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4D printing with smart materials

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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze whether and how 4D Printing is becoming economically feasible. 4D printing is defined as 3D printing of smart materials whose shape and properties change with the addition of heat or electrical energy. The presentation describes a number of these smart materials, the specific stimuli that lead to changes in shaper or properties, and application examples. Examples include self-healing polymers for smart phones, other materials for space structures, alloys for heat engines, and dielectric elastomers for artificial muscles.

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4D printing with smart materials

  1. 1. 4D PRINTING WITH SMART MATERIALS MT5009 – ANALYZING HI-TECH OPPORTUNITIES Presented by: Imran Ahmad Khan (A0102875E) Liew Chin Siew (A0098560W) Loy Yoke Yuan (A0055354H) Lu Wanheng (A0107258E) Myint Phone Naing (A0033823M) Soh Kok Boon Anthony (A0133008W) 1
  2. 2. Outline • What is 4D Printing? • Important Technology Aspects of 4D Printing • SMART Materials’ Properties and Development • Future Trend Analysis • Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Outline • What is 4D Printing? • Important Technology Aspects of 4D Printing • SMART Materials’ Properties and Development • Future Trend Analysis • Conclusion 3
  4. 4. 3D Printing • An additive printing technique for making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file • An improvised form of rapid proto-typing. • Based on the first Patent published in 1984 under Stereolithography (SLA). • Selective laser sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) are others common technologies beside SLA 4 Lix 3D pen – US$ 140
  5. 5. Another Dimension? "We're proposing that the fourth dimension is Time and that over time static objects will transform and adapt“ 5 "The rigid material becomes a structure and the other layer is the force that can start bending and twisting it. Imagine water pipes that can expand to cope with different capacities or flows and save digging up the street.“ Mr Tibbits, MIT's (Interview with BBC - 2013) SMART Material which can transform upon external stimuli 3D Printer
  6. 6. Introduction Video to 4D Printing 6 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GIEhi_sAkU8
  7. 7. Overview of 4D Object 7 Transformative materials without control is useless. Smart Materials  Some materials change physical property upon energy input  Materials expand upon heat  Materials bend upon electric energy Energy Source  Natural energy source such as heat, pressure, etc  Controlled energy source such as current, electromagnetic wave  Arrange transformative material in precise angle, position  3D printer 4D Object Precise Positioning Control
  8. 8. Outline • What is 4D Printing? • Important Technology Aspects of 4D Printing • SMART Materials’ Properties and Development • Future Trend Analysis • Conclusion 8
  9. 9. Important Aspects of 4D Printing 4D Printing Simulation Software Multi materials printer SMART materials 9 Simulation software for self-assembly and design constraints optimization.  Autodesk  CATIA  Open Source 3D printer with capability to print multiple SMART materials  Stratasys  ROVA  SolidView  GeoMagic Materials that change shape upon external stimuli  Shape memory alloy  Self healing materials
  10. 10. Simulation Software • Cyborg 4D Simulation Software • Cyborg, a design platform spanning applications from the nano- scale to the human-scale. • This software allows for simulated self-assembly and programmable materials as well as optimization for design constraints and joint folding. • The aim is to tightly couple this new cross-disciplinary and cross- scalar design tool with the real-world material transformation of 4D printing. 10 Source: http://www.autodeskresearch.com/projects/cyborg
  11. 11. Software Cost Reduction with Open Source Technology 11 Top reasons for adopting Open Source 1. Quality 2. Lower total cost of ownership 3. Ease of deployment 4. Ability to access source code, add features and fix code yourself 5. Better competitive features and technical capabilities 6. Better IT security Source: Survey results from Black Duck Software
  12. 12. Multi-Smart Materials Printer 12 4D Printer = 3D Printer with multi-smart materials printing capability Currently, no standardized hardware architecture yet.  Connex multi material technology  Connex1 - Printing capability of 3 materials Source: http://www.stratasys.com/3d-printers/design- series/objet260-connex1  Portable desktop printer  Printing capability of five materials Source: http://ordsolutions.com/our-3d-printers/rova3d/
  13. 13. Multi-Smart Materials Printer • Complete compatibility with current 3D printers which can print multi-materials. 13 0 5 10 15 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 $Billion Year Market Value Growth 3D printers Services and materials
  14. 14. List of Smart Materials (I) 14 Material Input/Stimulus Output/Response Application Polymeric gal pH change Swelling or contracting Artificial muscle Electro-rheological fluid Electric signal Viscosity change Torsional steering system damper Pyroelectric material Temperature Electric signal Personnel sensor (open super- market door) Polymer (eg thin film cellulose), ceramic Humidity change Capacity/ resistance change Humidity sensors Self-Healing Materials Force Force Smartphone chassis Smart metal alloys Temperature Shape Motor actuators Dielectric Elastomers Voltage Strain Robotics
  15. 15. List of Smart Materials (II) Material Input/Stimulus Output/Response Application Ceramic (eg, La doped BaTiO3) Polymer (eg, C- black filled poltethylene) Current (or Temperate) Resistance Thermistor Overcurrent Protector Varistor (eg, Bi doped ZnO) Voltage Resistance Surge Protector Y2O3 doped ZrO2 Change in Oxygen Partial Pressure Electric Signal Oxygen sensor Piezoelectric material Deformation/ Strain electric signal Electric Signal Active noise control devices, pressure and vibration sensitizing 15
  16. 16. Smart Materials • Smart materials are designed materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields. 16 SMART Materials Smart Metal Alloy Others (Not covered) Dielectric Elastomers Self-Healing Polymers
  17. 17. Roadmap of Smart Materials • R&D activity on transformative materials is still in early phase. 17
  18. 18. Outline • What is 4D Printing? • Important Technology Aspects of 4D Printing • SMART Materials’ Properties and Development • Future Trend Analysis • Conclusion 18
  19. 19. Self-Healing Materials • Self-healing material in a historical perspective • The state of stone bridges and aqueducts from the Roman age is still quite good, despite the fact that they have been there for centuries • The secret is in the ‘mortar’ – based on volcanic ash and lime • The ancient Romans used in their constructions to glue the bricks together 19 • Lime dissolves in rain water, and can seep to cracks. When the water vaporizes, the lime deposits inside the crack
  20. 20. Application to Smartphone • Self healing smart phone • LG smartphone, G-Flex, which is curved and has a self-healing polymer coating on the back: Light scratches disappear before your eyes 20
  21. 21. How do Self Healing Materials Work? • Synthetic and biological route to healing • Inspired by nature • 3 steps self healing process 21 1. Activation phase 2. Transportation phase 3. Repair phase Source:Self-Healing Polymers and Composites by B.J. Blaiszik, S.L.B. Kramer, S.C. Olugebefola, J.S. Moore, N.R. Sottos, and S.R.White
  22. 22. Different Approach to Self-Healing a) In capsule-based self-healing materials, the healing agent is stored in capsules until they are ruptured by damage or dissolved. b) For vascular materials, the healing agent is stored in hollow channels or fibers until damage ruptures the vasculature and releases the healing agent. c) Intrinsic materials contain a latent functionality that triggers self- healing of damage via thermally reversible reactions, hydrogen bonding, ionomeric arrangements, or molecular diffusion and entanglement. 22
  23. 23. Performance Maps of Different Healing Approach • Development of Self healing polymers 23 Source:Self-Healing Polymers and Composites by B.J. Blaiszik, S.L.B. Kramer, S.C. Olugebefola, J.S. Moore, N.R. Sottos, and S.R.White
  24. 24. Properties of Self-Healing Material • Material performance as a function of time • Traditional materials only accumulate damage and fail after a certain period of use. • Self healing materials may show some early deterioration, yet its self healing character makes sure that total failure only occurs after very long times. 24
  25. 25. Properties of Self-Healing Polymers • Development of Self healing polymers 25 Polymer type Healing approach Chemistry/ method Best healing efficiency (%) Healing conditions Thermoplastic Intrinsic Reversible bond formation 75 % < 1 min at -30°C Capsule based Interdiffusion (solvent) 78% 4 – 5 min at 60°C Intrinsic Photo-induced healing 16% 10 min at 100°C Intrinsic Nanoparticle healing - 2h at Ambient Thermoset Vascular Thermally reversible crosslinks 60% 30 min at 115°C 6 h at 40°C Vascular Thermoplastic additives 45% 1h at 160°C Thermoset composites Capsule based Microencapsulation approach 60% 48h at 80°C 24h at Ambient Vascular Thermoplastic additives 80% 1.5h at 80°C
  26. 26. Potential Application: Space Structures 26 • Benefit in environments and conditions where access for manual repair is limited or impossible or where damage may not be detected. • Self healing polymers, yet to achieve high healing efficiency , maximum efficiency 80% achieved by Thermoset composites in controlled environment. • How self-healing materials will perform under long-term environment exposure remains as open question. Accelerated environment testing of self-healing systems is critically needed.
  27. 27. Smart Metal Alloys • Nitinol heat engine invented in the 1970s that is capable of converting heat energy to mechanical or electrical energy • Impact: Efficient conversion of energy over small temperature differences at ambient conditions 27 Source: Ridgway M. Banks (1983), Single wire Nitinol Engine, United States Patent 4,450,686
  28. 28. 28 How do Smart Metal Alloys Work?
  29. 29. List of Smart Metal Alloys 29 Source: S. Barbarino, E.I. Saavedra Flores, R.M. Ajaj, I. Dayyani and M.I. Friswell (2014). A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft, Smart Mater. Struct. 23, 063001
  30. 30. 30 Metal Alloy Properties Source: S. Barbarino, E.I. Saavedra Flores, R.M. Ajaj, I. Dayyani and M.I. Friswell (2014). A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft, Smart Mater. Struct. 23, 063001
  31. 31. Properties of NiTi Alloys 31 Source: S. Barbarino, E.I. Saavedra Flores, R.M. Ajaj, I. Dayyani and M.I. Friswell (2014). A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft, Smart Mater. Struct. 23, 063001
  32. 32. Potential Application: Morphing Aircraft • Overcome limitations of current flight technology by adapting the geometry of lifting surfaces to pilot input and different flight conditions characterizing a typical mission profile • Improvement to long-term performance, reliability and response of metal actuators is required for this to become a reality 32
  33. 33. Dielectric Elastomer • Used in conformal speakers. 33
  34. 34. Dielectric Elastomer • Highly efficient transduction from electric energy into mechanical energy – the theoretical transduction efficiency is 80-90% • High strain rate up to 300 % as shown below. • High pressure up to 8MPa and power density of 1 W/g (for comparison, human muscle is 0.2 W/g and an electric motor with gearbox is 0.05 W/g) 34 Acrylic elastomers showing 300% linear strain Source: Extending Applications of Dielectric Elastomer Artificial Muscles to Wireless Communication Systems by Seiki Chiba and Mikio Waki
  35. 35. Properties of Dielectric Elastomer • 1mm thick 3M VHB 4910 uniformly strain to ~300% when a voltage is applied across it. 35 Source: Novel Applications of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators by L. Christopher Stocking
  36. 36. Performance of Dielectric Elastomer • The energy density of dielectric elastomer has reached 3.4J/g, about 21 times that of single crystal piezoelectrics and more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of most commercial actuators. • DE have an actuation pressure/density that is bigger than that of electrostatic actuators and magnetic actuators, and cause strains that are bigger than that of piezo electric actuators and magneto strictive actuators. 36 Source: Dielectric Elastomer Artificial Muscle Actuators: Toward Biomimetic Motion by Ron Pelrine, Roy Kornbluh
  37. 37. Level of Improvement - Performance 37 Source: Advances in Dielectric Elastomers for Actuators and Artificial Muscles by Paul Brochu, Qibing Pei
  38. 38. Potential Application: Artificial muscles • Dielectric elastomers require an external circuit with a high bias voltage source to polarize them. To be feasible in real life application, need to drastically reduce this voltage requirement. 38 Source: Dielectric Elastomer Artificial Muscle Actuators: Toward Biomimetic Motion by Ron Pelrine, Roy Kornbluh, Qibing Pei, Scott Stanford, Seajin Oh, Joe Eckerle
  39. 39. Further Applications of Smart Materials 39 Healthcare Robotic Automotive Industry Consumer Industrial Manufacturing Military Aerospace
  40. 40. Healthcare 40 Nano Scale Objects in Biomedical Engineering. E.g Cardiac tube/Stent http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/stents  4D printed stent to be maneuvered to a spot and then change form  For example, 4D printed stent that is introduced into an artery – and when ultrasound energy is applied it balloons up to its needed configuration Electroactive Polymers for Artificial Limbs http://www.technologyreview.com/article/401750/electroactive -polymers/  An applied voltage changes the polymer’s composition or molecular structure so that it expands, contracts or bends  The motion is smoother and more lifelike than movement generated by mechanical devices. Smart Materials – Magnetostrictive / Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys KPI – Precision control Smart Materials – Dielectric Elastomer / Piezoelectric KPI – Reliability
  41. 41. Consumer 41 Transformative Shoes http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/Objects-That-Change-Shape-On-Their- Own-180951449/?no-ist Imagine a single shoe for multiple activities:  If you start running, it adapts to being running shoes  If you play basketball, it adapts to support your ankles  If you go on grass, it grows cleats  If it is raining, it becomes waterproof Adaptive Tyre Compound  4D printed tyre compound which provide adaptive grip on road condition Smart Materials – Self-healing materials KPI – Response control
  42. 42. Industrial Manufacturing 42 Pipe Manufacturing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gMCZFHv9v8  Current pipe system is very rigid. To cater for higher flow capacity, we have to replace the whole pipe line.  Solution: An adaptive 4D manufacturing capability to produce capacity adaptable pipes Insulation Wall Manufacturing  Insulation wall that can adapt to outside temperature  Self adaptive wall that maintain heat during winter and less insulation property during summer Smart Materials – Shape Memory Alloys KPI – Reliability, sensitivity
  43. 43. Robotics 43 More Humanoid Robot  Current robot systems are very rigid due to inherent mechanical property of motors, gears & etc  By precise geometry arranging of multiple transformative materials, we can achieve desired motion, action upon applied energy  End result is more human like robot which can perform more delicate jobs Possible Smart Materials – Combination of Smart Materials KPI – Integration
  44. 44. Outline • What is 4D Printing? • Important Technology Aspects of 4D Printing • SMART Materials’ Properties and Development • Future Trend Analysis • Conclusion 44
  45. 45. Current State of Technology • 4D printing is a novel advancement to 3D printing technology • 4D printing is focused on developing materials and newer printing techniques that could reduce the time taken for assembly of parts, in turn improving the overall efficiency of the manufacturing process. • Parts manufactured using this novel technology would employ different types of SMART materials. 45 Source: Frost & Sullivan, June 2014:
  46. 46. Patent Landscape 46 Patent Mining Database Thomson Innovation Search Keywords  4D printing  4D printer  Self-healing materials  Self-healing polymers  Self-healing coatings Search Timeline 1 January 2004 to 23 June 2013 * * * *
  47. 47. Year of Impact (4D printing) 47 Source: Frost & Sullivan, June 2014: The expected year of widespread/ large-scale adoption of 4D Printing technology has been computed through assessments of technology advances, industry initiatives, challenges, advances in related industries, and market potential Sectors Expected Year of Impact 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 Healthcare Military Infrastructure Automobile Packaging Aerospace Manufacturing
  48. 48. Breadth of Application 48
  49. 49. Impact of Megatrends 49
  50. 50. Size of Innovation Ecosystem 50 Stakeholder Influence Assessment
  51. 51. Size of Innovation Ecosystem 51 Impact of Key Innovations Landscape Source: Frost & Sullivan, June 2014:
  52. 52. Global Footprint 52 Source: Frost & Sullivan, June 2014: Global Development and Adoption Scenario Region Remarks Intensity of Adoption North America  Various universities in the country have been developing this novel technology.  USA: Maximum R&D activities ongoing for this technology  Main focus: Aerospace and defense, automotive, health care, infrastructure, manufacturing, and packaging  Major funding agency: US ARO and DOD HIGH Europe  Adoption of 4D printing technology or research activities not been greatly evident in this region.  More actively to develop this technology expected in near term MEDIUM Asia Pacific  Adoption of 4D printing is expected to be somewhat slower in this region compared to the other two regions.  Researchers from Singapore University of Technology have collaborated with the University of Colorado-Boulder for developing a 4D printing technology that incorporates shape memory fibers. MEDIUM
  53. 53. Global Footprint 53 Source: Frost & Sullivan, June 2014: 4D Printing-Adoption Scenario
  54. 54. Outline • What is 4D Printing? • Important Technology Aspects of 4D Printing • SMART Materials’ Properties and Development • Future Trend Analysis • Conclusion 54
  55. 55. Key Conclusion • Emerging Market Potential • 4D printing technology is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of the manufacturing process and increase the capability to produce complex parts and products for different industrial sectors. Expected to create a large number of potential applications in diverse industrial sectors (for example, aerospace, defense, automotive, health care, infrastructure, manufacturing, packaging) • Evolving Ecosystem • 4D printing technology is expected to be adopted by a range of industrial sectors. Research laboratories, universities, and companies are also expected to increase their 4D printing research activities, further enabling convergence between industries and increasing the breadth of applications of 4D printing technology. • Technology • 4D printing technology (software, hardware, 4D printing materials) is still in early phase of S-curve. Dominant hardware/software architecture yet to be established. IP on 4D printing smart materials is building up. 4D technology will be getting increasingly popular as the trends toward its integration with the giant industries like manufacturing and healthcare, have increased. 55
  56. 56. 56 Thank You Any Question(s)?

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