Graphene: its increasing economic feasibility

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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how Graphene is becoming economic feasible for an increasing number of applications as its price falls and its quality/performance rises through improvements in chemical vapor deposition processes. Graphene is one of the strongest materials discovered, has high electronic and thermal conductivities, and unusual optical properties. These slides describe a number of applications for which Graphene is gradually becoming economically feasible including displays, integrated circuits, solar cells, water desalination, and natural gas tanks.

Published in: Business, Technology

Graphene: its increasing economic feasibility

  1. 1. GRAPHENE THE MATERIAL FOR THE FUTURE AVISHEK KUMAR, CHUA JIAN SERNG, MOHAMMAD DANESH, NUR AZIZ YOSOKUMORO, PRISCILLA MARIANI, SAMUEL RAJ For information on other technologies, please see Jeff Funk’s slide share account (http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations) or his book with Chris Magee: Exponential Change: What drives it? What does it tell us about the future? http://www.amazon.com/Exponential-Change-drives-about-future- ebook/dp/B00HPSAYEM/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1398325920&sr=8- 1&keywords=exponential+change
  2. 2. Overview What is Graphene What make Graphene so special Fabrication of Graphene Applications Improved applications Whole new world of applications. Summary
  3. 3. What is Graphene ?  2-Dimensional hexagonal lattice of carbon  SP2 hybridized carbon atoms  Basis for Nanotubes and graphite  Among strongest bond in nature A. K. Geim & K. S. Novoselov. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials Vol 6 183-191 (March 2007)
  4. 4. What make Graphene so special?  Mechanical properties  Graphene is the strongest material ever discovered  Extremely light 0.77mg/m2  Optical Properties  With largest optical absorption and widest absorption spectrum  Electronic Properties  Travel sub-micrometer distances without scattering  Thermal Properties  Graphene's thermal conductivity is amongst the highest values currently available
  5. 5. 7 Fabrication of Graphene  Exfoliation  Mechanical Exfoliation  Liquid Phase Exfoliation  Graphene Oxide Reduction  Carbon Segregation  Epitaxial Growth  Chemical Vapour Deposition  etc
  6. 6. Epitaxial Growth  High quality graphenes ❏ Most commonly used substrate (SiC) is expensive ❏ Difficult to transfer ❏ High temperature
  7. 7. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD)  Inexpensive substrate  Large area ❏ Imperfections (wrinkles and grain boundaries) ❏ Further quality loss during transfer
  8. 8. Copper Substrate Oxide Copper Substrate Copper Substrate Graphene Copper Substrate Graphene PMMA Graphene PMMA Silicon Substrate Graphene PMMA NiFe ElectrodeSilicon Substrate Graphene NiFe Electrode Oxide layer removal with H2 plasma Graphene synthesis with Methane gas through PECVD Spin coated Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Cu substrate removal with wet etch Transferred to Silicon substrate with pre- fabricated NiFe Removal of PMMA with aceton Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper substrate with Methane gas yields Graphene layer Semiconductor fabrication techniques path the way for large scale manufacturability Graphene Fabrication (CVD)
  9. 9. Graphene Fabrication (CVD)-The Samsung way
  10. 10. Quality-Cost: Graphene Production Novoselov, Konstantin S., et al. "A roadmap for graphene." Nature 490.7419 (2012): 192-200.
  11. 11. Better Processes Lead to Lower Prices (Euros/cm2) http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene- price#.Ut8YMRAZ6Uk
  12. 12. Novoselov, Konstantin S., et al. "A roadmap for graphene." Nature 490.7419 (2012): 192-200. Quality-Application: Graphine
  13. 13. Patent trends
  14. 14. Applications
  15. 15. Improved Applications Integrated circuit Schwierz, Frank. "Graphene transistors." Nature nanotechnology 5.7 (2010): 487-496.
  16. 16. Improved Applications Integrated circuit  Advantages  Highest current density. Million times than copper at room temperature  Highest intrinsic mobility. 100 times than Silicon  Graphene processor is >400 times faster than current processor  Challenges  Growth on wafer scale  Band gap engineering  Encapsulation to protect from environment  New device physics.
  17. 17. Improved Applications Integrated circuit: Band gap engineering Zhang, Yuanbo, et al. "Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene." Nature 459.7248 (2009): 820-823.
  18. 18. Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors Wang, Xinran, et al. "Room-temperature all-semiconducting sub-10-nm graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors." Physical review letters 100.20 (2008): 206803. Integrated circuit: New device physics Improved Applications
  19. 19. Improved Applications OLED display  Few nanometers of graphene as transparent conductor  replace indium-based electrodes in organic light emitting diodes (OLED), require lower power consumption.  Currently 55’ LG OLED cost $12,000, as compared to $3000 for a LED TV.
  20. 20. Improved Applications Solar Cells  High efficiency up to 2 times  Transparent  Low cost Source: http://www.greenoptimistic.com/2014/01/16/graphene-solar-cells-double-efficiency/#.U0ac71feNWc http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1319307
  21. 21. Electronics Applications of Graphine Novoselov, Konstantin S., et al. "A roadmap for graphene." Nature 490.7419 (2012): 192-200.
  22. 22. Water desalination Whole New World of Applications  New Graphene Desalination Requires Nearly 100 Times Less Energy  Energy consumption accounts for as much as one-third of the total cost of desalinated water  It’s 500 times thinner than the best filter on the market today and a thousand times stronger
  23. 23. Water desalination-Working & Challenges  Method to use to make holes:  Selective oxidation  Laser drilled  helium-ion bombardment  chemical etching  self-assembling systems  First prototype to be ready by 2015
  24. 24. Whole New World of Applications Lightweight natural gas tanks Advantage  CNG fuel tanks currently have to be made out of thick, bulky metal in order to properly contain the gas, which can leak straight through plastics and polymers.  Lining a lightweight polymer tank with graphene would create huge fuel efficiency benefits without compromising on safety.  Current issue with CNG powered vehicle is its storage capacity. GNR tank could be a solution.  Compliment the development of shale gas as gas storage is one of the major challenge
  25. 25. Whole New World of Applications Lightweight natural gas tanks: Cost analysis
  26. 26. 28 Comparison gas tank of different material Steel Tank Composite Material Tank Graphene Material Tank Price : US$1,000.00 Surface area : 6m2 Weight : 160kg Application : Durable and proven Still in the market because it is cheap and durable Price : US$3,000.00 Surface area : 6m2 Weight : 65kg Application : Light and durable but brittle. Currently most favourite Price : US$833,000.00 (now) US$600 (in 10 years time) Surface area : 6m2 Weight : < 1kg (4.62mg to be exact) Application : Flexible, light and able to withheld higher pressure Unproven at the moment, but great potential as it can carry “higher fuel to weigh ratio”.
  27. 27. Battery and Supercapacitor/Ultracapacitor: Energy storage Source: graphene.manchester.ac.uk Whole New World of Applications  Challenge  Irreversible capacitance of graphene still too high  Electrochemical interaction with electrolyte characterization and requirement  Cost  Advantage  Large surface area to mass of Graphene => very efficient electrode to store large amount of electrical energy in small volume and weight by 20 times  Maintain 97% performance for over 10,000 charge/discharge cycle
  28. 28. Whole New World of Applications Hydrogen Fuel Cell  Researchers have prepared graphene layers to increase the binding energy of hydrogen to the graphene surface in a fuel tank  resulting in a higher amount of hydrogen storage and therefore a lighter weight fuel tank. This could help in the development of practical hydrogen fueled cars.  a GOF can absorb hydrogen, it does not take in significant amounts at below 50 Kelvin (-223 degrees Celsius).
  29. 29. Whole New World of Applications Bioapplications Novoselov, Konstantin S., et al. "A roadmap for graphene." Nature 490.7419 (2012): 192-200. Manipulating the hydrophilic–lipophilic properties of graphene (blue hexagonal planes) through chemical modification would allow interactions with biological membranes (purple-white double layer), such as drug delivery into the interior of a cell (blue region).
  30. 30. Graphene: Commercial Viability “HEAD's graphene tennis racket won Popular Science's Best of What's New Award”  Graphene is integrated into the racquet shaft, making it more stable and allowing an optimized redistribution of weight.  Weight has been shifted to the grip and racquet head, providing better maneuverability and increased swingweight  These rackets are now shipping, ranging from $170 to $286 Novac Djokovic's tennis racket uses graphene. Photo: Reuters
  31. 31. Graphene: Commercial Viability  Graphenstone (graphene-based paint) by Graphenano  3 types of paint according to the usage: interior, exterior, conductive  Advantages: super strong and durable, washable, breathable, adsorbs CO2 and reacts with other polutants, chemical-free, reduces sound transfer, anti bacteria/fungi/spores/mold/etc.  Conductive paint: potential coating for solar-powered building http://www.graphenano.com/#work.
  32. 32. The Future with Graphene Technology “So Are you ready to enter the new world of technology with Graphene that will change the way you see the world now”
  33. 33. The Future with Graphene Technology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YbS-YyvCl4#t=13.
  34. 34. Industry Development
  35. 35. TEAM: Q&A
  36. 36. Challenges in CVD Graphene  CVD graphene is a scalable and low cost production method. However the quality of CVD graphene is lower than mechanically exfoliated graphene.  Unfortunaltely so far there has been no scalable process for mechanical exfolaiation of graphene and exfoliation remains as a in lab research method for graphene production. In result much effort has been put into improcing the quality of CVD graphene.  In the CVD method, graphene is synthesized on a thin metal layer. The metal layer is placed on a substrate such a SiO2. During the synthesis process the metal goes through high thermal fluctuations, as high as 1000C.  The difference in the thermal coefficients causes the metal layer to become stressed and develop non-uniformities on its surface. In result the synthesized graphene will contain wrinkles and have lower quality than exfoliated graphene.
  37. 37. Improving CVD Graphene  A method recently proposed by researchers in Korea is to a buffer layer with very low surface tension such a rGO between the metal and the substrate.  This will also the metal to release its mechanical stress by sliding on the buffer layer. The graphene synthesized by this method has extremely higher quality. (91 percent single layer and 15000 cm2/Vs mobility Mun, Jeong Hun, and Byung Jin Cho. "Synthesis of Monolayer Graphene Having a Negligible Amount of Wrinkles by Stress Relaxation." Nano letters 13.6 (2013): 2496-2499.
  38. 38. http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene-price#.UzMbaIXeNWc
  39. 39. Theory  Currently desalination can be done through vacuum distillation which require boiling of salt water or reverse osmosis which uses an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure.  Holes created in Graphene sheet act as a “filter”  When water molecules (red and white) and sodium and chlorine ions (green and purple) in saltwater, on the right, encounter a sheet of graphene (pale blue, center) perforated by holes of the right size, the water passes through (left side), but the sodium and chlorine of the salt are blocked http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =k5Tjy_90WBU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =F4-T2tYkAvc
  40. 40.  Smithsonian Magazine acknowledge Graphene water desalination as Top 5 Surprising Scientific Milestones of 2012  Lockheed Martin has been awarded a patent for Perforene™ material, Graphene perforated with holes Source: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/mythical-particles-goldilocks-planets-and-more-top-5-surprising-scientific- milestones-of-2012-161395279/?no-ist= Graphene application –water desalination
  41. 41. Graphene Water Desalination 44 • nanoholes for disallowance chlorine ions is nominally nine nanometers. • nanoholes are nominally spaced apart by fifteen nanometers. • nanoholes to disallow sodium ions is nominally six nanometers. • Nanoholes hydrophobic nature improved ions repellence • Method to use to make holes:  Selective oxidation  Laser drilled  helium-ion bombardment  chemical etching  self-assembling systems • First prototype to be ready by 2015 Source: US Patent publication Pub No: US2012/0048804

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