flight times and simplifying descents through better predictions of arrival times  Computers work out the trajectories 30 minutes in advance making flight controller jobs easier
  121. 121. Pilotless Commercial Aircraft?  In recent survey of airline pilots, those operating Boeing 777s reported they spent just 7 minutes manually piloting their planes in typical flight  And planes won’t fly into a mountain, while people sometimes do (Germanwings plane)  Ground controllers might operate multiple planes simultaneously while they are landing  They might also gain control of plane in emergency  http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/07/science/planes- without-pilots.html?ref=technology
  122. 122. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  123. 123. Retail  Automated Check-Out  Bar codes or other identifiers are automatically read  Shoppers search for products with specific characteristics  Products without specific ingredients  Products made in the right (and not wrong) places  Not expired products  Products that haven’t been exposed to high temperatures, sunlight, or something else  EyeTracking  What products are customers looking at?  Wireless Sensing andTracking  Customers are tracked monitored and communicated through opt-in systems (iBeacon)  Many startups are targeting these areas: https://angel.co/retail-technology
  124. 124. Carnegie-Mellon’s AndyVision  Can alert store staff if an item is running low or is misplaced or is out of stock  Real-time fusion of machine learning and image processing techniques  Generates detailed aisle-shelf level store map  displayed in-store on a screen  customers can browse through this virtual schematic of the store using touch/gesture interfaces  Mobile app – make a shopping list and you will get the location of each item on your list in the store http://www.cmu.edu/homepage/computing/2012/summer/robots-in-retail.shtml
  125. 125. Examples of iBeacon and LiFi • iBeacon • an indoor positioning system that has higher accuracy and uses less power than does GPS • Based on Bluetooth Low Energy • Users download an app and tick consent box to use • LiFi • Uses LEDs (Session 7) • http://www.bbc.com/news/technology- 32848763
  126. 126. Jane enters Joe’s shoe store, with an installed iBeacon mobile app  A store’s iBeacon alerts Jane’s iPhone and welcomes her to the shop Jane walks to the sports shoes section and spends time checking out Nike running shoes.  iBeacon enables Joe to identify Jane’s loyalty-card #1234X and location in store (e.g., in front of Nike shoes)  It allows Joe to monitor her behavior, e.g., how long is she looking at Nike shoes? Joe is able to serve Jane customized offers such as discount-coupon for Nike according to her behavior, shopping history and revenue targets. Jane is happy with discounts and pays with her mobile wallet  The system processes the transaction through secure protocols and records the data. Example: Joe’s Shoe shop
  127. 127. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  128. 128. Smart Homes  It will happen sometime…  But people have been talking about this for a long time…  The 2014 Consumer Electronics Show said it would happen in 2014  But others have been less optimistic (The smart home is a pipe dream, CNN)  One must think carefully about the specific applications and the many types of solutions  What features do users want?  What features actually provide us with benefits? http://money.cnn.com/2014/01/02/technology/innovation/ces-connected-home/index.html
  129. 129. What is a “Smart Home”? “A home equipped with lighting, heating,and electronic devices that can be controlled remotely by smartphone or computer.” – Oxford dictionaries (2014) "A dwelling incorporating a communications network that connects the key electrical appliances and services,and allows them to be remotely controlled, monitored or accessed.” – UK Department ofTrade and Industry (2003)
  130. 130. Control Home with Smart Phones, Other Devices  Control lighting, thermostat (air con), windows, door locks, TVs, with phones or with voice (Apple’s Siri)  Control air con or heater from outside house?  Monitor and control lighting and oven from outside house?  Control doors, windows, appliances, and TV with smart phone  Apple released “Home Kit” in June http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2015/05/14/apple-says-first-homekit-smart-devices- coming-in-june  Smart fridge or smart trash can for recycling?  Replenish products with Amazon Dash Home Ordering Kit
  131. 131. Smart Fridge  By adding wireless bar code scanner (or something similar) and a SriProxy SD card to smart phone, food can be scanned with smart phone as placed in fridge  A bar code scanner on the fridge scans items as they are removed  Both sets of data are streamed to LCD screen on fridge door (or on phone)  About $200 for hardware, just 10% of Fridge cost  Benefits  Easier to check fridge contents  Discard old items, purchase new ones  Propose recipes
  132. 132. Smart Homes and Smart Plastics: Build the electronics on the Plastic
  133. 133. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  134. 134.  Control any kind of toy  Racing cars – control movements  Interact with dolls – they understand your commands  Control armies of insects or armies of tanks and helicopters Internet of Toys
  135. 135. Combines Figurines and Video Games  Figurines include sensors  Tapping the figurine’s sensors to the game sensor causes a digital version of the figurine to enter the video game  Allows kids to combine figurines from different universes  Kids collect entire collections of figurines  What about using phones to interact with figurines? http://www.wsj.com/articles/toy-story- another-fad-or-future-of-videogames- 1432079878
  136. 136. Star Wars Droid is Popular  Kids can control movements of droid with smart phone  Retails for $150  But the electronics will become cheaper  BB-8 Droid Offers Hint of Coming Crush of‘StarWars’Toys http://nyti.ms/1UvBGQ1
  137. 137. Toys and Education  Isn’t there a way to educate kids with toys while entertaining them?  Toys can help kids learn in many different ways  Can we use the IoT to help kids learn?  For toddlers, how can the IoT make plastic animals, dolls, other figures, puzzles, train sets, Lego sets, remote control cars, and other toys more educational?  Without encouraging them to watch un-educational videos
  138. 138. Toys and Sports  Monitor tennis swing with embedded chips?  Provide coaching tips?  Track authenticity of branded bags via embedded chips  Does deutschland do digital? Economis nov 21 2015. Pp 59 60
  139. 139. Outline  Improvements in sensors, transceivers, GPS, energy harvesters  MEMS  Improvements in MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits from scaling)  Challenges of MEMS  Examples of MEMS: micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, filters and other components for mobile phone chips  Examples of Internet ofThings that are made possible by improvements in MEMS, sensors, transceivers, GPS, etc.  Structures; Fracking and Energy; Farming; Food Sensors; Environment;  Drones; Logistics; Retail; Smart Homes; Internet ofToys;  Emerging IoT products and services
  140. 140. Hardware Solutions  Many types of sensors and processors  Samsung offer chips with processors and Bluetooth in ladybug size for less than $10 (Artik, company wide standard)  TI offers cheap chips, Intel builds small 3G modem  GE, Microsoft, Qualcomm, IBM, and Cisco (acquired Meraki) offer hardware and software  But deploying these systems often cost $50,000 to millions  Firms must design the sensors with IoT and the deployment of IoT in mind http://www.wsj.com/articles/smart-device-startups-target-business-customers-1449577801?mod=WSJ_TechWSJD_moreTopStories
  141. 141. Startups will Likely Succeed in IoT  Big Data  4 big data startups (Palantir, Mu Sigma, Cloudera, Hortonworks) have billion dollar valuations  Two of them offer services based on Hadoop  Who will be next?  Other Startups  887 funding deals related to IoT startups just in November 2015  Samsara and Helium Systems offer simple systems that can be deployed in hours or days rather than months or years http://www.wsj.com/articles/smart-device-startups-target-business-customers-1449577801?mod=WSJ_TechWSJD_moreTopStories
  142. 142. Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects  Internet ofThings is gathering speed  Falling cost of sensors, MEMS, wireless chips and other electronics are propelling IoT forward  Cost of MEMS will continue to drop rapidly, particularly those that benefit form reductions in scale  Applications are expanding from large to small structures  Where are the largest benefits?What are they? Is this changing?  Is it Structures, Fracking and Energy, Fishing,Agriculture, Drones, Retail, Smart Homes, Internet ofToys?  Can your project help us understand where the largest benefits (and largest opportunities) might be?  The more specific, the better!
  143. 143. One-Page Write-ups  Identify all the entrepreneurial opportunities for one of the following technologies  IoT for agriculture  smart homes  food sensors  Drones
  144. 144. What are Entrepreneurial Opportunities?  They are not applications!!  They are products and services that offer potential revenues to their providers  Not the same as applications!  Not just final product or service, but any component, software, service, or manufacturing equipment that is needed to commercialize the technology  Think about vertical disintegration  Applications should be analyzed in terms of the products and services that are needed to satisfy the applications  Different applications may require different types of products and services  The more specific you can be, the better your grade

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