THINKING beyond the canopy
Towards sustainable bushmeat procurement to
improve food and income security in Amazonia
Miguel...
THINKING beyond the canopy
The study focuses on
• To understand hunting as source of food and
income and its impact on gam...
x
INPE 2010 3
Location of the study areas in the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazon
Napo Province dominated by mosaic
landscap...
x
x
x
xxxxx
Gutierrez-Velez et al 2011 4
Ucayali Region has high density of
roads and population
34.9%
24.7%
65.1%
75.3%
2...
Women and children provide better information by phone
(N=20 in Peru and N=42 in Ecuador)
Information reported:
• Who hunted (women, men or children)
• Where did he or she hunted (Protected or indigenous lands) o...
Representative photographs per habitat
(a) forest and fallow habitat
b) House garden and field habitat
Small streams are
managed for
hunting grounds
Average hunting expeditions per month conducted by women,
men and children (N=420 in Ecuador and N= 360 in Peru)
0
2
4
6
8...
In Ecuador (N= 420)
Protected areas
Mosaic landscapes
In Peru (N=360)
Protected areas
Mosaic landscapes
The majority of
women build traps
near game attractors
trees
Trap and gun hunting by men and
women in Ecuador and Peru
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Ecuador Peru
gun
trap
Women prepared meat that is sold
and consumed
Men tend to sell all
the catch to
acopiadores
Fresh bushmeat usually is more expensive than smoked
Bushmeat dishes are mainly offered by
restaurants in Pucallpa
THINKING beyond the canopy
Bushmeat and smallholder’s land use system
• A large fraction of the bushmeat that is sold and ...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Recommendations
• Ecosystem services: Key biodiversity that regulate bio-ecological processes
a...
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Towards sustainable bushmeat procurement to improve food and income security in Amazonia

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Presentation by Miguel Pinedo Vasquez at the symposium, "Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services provided by bushmeat" in the 51th Annual Meeting ATBC 2014 in Cairns, Australia.

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Towards sustainable bushmeat procurement to improve food and income security in Amazonia

  1. 1. THINKING beyond the canopy Towards sustainable bushmeat procurement to improve food and income security in Amazonia Miguel Pinedo-Vasquez, Pablo Puertas, Medardo Miranda- Ruiz and Ian Cummins
  2. 2. THINKING beyond the canopy The study focuses on • To understand hunting as source of food and income and its impact on game population dynamics at the household and landscape scale • To develop spatio-temporal and scale independent approaches to understand the distribution of bushmeat in relation to people both in space and time • To identify, record and disseminate sustainable bushmeat harvesting, management and control • To develop a monitoring system based on household utility and the role of bushmeat in providing food and income security
  3. 3. x INPE 2010 3 Location of the study areas in the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazon Napo Province dominated by mosaic landscape and high road density Napo Province has the highest population density in the Ecuadorian Amazon
  4. 4. x x x xxxxx Gutierrez-Velez et al 2011 4 Ucayali Region has high density of roads and population 34.9% 24.7% 65.1% 75.3% 20071993 URBAN RURAL
  5. 5. Women and children provide better information by phone (N=20 in Peru and N=42 in Ecuador)
  6. 6. Information reported: • Who hunted (women, men or children) • Where did he or she hunted (Protected or indigenous lands) or (fallows, forest patches, fields and house garden) • How did she or he hunted (gun or trap) • How do households and communities control access to hunting grounds and determine the number of hunting expeditions • Species, sex and weight • Amount sold and consumed, buyers and prices as well as if were sold fresh or smoked • Analysis data on species offtake and hunter effort (behavior) as well as size of hunting grounds and presence of game attractor species to determine whether harvest is unsustainable or unsustainable 6
  7. 7. Representative photographs per habitat (a) forest and fallow habitat b) House garden and field habitat
  8. 8. Small streams are managed for hunting grounds
  9. 9. Average hunting expeditions per month conducted by women, men and children (N=420 in Ecuador and N= 360 in Peru) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Women Men Children Ecuador Peru
  10. 10. In Ecuador (N= 420) Protected areas Mosaic landscapes
  11. 11. In Peru (N=360) Protected areas Mosaic landscapes
  12. 12. The majority of women build traps near game attractors trees
  13. 13. Trap and gun hunting by men and women in Ecuador and Peru 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Ecuador Peru gun trap
  14. 14. Women prepared meat that is sold and consumed
  15. 15. Men tend to sell all the catch to acopiadores
  16. 16. Fresh bushmeat usually is more expensive than smoked
  17. 17. Bushmeat dishes are mainly offered by restaurants in Pucallpa
  18. 18. THINKING beyond the canopy Bushmeat and smallholder’s land use system • A large fraction of the bushmeat that is sold and consumed in Amazonia is harvested from production landscapes. • The majority of large-bodied game species are hunted in protected areas while the majority of small-bodied games species are hunted in forest patches, fallows, house gardens and agriculture fields • Forest hunting is mainly unsustainable while garden hunting is mainly sustainable • Production landscapes contain equally or in some cases higher habitat heterogeneity than forests • The chacra system includes techniques for the establishment and management of hunting grounds and game attractor species • • The majority of urban Amazonians own lands in rural areas and have strong connection with rural people • Most lands for oil palm cultivation are in mosaic landscape where forest and fallow fragments are reservoirs of biodiversity as well as providers of multiple socio-ecological services and goods • Global demand for oil palm and other commodities is increasing the demand for lands in Amazonia
  19. 19. THINKING beyond the canopy Recommendations • Ecosystem services: Key biodiversity that regulate bio-ecological processes are lost that is leading to the propagation of pests such as rats and poison snakes such as fret de lance. Keeping forest and fallow fragments in the landscape should help to control rat and snake infestation in oil palm plantations • Food security and sovereignty: Conversion of forests and fallows into oil palm plantations eliminate game species that are important source of protein and income for women and children. To protect women’s food, land where farmers could plant their crop, mange game and other products in fallow and forests should be protected. Local farmers have developed the vuelito system (small plots) to produce, manage and collect forest resources). • Functional diversity: The lost of forest and fallow vegetation is leading to the decline in the abundance and diversity insectivore and raptors birds favoring the explosion of pests such as beetles and rats. Leaving forest belts at the edge of plantations should help to maintain insectivores and raptors for pest management in oil palm plantations. • Habitat diversity and landscape connectivity: The removal of riparian vegetation along streams is eliminating the local populations of large rodents such as agouties and pacas. Local people consider both species as the main predators of poison snakes. Building and preserving bio-environmental corridors along streams and swamp areas should help to maintain healthy populations of agouties, pacas and other predators of snakes, rats and other pests.

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