Certifying bushmeat: an option for sustainable hunting in colombian amazon?

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Presentation by Maria Paula Quiceno at the symposium, "Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services provided by bushmeat" in the 51th Annual Meeting ATBC 2014 in Cairns, Australia.

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Certifying bushmeat: an option for sustainable hunting in colombian amazon?

  1. 1. CERTIFYING BUSHMEAT: AN OPTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HUNTING IN COLOMBIAN AMAZON? María Paula Quiceno, Jessica Moreno, Nathalie van Vliet, Daniel Cruz-Antia, & Robert Nasi ATBC 2014 Symposia INNOVATIVE WAYS FOR CONSERVING THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVIDED BY BUSHMEAT Cairns, Australia
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Eco-certification for wildlife friendly products and producers: • Don’t include wildlife products (particularly with hunted animals) Ecolabelling certification programmes have been developed for a variety of non-wildlife based products. En Colombia:
  3. 3. Certification for bushmeat trade coming from sustainably managed areas has never been tested INTRODUCTION  Europe, United States, Canada, Argentina, other countries): ranching, hunting quotas and certified high quality and organic wildmeat from ranching areas.  África: Community Based Wildlife Management (hunting quotas). (CAMPFIRE project in Zimbabwe)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Peccary Pelt project Tahuayo-Blanco river basin (El Chino, Buena Vista, Diamante and San Pedro), Perú. Turkey Project, Reserva de la Biósfera Maya in Guatemala. Ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata)
  5. 5. • Leticia (38000 inhabitants) trades 21 tons of bushmeat per year, equivalent to ~USD$ 68,000 yearly • The regional environmental authority invests ~USD$365,000 yearly for law enforcement (Leticia, Puerto Nariño and surrounding local communities) INTRODUCCIÓNCONTEXT Co-management systems and certified wildmeat trade chains Centralized law enforcement system
  6. 6. - What is the potential for consumption and trade of certified bushmeat? - What do consumers and institutions know about certification? - What are the criteria to ensure hunting sustainability? - Would consumers choose to pay a premium price for certified bushmeat? - What would be the selling price of certified bushmeat? - What are the benefits, risks and opportunities of certified bushmeat? Based on the recognition that: well-managed wildlife trade can reverse the declines in threatened species and open up new opportunities for income generation and secure subsistence resources for food and health. We asked:
  7. 7. METHODOLOGY Participation of stakeholders in the process Potential to sale certified bushmeat Market chain actors (n=29) Institutions (n=16) Feasibility of certification and environmental, socioeconomic and health criteria Benefits and risks of legalization and certification of bushmeat Consumers, Market chain actors and institutions. Knowledge of certification Potential to purchase certified bushmeat Bushmeat consumption Consumers (n=403) International tourists (n=34) Local consumers (n=336) National tourists (n=33)
  8. 8. Reasons to consume or avoid bushmeat RESULTS & DISCUSSION  Reasons to consume: nutrition (39%), taste (13%), cultural (12%), experience (7%) and social linkages and events (2%).  Reasons to avoid: hasn’t had the opportunity (6%), dislike (5%), wildlife conservation (2%), health and hygiene (2%), taboo, cultural and different diet (2%). Bushmeat consumption is a fact: local consumers (65% n: 336), international tourists (47% n: 34) y national tourists (39% n: 33) 24% 76% Would you buy certified busmeat? NO YES WHAT IS THE POTENTIAL OF CONSUMPTION OF CERTIFIED BUSHMEAT? Consumers
  9. 9. Reasons to sell certified bushmeat: • Cultural (27%), tourism (24%), taste (3%), economy (3%) and consumption (3%). Market chain actors The 98% (n=29) of surveyed market actors would sell certified bushmeat. «…the other meat types are very bad … people know it and always look for bushmeat, they always ask me: is there any bushmeat?, and I say CLARO® !» RESULTS & DISCUSSION WHAT IS THE POTENTIAL TO SALE CERTIFIED BUSHMEAT?
  10. 10. - There is a general lack of knowledge. Wildlife friendly Fair trade Organic products Unknown Forest products Eco- tourism INSTITUTION Wildlife friendly Fair trade Organic products Control health Unknown CONSUMERS RESULTS & DISCUSSION WHAT DO CONSUMERS AND INSTITUTIONS KNOW ABOUT CERTIFICATION?
  11. 11. Wildlife monitoring Police control Hunting quotas Delimitation of hunting areas OthersENVIRONMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION WHAT ARE THE CRITERIA TO ENSURE HUNTING SUSTAINABILITY ? Association of hunters and traders Distribution of benefits Traditional hunting rules Controlled market chains Others SOCIOECONOMIC Wildlife managed within the forest Quality bushmeat Hygienic handling Others HEALTH
  12. 12. WOULD CONSUMERS CHOOSE TO PAY A PREMIUM PRICE ? Consumers Price USD $ BushmeatKg. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Andean mestizo Indigenous Amazon mestizo International tourists National tourists 1. Less than 3,72 2. 3,72 to 7,97 3. More than 7,97 Bushmeatdish 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Andean mestizo Indigenous Amazon mestizo International tourists National tourists 1. Less than 3,72 2. 3,72 to 5,32 3. 5,32 to 7,44 4. More than 7,44 USD $ 7/kg USD $ 8/dish Restaurants
  13. 13. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Market seller Kg. 5,85 to 8,50 NO 0% 50% 100% Food stalls Restaurants Dish YES NO 6,91 to more than 8,50 5,31 to 6,91 3,72 to 5,31 RESULTS & DISCUSSION WHAT WOULD BE THE SELLING PRICE OF CERTIFIED BUSHMEAT? Price USD $ Price USD $ Market chain actors
  14. 14. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS ? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Market seller Food stalls Restaurants Consumers Institutions Others Reduction of police control Better economic gains Healthy and hygienic nutrition Consolidation of a network of sustainable use Wildlife conservation Continuity of traditional culture RESULTS & DISCUSSION
  15. 15. RESULTS & DISCUSSION WHAT ARE THE RISKS? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Institutions Consumers Others None Entry of uncertified bushmeat in the legal chain Increase in the price of bushmeat Loss of control by authorities Overexplotation of wildlife
  16. 16. CONCLUSIONS • Wildlife monitoring • Social organization (association of hunters and traders) • Controlled market structure • Hygienic handling Then, certification would be based on: Consumption is a cultural decision instead of an economic decision
  17. 17. • A baseline of hunting and trade  Participatory monitoring • Building local institutions for bushmeat certification  Coherence with legal framework and local governance. • Experimentation with restricted market chains  Social learning. CONCLUSIONS What do we need? • Economic analysis of the chain value.  Certified bushmeat price system. • Experimentation of bushmeat certification  Including risk assestment
  18. 18. www.cifor.org/bushmeat Thank you Gracias! FORESTS, WILDLIFE & NUTRITION

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