these slides analyze the rapid improvements in DNA sequencers and the implications for these rapid improvements for drug discovery, new crops, materials creation, and new bio-fuels. Many of the rapid improvements are from "reductions in scale." As with integrated circuits, reducing the size of features on DNA sequencers has enabled many orders of magnitude improvements in them. Unlike integrated circuits, the improvements are also due to changes in technology. For example, changes from pyrosequencing to semiconductor and nanopore sequencing have also been needed to achieve the reductions in scale. Second, pyrosequencing also benefited from improvements in lasers and camera chips.