ANALYZING
HI-TECHNOLOGY
OPPORTUNITIES

LIANG LIANG (A0098464N)

SOH LOON SIONG (A0098520A)
WONG CHEE YEOW (A0104437M)
JONA...
AEROGEL

INTRODUCTION

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVEMENT

OPPORTUNITIES

CHALLENGES
Also known as frozen

smoke

Lightest man-made solid

known to exist.

About 95-99%

air but can hold up to
4000 times its...
DO YOU KNOW…
The most common aerogel, Silica
aerogel, feels like Styrofoam and is
transparent with a blue cast. Due to its...
DO YOU KNOW…
A 2.5kg brick rests on top of a silica
aerogel.
Though brittle, aerogels can carry up
to 4000 times its own w...
DO YOU KNOW…
A graphene aerogel resting on top of a grass leaf.
Graphene aerogels are extremely light.
TYPES OF AEROGEL
QUANTUM DOT AND
METAL
CHALCOGENIDE
AEROGELS

GRAPHENE COATED
AEROGELS
• High Elasticity

• Photoluminesce...
HISTORY OF AEROGEL

Samuel
Stephens
Kistler (1900 1975) was
an
American
scientist and
chemical
engineer,
with a keen
inter...
HOW AEROGELS ARE MADE
Aerogel starts out as a gel with a consistency similar to gelatine

The most common material used in...
HOWEVER…
Xerogels are not aerogels

To prevent the capillary action from occurring, TWO known
processes are used to dry a ...
This commercial pressure vessel can
provide environments necessary for
supercritical drying.

SUPERCRITICAL
DRYING
• When ...
EVAPORATIVE (SUBCRITICAL)
DRYING
ADVANTAGE

Higher compressive strength, enhanced water
resistance, higher density, and le...
AEROGEL

INTRODUCTION

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVEMENT

OPPORTUNITIES

CHALLENGES
INSULATION
Good Thermal Insulation
Almost nullifies two of the three methods of heat transfer:
Conduction and Convection
FENESTRATION

APPLICATION
•Includes windows, doors,
wall panels
•Low thermal transmittance
(U-value) can substantially
red...
PRODUCTS

Self Clean Glazing

Vacuum Glazing

Aerogel Glazing

Multiple Layer Glazing

Solar Cell Glazing
SPECIFICATION
Product

Manufacturer

Ug
(W/m2K)

Tvis

Triple Glazing

AGC Glass UK

0.5

0.7

Vacuum Glazing

Pilkington
...
COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE

CONDUCTIVITY
COST
BENEFITS
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
• Often denoted in k, λ, or κ
• Is the property of a material to conduct
heat
• Measured in watts per...
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

Thermal conductivity of different insulation materials as function of the atmospheric
pressure. Noti...
COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE

CONDUCTIVITY
COST
BENEFITS
COST
Price
($/m3)

2%
1% 3% 3%
5%
9%
67%

10%

EPS
Polyisocyanurate
Phenolic
PU
Glass fibre
Microporous Silica
Microporous...
COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE

CONDUCTIVITY
COST
BENEFITS
BENEFITS
AEROGEL

INTRODUCTION

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVEMENT

OPPORTUNITIES

CHALLENGES
PUBLICATION TREND
•
•

1950’s - 1990’s: innovation of aerogels (20-30 patents)
Rapid rise from 2000 onwards, 80-400 patent...
IMPROVEMENT (DENSITY/WEIGHT)
Metal and Silica Aerogels
Metal oxide aerogel, 20,000
g/m³, 1991

10,000

First sIlica Aeroge...
2003

2008

Discoveries on Carbon Aerogels

Sumio Lijima publicized
research on carbon
nanotubes. (1991)

First Isolated
G...
IMPROVEMENT (COST)
Insulation Prices per square foot
10
Aerogel (Spaceloft)

9

Expanded Polystyrene (R-3.85)
8

Extruded ...
DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT
NEW/IMPROVED PROCESSES

• New synthesizing methods can improve
on aerogel’s mechanical properties
m...
NEW / IMPROVED PROCESSES

CROSS-LINKING

FIBER
REINFORCING

REDUCED
BONDING
X-AEROGELS (CROSS-LINKED AEROGELS)
•

Developed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (silica
aerogels reinforced w...
X-AEROGELS (CROSS-LINKED AEROGELS)

http://www.aerogel.org/?p=1058
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT/2004/RM/RM11P-leventis.h...
NEW / IMPROVED PROCESSES

CROSS-LINKING

FIBER
REINFORCING

REDUCED
BONDING
FIBER REINFORCED AEROGELS
•

Composite blankets developed by Aspen Aerogels
(fiber blanket made out of polyester, glass, c...
FIBER REINFORCED AEROGELS
Cryogel Z
• 2-3x lower k-value than
cellular glass or PUR/PIR
foams

Pyrogel XT
• 3-5x lower k-v...
FIBER REINFORCED AEROGELS
•

Less material needed for
Aerogel to match the
insulation performance
of conventional material...
NEW / IMPROVED PROCESSES

CROSS-LINKING

FIBER
REINFORCING

REDUCED
BONDING
REDUCED BONDING
•

Reduce the bonding of silicon
atoms with oxygen atoms which
makes silica aerogel highly
mechanically co...
REDUCED BONDING
•

Highly flexible and super
hydrophobic silica aerogels
obtained using MTMS precursor

•

Compressibility...
DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT
NEW/IMPROVED MATERIALS

• New materials used to synthesize
aerogels open up possibilities in new
ap...
NEW / IMPROVED MATERIALS
Organic Aerogels
- less friable and less fragile than
inorganic aerogels (silica),
instead squish...
NEW / IMPROVED MATERIALS
Graphene Aerogel
- Lightest material ever (160 g/m3)
- Good absorption capability makes it viable...
MAEROGEL
•

Dr. Halimaton Hamdan
from Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia developed a
process to prepare silica
aerogels from ri...
DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT
GEOMETRICAL SCALING
•

The cost of supercritical drying decreases as the
volume of the supercritica...
SUPERCRITICAL DRYING COST
𝑷𝑰 = 𝑨(𝟏𝟎 × 𝑽𝑻 × 𝑸) 𝟎.𝟐𝟒
PI: Price Index of Supercritical Drying Process
Q: Solvent Flow Rate
A:...
CABOT CORPORATION
•

First company to develop a
commercialized process that
allows production of gel under
ambient drying ...
ENOVA AEROGEL (INSULATED COATING)
• 7-10x more insulative
than typical paint
• 2mm coating
delivers 30% energy
savings
• A...
SVENSKA AEROGEL
• The issue of high cost: raw materials get cooked in
relatively small batches.(high temperature/high
pres...
DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT
NEW/IMPROVED MATERIALS &
PROCESSES

GEOMETRICAL SCALING

•

New synthesizing methods can
improve on...
AEROGEL

INTRODUCTION

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVEMENT

OPPORTUNITIES

CHALLENGES
ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES

FABRICATED INSULATION

IR REPRESSIONS

FOOTWARE

LNG AND CRYOGENIC

BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION...
OPPORTUNITIES IN THERMAL
INSULATION
Huge volume of insulation materials needed for building applications

• Building insul...
BUILDING INSULATION

INTERNAL HERITAGE

ROOF

EXTERNAL HERITAGE

HEAT BRIDGE

SERVICES

ROLLS OF AEROGEL HOGH PERFORMANCE ...
MOTIVATION FOR THERMAL
SUPERINSULATION
• Use of fossil fuel to heat or cool buildings is unsustainable –
economically, env...
GLOBAL MARKET FOR AEROGEL
646.3

~70% of the aerogel
market is in thermal and
acoustic insulation1

expected

Revenue ($M)...
WORLD MARKET GROWTH SIZE

Aerogel-based thermal superinsulation: an overview by Matthias Koebel. Springer. 15 May 2012
BUILDING INSULATION COST

Due to lower thickness, using Aerogel Insulation has become competitive in cost
compared to conv...
BUILDING INSULATION COST

Costs have gone down to $2.30 per sq. ft.
http://www.buyaerogel.com/product/spaceloft-5-mm-cut-t...
Thermal Superinsulation Value Chain
WORKERS, CONSULTANTS

ARCHITECTURAL & DESIGN FIRMS

CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES

MERCHANTS
...
RESEARCH INSTITUTES, SCIENTISTS

ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
Process and Technology Licensing from
Universities, Researc...
SUPPLIERS

ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
1. Manufacturers and suppliers of chemicals and
raw materials used to produce aer...
LOGISTICS

ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
Companies that handle
transportation by land, sea and
air for raw materials, chem...
MANUFACTURING

ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
1. Aerogel manufacturers
produce thermal
superinsulation sheets using
raw mat...
Aerogel insulation
materials from the factory
can be supplied to
construction companies
and homeowners as
better alternati...
Construction companies
can offer aerogel
superinsulation
alternatives for:
• Commercial Buildings
• Manufacturing Plants
•...
Firms providing customized
designs and architecture that
substitutes traditional
insulation with aerogel
insulation materi...
Engineers, carpenters and consultants for
homeowners that provide customized
services:
• Installation of aerogel insulatio...
AEROGEL

INTRODUCTION

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVEMENT

OPPORTUNITIES

CHALLENGES
COST EFFECTIVENESS
SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION OF METHANOL

HIGH
COST

HEATING OF AUTOCLAVE STEEL
HEAT LOSS DUE TO SURROUNDIN...
DEVELOPMENT

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY VS FLEXIBILITY

TRADE
OFF

DENSITY VS FLEXIBILITY

TRANSPARENCY VS FLEXIBILITY
MARKET
PROMOTE AWARENESS OF NEW AEROGEL
TECHNOLOGY

AWAR
ENESS

CONVEY THE ADDED VALUE TO POTENTIAL
DEVELOPERS AND CONSUME...
AEROGEL

T H A
N K
Y O U
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Aerogels: becoming economically feasible

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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how Aerogel is becoming more economically feasible through changes in processes and the composition of materials and increases in the scale of production equipment. As the best insulator in the world, aerogel has the potential to dramatically improve energy efficiency of homes and thus contribute towards reductions in fossil fuel usage.

Published in: Technology, Business

Aerogels: becoming economically feasible

  1. 1. ANALYZING HI-TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES LIANG LIANG (A0098464N) SOH LOON SIONG (A0098520A) WONG CHEE YEOW (A0104437M) JONATHAN CASTILLO (A0098438M) ROBERTO DE JOYA JR. (A0118989E) RYAN MICHAEL GELIG (A0098535R)
  2. 2. AEROGEL INTRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES
  3. 3. Also known as frozen smoke Lightest man-made solid known to exist. About 95-99% air but can hold up to 4000 times its own weight Super-high internal surface area makes it an excellent thermal insulator Super-low density makes it extremely Air cavities give aerogels high light weight absorption properties
  4. 4. DO YOU KNOW… The most common aerogel, Silica aerogel, feels like Styrofoam and is transparent with a blue cast. Due to its thermal insulation qualities, the crayons are protected from melting.
  5. 5. DO YOU KNOW… A 2.5kg brick rests on top of a silica aerogel. Though brittle, aerogels can carry up to 4000 times its own weight.
  6. 6. DO YOU KNOW… A graphene aerogel resting on top of a grass leaf. Graphene aerogels are extremely light.
  7. 7. TYPES OF AEROGEL QUANTUM DOT AND METAL CHALCOGENIDE AEROGELS GRAPHENE COATED AEROGELS • High Elasticity • Photoluminescence OXIDE /METAL AEROGELS • High catalytic functions CARBON AND METAL AEROGELS • Good electrical conductivity with high surface areas • Supercapacitors HYDROPHOBIC SILICA AND POLYMER AEROGELS • Water repulsion • Oil-sorption GRAPHENE AEROGELS • Light weight • About 7x lighter than air (if the air inside it is sucked out)
  8. 8. HISTORY OF AEROGEL Samuel Stephens Kistler (1900 1975) was an American scientist and chemical engineer, with a keen interest in supercritical fluids. A colleague challenged him into removing the liquid inside of a jelly jar without causing any shrinkage. It is presumed that Sam Kistler found the first aerogels in 1927 during his doctoral work in Stanford. In the early 1940’s he attempted to commercialize aerogels with the help of Monsanto Corporation under the tradename Santocel. Santocel was mainly manufactured for thermal insulation but it was also used for unusual applications like thickening agent for the fiery Napalm bomb.
  9. 9. HOW AEROGELS ARE MADE Aerogel starts out as a gel with a consistency similar to gelatine The most common material used in aerogels is made out of silica. The first step in producing silica aerogels is to prepare a sol-gel where nanoparticles of silica are dispersed in a liquid. There are many ways to create silica based sol-gels. One is by mixing Tetraethoxysilane Si(OC2H5)4, with ethanol and water will make it polymerize producing a water-based silica gel. A solvent, such as Methanol, is used to extract and replace the water. (The lower boiling point of methanol causes it to be easier removed via liquid extraction) This gel mixture of methanol and silica is also known as Alcogel. When Alcogel is left to dry in the open, the surface tension of the solvent will pull the gel’s structure tighter and tighter together so instead of a lightweight expanded aerogel, we end up with a dense piece of material. This material is called Xerogel.
  10. 10. HOWEVER… Xerogels are not aerogels To prevent the capillary action from occurring, TWO known processes are used to dry a gel without destroying the structure.
  11. 11. This commercial pressure vessel can provide environments necessary for supercritical drying. SUPERCRITICAL DRYING • When a liquid is subjected to temperature and pressure above its critical point, it undergoes a state transition of that between a gas and a liquid. • Supercritical fluids - effuse through solids like a gas, and dissolve materials like a liquid. • Most commonly used supercritical fluid is CO2 (non-flammable, a low critical point, gaseous at room temperature). • To build Aerogels with CO2, it must first exist as a liquid, i.e. around 58 times the normal atmospheric pressure at room temperature. • The Methanol in solgel is replaced with CO2. Supercritical drying will cause CO2 to escape from the gel without deforming the structure.
  12. 12. EVAPORATIVE (SUBCRITICAL) DRYING ADVANTAGE Higher compressive strength, enhanced water resistance, higher density, and less optical transparency. DISADVANTAGE Limited to small dimensions without sharp corners. It will also be heavier and have a lower thermal insulation ability. PROCEDURE • Exchanging the pore fluid in the gel with an apriotic solvent such as pentane hexane or toluene. • The gel is chemically modified to replace its polar surface groups with non-polar groups by diffusing a solution of aprotic solvent and waterproofing agent into its pores. • The liquid in the gel is gently evaporated, causing the gel to partially collapse. • The gel springs back once the liquid has finished evaporating from its pores (on its own or sometimes under the assistance of gentle heating or vacuum) Photo: Metal aerogel under an electron microscope. Los Alamos National Laboratory
  13. 13. AEROGEL INTRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES
  14. 14. INSULATION Good Thermal Insulation Almost nullifies two of the three methods of heat transfer: Conduction and Convection
  15. 15. FENESTRATION APPLICATION •Includes windows, doors, wall panels •Low thermal transmittance (U-value) can substantially reduce energy losses and save costs •Glazing: most important part of fenestration products especially when calculating U-value of a window •High visible solar transmittance (Tvis) is desirable properties for window application
  16. 16. PRODUCTS Self Clean Glazing Vacuum Glazing Aerogel Glazing Multiple Layer Glazing Solar Cell Glazing
  17. 17. SPECIFICATION Product Manufacturer Ug (W/m2K) Tvis Triple Glazing AGC Glass UK 0.5 0.7 Vacuum Glazing Pilkington 0.7 0.533 Solar cell Glazing Glaswerke Arnold GmbH 1.2 0.1 Self cleaning Glazing SSG Bioclean 1.2 0.77 Aerogel Glazing Advanced Glazing Ltd 0.31 0.07-0.32 Aerogel Glazing Cabot Corporation 0.25 0.19 Aerogel Glazing Okalux GmbH 0.6 0.59
  18. 18. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE CONDUCTIVITY COST BENEFITS
  19. 19. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY • Often denoted in k, λ, or κ • Is the property of a material to conduct heat • Measured in watts per meter kelvin [W/(m·K)]
  20. 20. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY Thermal conductivity of different insulation materials as function of the atmospheric pressure. Notice that the heat conductivity of fumed silica only rises above 50mbar and that aerogel has a low thermal conductivity at the atmospheric pressure of 1000 mbar.
  21. 21. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE CONDUCTIVITY COST BENEFITS
  22. 22. COST Price ($/m3) 2% 1% 3% 3% 5% 9% 67% 10% EPS Polyisocyanurate Phenolic PU Glass fibre Microporous Silica Microporous ceramic Aerogel
  23. 23. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE CONDUCTIVITY COST BENEFITS
  24. 24. BENEFITS
  25. 25. AEROGEL INTRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES
  26. 26. PUBLICATION TREND • • 1950’s - 1990’s: innovation of aerogels (20-30 patents) Rapid rise from 2000 onwards, 80-400 patents in 2009 “Technology Insight Report: Aerogel Material”, Patent iNSIGHT Pro 2010
  27. 27. IMPROVEMENT (DENSITY/WEIGHT) Metal and Silica Aerogels Metal oxide aerogel, 20,000 g/m³, 1991 10,000 First sIlica Aerogels 1,000,000 g/m³, 1931 College of the Pacific 100,000 Silica Aerogels using advanced processes. Upto 1,000 g/m³, 1988 1,000,000 monoLattice Nickel Aerogel, 900 g/m³, 2011 University of Kiel and Technology of Hamburg 1,000 100 10 1 1923 Kistler discovers the first aerogels. Process was dangerous and needs days to complete. 1931 1933 1943 1953 1963 1973 Alcogels Nicolaon & Techner Univ of Claude Bernard (Late 1970s) 1983 Dr. Bulant Yoldas synthesized the first alumina aerogels. Early 1980s 1993 2003 2013 CO2 substitution methods Graser and Stange (BASF) 1996
  28. 28. 2003 2008 Discoveries on Carbon Aerogels Sumio Lijima publicized research on carbon nanotubes. (1991) First Isolated Graphene (2004) Graphene Aerogeel, 160 g/m³, 2013 Zhejiang university 1998 AeroGraphite, 180 g/m3, 2012 Kiel Univ and Hamburg Univof Tech Solgel / Alcogels Nicolaon & Techner Univ of Claude Bernard (Late 1970s) 1993 Multiwalled carbon nanotube, 4000 g/m³, 2010 1 1983 1988 Pekala produces the first organic Aerogels (1981) (PVC) 8,000-520,000 g/m³, 2003 Dr Lei Zhai, University of Central Florida 10 Sol-Gels: RF - Resorcinol formaldehyde MF - Melamine, formaldehyde PF - Phenol, furfural PUR - Polymeric isocyanate CF - Cresol, Formaldehyde PM - Phenol, Melamine PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride (PM) 530,000-710,000 g/m³, 2002 100 (CF) 120,000-500,000 g/m³, 2002 1,000 (PUR) 120,000-500,000 g/m³, 1998 10,000 (PF) 100,000-400,000 g/m³, 1989 100,000 Carbon Aerogels (MF) 80,000-100,000 g/m³, 1989 Rick Pekala, Lawrence Livermore N. Univ. 1,000,000 (RF) 30,000-600,000 g/m³, 1989 Rick Pekala, Lawrence Livermore N. University IMPROVEMENT (DENSITY/WEIGHT) 2013
  29. 29. IMPROVEMENT (COST) Insulation Prices per square foot 10 Aerogel (Spaceloft) 9 Expanded Polystyrene (R-3.85) 8 Extruded Polystyrene (R-5) Aerogel Polyisocyanurate (R-6.5) Price (USD) 7 6 Expanded Polystyrene Extruded Polystyrene 5 4 Polyisocyanurate 3 2 1 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 http://www.gmcmhphotos.com/photos/data/5406/Pacor_Standard_Length_Aerogel_Sheet_Products_02-01-2010.pdf http://www.finehomebuilding.com/item/4822/which-rigid-insulation-should-i-choose http://www.lowes.com/pd_15358-46086-451156_0__?productId=3365576&Ntt=expanded+polystyrene&pl=1&currentURL=%3FNtt%3Dexpanded%2Bpolystyrene&facetInfo=
  30. 30. DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT NEW/IMPROVED PROCESSES • New synthesizing methods can improve on aerogel’s mechanical properties making it more viable for commercial applications
  31. 31. NEW / IMPROVED PROCESSES CROSS-LINKING FIBER REINFORCING REDUCED BONDING
  32. 32. X-AEROGELS (CROSS-LINKED AEROGELS) • Developed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (silica aerogels reinforced with polymers) • For a nominal increase in density and thermal conductivity (<3x of typical silica aerogel), mechanical strength can increase 300x • Increased flexibility and resistance to fracture/impact (Machinability) http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT/2004/RM/RM11P-leventis.html Meador, et al. “Improvements to the Synthesis of Polyamide Aerogels”. Nasa Glenn Research Center.
  33. 33. X-AEROGELS (CROSS-LINKED AEROGELS) http://www.aerogel.org/?p=1058 http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT/2004/RM/RM11P-leventis.html
  34. 34. NEW / IMPROVED PROCESSES CROSS-LINKING FIBER REINFORCING REDUCED BONDING
  35. 35. FIBER REINFORCED AEROGELS • Composite blankets developed by Aspen Aerogels (fiber blanket made out of polyester, glass, carbon or ceramic fiber) • Flexibility, resistance to crushing and stepping on (Ability to be cut, sewn, and laminated) • Simplified installation over other kinds of insulation http://www.aerogel.org/?p=1058 S.Harasim, “Building Envelope Applications for Reinforced Flexible Aerogel Insulation Blankets”, 2011. Aspen Aerogels Inc.
  36. 36. FIBER REINFORCED AEROGELS Cryogel Z • 2-3x lower k-value than cellular glass or PUR/PIR foams Pyrogel XT • 3-5x lower k-value than perlite, cellular glass, or mineral/glass fiber http://www.ebcne.org/fileadmin/pres/2_February_2013/2-26-2013_MASTER_Jeff_Silva.pdf
  37. 37. FIBER REINFORCED AEROGELS • Less material needed for Aerogel to match the insulation performance of conventional materials (Thermal conductivity of aerogel blanket twice as low PUF per unit thickness) • For subsea oil pipelines, smaller diameter pipes/less insulation materials needed, less inventory space needed, more ships available to transport  Cost Savings! http://www.ebcne.org/fileadmin/pres/2_February_2013/2-26-2013_MASTER_Jeff_Silva.pdf
  38. 38. NEW / IMPROVED PROCESSES CROSS-LINKING FIBER REINFORCING REDUCED BONDING
  39. 39. REDUCED BONDING • Reduce the bonding of silicon atoms with oxygen atoms which makes silica aerogel highly mechanically constrained • Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) results in 4 oxygen-silicon bridges (rigid)  Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) results in 3 oxygen-silicon bridges (more flexible) • Modulus of Elasticity (Y) decreased from 14.11 × 104 N/m2 to 3.0 × 104 N/m2 with increase in molar ratio of methanol/MTMS (S) from 28 to 35 S=28 S=35 A. Venkateswara Rao, et al. “Synthesis of flexible silica aerogels using methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) precursor”, 2006. Shivaji University, India. http://www.aerogel.org/?p=1058
  40. 40. REDUCED BONDING • Highly flexible and super hydrophobic silica aerogels obtained using MTMS precursor • Compressibility as high as ∼60% of the original length • Large volumes of aerogels can easily be transported due to high compressibility • a b c Optical transmittance / transparency can be configured depending on the MTMS/TMOS molar ratio A. Venkateswara Rao, et al. “Synthesis of flexible silica aerogels using methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) precursor”, 2006. Shivaji University, India. http://www.aerogel.org/?p=1058
  41. 41. DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT NEW/IMPROVED MATERIALS • New materials used to synthesize aerogels open up possibilities in new applications • Alternative sources of raw materials can help bring manufacturing costs down
  42. 42. NEW / IMPROVED MATERIALS Organic Aerogels - less friable and less fragile than inorganic aerogels (silica), instead squishing when compressed - Most common type is resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) aerogel Carbon Aerogels - Synthesized from organic aerogels, such as RF aerogels, through pyrolysis (heating in an inert gas like argon or nitrogen) - Have high surface areas (5002500m2/g) and electrically conductive suitable as highsurface-area electrodes for fuel cells, super capacitors (possible replacement for batteries) Moreno-Castilla, Maldonado-Hodar. “Carbon Aerogels for catalysis applications: An Overview”, 2004. Universidad de Granada, Spain. http://www.aerogel.org/?p=71
  43. 43. NEW / IMPROVED MATERIALS Graphene Aerogel - Lightest material ever (160 g/m3) - Good absorption capability makes it viable for cleaning up oil spills - Capable of absorbing 900 times its own weight (compared to 10 times for commercial oilabsorbing products) - 1 gram of aerogel can absorb 68.8g of organic solvents per second http://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/nanotechnology/carbon-aerogel-supersponge-could-soak-up-oil-spills
  44. 44. MAEROGEL • Dr. Halimaton Hamdan from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia developed a process to prepare silica aerogels from rice husks which can contain up to 92-97% amorphous silica • Can cut the cost of producing aerogel by 80% for commercial use. Take advantage of the large scale of rice husks available in agricultural countries like Malaysia and possibly other Asian countries Aerogel Maerogel Production Cost Higher US$300 (RM1,000) for 100g Lower US$60 (RM200) for 100g Substance Material Silica Rice Husks Preparation Technique More Complicated Simpler http://www.maerotech.com/edge%20maerotech.pdf http://www.innovation.utm.my/biotech/maerogel/ http://www.merdekaaward.my/Recipients/By-Category/Health,-Science-Technology/Professor-Dr-Halimaton-Hamdan.aspx
  45. 45. DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT GEOMETRICAL SCALING • The cost of supercritical drying decreases as the volume of the supercritical tank increases • Bigger plants use alternative processes (continuous) to expensive supercritical drying (limited batch production) • Due to reduction in scale of aerogel technology (nanoporous material), extremely enhanced properties are made possible
  46. 46. SUPERCRITICAL DRYING COST 𝑷𝑰 = 𝑨(𝟏𝟎 × 𝑽𝑻 × 𝑸) 𝟎.𝟐𝟒 PI: Price Index of Supercritical Drying Process Q: Solvent Flow Rate A: Area in contact with the solvent VT: Volume of Supercritical tank Future Prospects: With increase in volume of supercritical equipment and increase in solvent flow rate, the cost of supercritical drying decreases exponentially. http://www.futurechemtech.com/data/SCF%20Applications%20and%20Economic%20Issues.pdf
  47. 47. CABOT CORPORATION • First company to develop a commercialized process that allows production of gel under ambient drying conditions allowing to control the material’s porosity, pore size and distribution • Cabot’s silylation technique, grafting water-repellent molecules to the surface of the silica, enabled a continuous process rather than in batches and dry it in atmospheric pressure, resulting in reduced cost and increased volume Process News – Systems and Solutions for the Process Industry (1st edition), Siemens, 2 April 2003
  48. 48. ENOVA AEROGEL (INSULATED COATING) • 7-10x more insulative than typical paint • 2mm coating delivers 30% energy savings • At $0.10/kW-hr, >$1,000/yr in savings per tank “Enova Aerogel Additives for Next Generation Coatings”, P. Pescatore, Nov 2011, Cabot Corp.
  49. 49. SVENSKA AEROGEL • The issue of high cost: raw materials get cooked in relatively small batches.(high temperature/high pressure) • Using nanotechnology, Svenska Aerogel converts silica into aerogels in a continuous fashion. (ambient temperatures/ low pressures) • Produce aerogels for use in high volume applications such as insulation, paint, gypsum boards, gas filtration and liquid filtration at a cost of up to 90% less than traditional methods. http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/aerogels-to-drop-by-90-percent-in-price
  50. 50. DRIVERS OF IMPROVEMENT NEW/IMPROVED MATERIALS & PROCESSES GEOMETRICAL SCALING • New synthesizing methods can improve on aerogel’s mechanical properties making it more viable • The cost of supercritical drying decreases as the volume of the supercritical tank increases • New materials used to synthesize aerogels open up possibilities in new applications • Bigger plants use alternative processes (continuous) to expensive supercritical drying (limited batch production) • Alternative sources of raw materials can help bring manufacturing costs down • Due to reduction in scale of aerogel technology (nanoporous material), extremely enhanced properties are made possible
  51. 51. AEROGEL INTRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES
  52. 52. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES FABRICATED INSULATION IR REPRESSIONS FOOTWARE LNG AND CRYOGENIC BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION AEROSPACE & MILITARY CLOTHING INDUSTRIAL PLANTS SUBSEA PIPELINES
  53. 53. OPPORTUNITIES IN THERMAL INSULATION Huge volume of insulation materials needed for building applications • Building insulation − Pipes, steam distribution systems …. (1% energy wasted)1 − Roofs, walls − Windows • Offshore oil and gas (thermal insulation blanket) • Aeronautics, aerospace and military • Apparel and appliances − Refrigeration systems − Outdoor clothing − Shoes 1. http://energy.gov/articles/saving-energy-and-money-aerogel-insulation
  54. 54. BUILDING INSULATION INTERNAL HERITAGE ROOF EXTERNAL HERITAGE HEAT BRIDGE SERVICES ROLLS OF AEROGEL HOGH PERFORMANCE THERMAL INSULATION BALCONY INTERNAL INSULATION TRANSLUCENT AEROGEL INSULATION
  55. 55. MOTIVATION FOR THERMAL SUPERINSULATION • Use of fossil fuel to heat or cool buildings is unsustainable – economically, environmentally and socially: • 87% of energy consumption from fossil fuel1 • Uncertainty in supply of carbon based fuel • Rising CO2 emissions in atmosphere leading to global warming3 • Buildings account for 40% of energy demand2, and HVAC (heating, ventilation and AC) consumes most of this energy • Opportunity to reduce heating/cooling energy in buildings • 10-20% of energy consumed with HVAC is wasted due to poor insulation 1. 2. 3. http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/Statistical-Review-2012/statistical_review_of_world_energy_2012.pdf Aerogel-based thermal superinsulation: an overview by Matthias Koebel . May 15, 2012 http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/environment_earth_universe/changes_in_environment/revision/6/
  56. 56. GLOBAL MARKET FOR AEROGEL 646.3 ~70% of the aerogel market is in thermal and acoustic insulation1 expected Revenue ($M) Global building insulation market (2010): $17.7B4 82.9 1. 2. 3. 4. http://www.bccresearch.com/market-research/advanced-materials/aerogels-avm052b.html http://www.bccresearch.com/market-research/advanced-materials/aerogels-markets-technology-avm052c.html http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/aerogel-market-714.html http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/marketsandmarkets-global-building-insulation-market-worth-239-billion-by-2016-315559.htm
  57. 57. WORLD MARKET GROWTH SIZE Aerogel-based thermal superinsulation: an overview by Matthias Koebel. Springer. 15 May 2012
  58. 58. BUILDING INSULATION COST Due to lower thickness, using Aerogel Insulation has become competitive in cost compared to conventional insulations (taking into account overall installation cost including frame, labor, etc.) http://www.brikbase.org/sites/default/files/best3_shukla.pdf
  59. 59. BUILDING INSULATION COST Costs have gone down to $2.30 per sq. ft. http://www.buyaerogel.com/product/spaceloft-5-mm-cut-to-size/
  60. 60. Thermal Superinsulation Value Chain WORKERS, CONSULTANTS ARCHITECTURAL & DESIGN FIRMS CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES MERCHANTS MANUFACTURING LOGISTICS SUPPLIERS RESEARCH INSTITUTES, SCIENTISTS ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
  61. 61. RESEARCH INSTITUTES, SCIENTISTS ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES Process and Technology Licensing from Universities, Research Institutes and Scientists: • New processes such as organotrialkoxysilane-derived sol-gel process to improve aerogel’s mechanical properties • Preparation of silica aerogel using new materials such as rice hull ash by supercritical carbon-dioxide drying1 1. “Preparation of silica aerogel from rice hull ash by supercritical carbon dioxide drying”. Qi Tang. 29 Sept 2004. Tsinghua University, Beijing.
  62. 62. SUPPLIERS ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES 1. Manufacturers and suppliers of chemicals and raw materials used to produce aerogels: • Farmers/Suppliers of rice husks (silicon made from rice husk is cheaper, ecological and uses less energy1) 2. Manufacturers and suppliers of equipment such: • specialized mixing nozzle (to create silica gel particles with good flow properties and high resistance to abrasion) 3. Suppliers of Process Control Systems used in the manufacture of aerogels such as Siemens Axiva 1. http://vator.tv/company/green-earth-aerogel-technologies
  63. 63. LOGISTICS ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES Companies that handle transportation by land, sea and air for raw materials, chemicals, manufacturing equipment and finished products for aerogels: • Freight forwarders • Special handling equipment to transport chemicals and raw materials • Special storage equipment for chemicals while in transit
  64. 64. MANUFACTURING ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES 1. Aerogel manufacturers produce thermal superinsulation sheets using raw materials, equipment and technology licensed from research institutions: • Green Earth Aerogel Technologies (startup that uses rice husks to produce aerogel) • Aspen Aerogels 2. Finished products include: • Translucent building roofs • Composite superinsulation sheets • Insulation panels
  65. 65. Aerogel insulation materials from the factory can be supplied to construction companies and homeowners as better alternatives to existing solutions through: • Wholesalers • Retailers • Hardware Stores (physical stores and online merchants) MERCHANTS ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
  66. 66. Construction companies can offer aerogel superinsulation alternatives for: • Commercial Buildings • Manufacturing Plants • Houses • Apartment Buildings CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
  67. 67. Firms providing customized designs and architecture that substitutes traditional insulation with aerogel insulation materials to be used in roofs, walls, windows and flooring ARCHITECTURAL & DESIGN FIRMS ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
  68. 68. Engineers, carpenters and consultants for homeowners that provide customized services: • Installation of aerogel insulation on new homes • Replacement of existing traditional insulation with aerogel materials for better energy conservation • Repair of damaged superinsulation installations in home and building structures WORKERS, CONSULTANTS ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
  69. 69. AEROGEL INTRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES CHALLENGES
  70. 70. COST EFFECTIVENESS SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION OF METHANOL HIGH COST HEATING OF AUTOCLAVE STEEL HEAT LOSS DUE TO SURROUNDING IN MANUFACTURING PROCESS ADDITIONAL COST OF SPECIFIC MATERIALS I.E. METHANOL, SODIUM SILICATE, RESORCINOL, ETC. http://www.aip.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-5/p26.html http://aerogel.nmcnetlink.com/aerogel-cost-manufacturability.html
  71. 71. DEVELOPMENT THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY VS FLEXIBILITY TRADE OFF DENSITY VS FLEXIBILITY TRANSPARENCY VS FLEXIBILITY
  72. 72. MARKET PROMOTE AWARENESS OF NEW AEROGEL TECHNOLOGY AWAR ENESS CONVEY THE ADDED VALUE TO POTENTIAL DEVELOPERS AND CONSUMERS JUSTIFYING ACCEPTABLE COST VERSUS BENEFIT
  73. 73. AEROGEL T H A N K Y O U

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