Fundació CTM Memoria 2010 eng

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Fundació CTM Memoria 2010 eng

  1. 1. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c 01
  2. 2. indexF u n d a c i ó c T M 03 06c e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c GreetinGs from the President 08 Who are We? orGanisation 14 Professional team 18 What does fundació ctm centre tecnolòGic do? 20 areas of Work 77 area of materials technoloGY area of forminG Processes 96 area of simulation and innoVatiVe desiGn area of enVironmental technoloGY area of suPPort to innoVation 116 area of enerGY 128 most outstandinG ProJects PuBlications, conGresses and thesis 134 headlines 2010 138 international unit BioenGineerinG diVision 140 QualitY at the fundació ctm 148 aGreements economic rePort 152 clients 154 future stePs neW BuildinG 157 02
  3. 3. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c 1 greetings from the President Josep Camprubí i Duocastella 03
  4. 4. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c GREETINGS FROM THE W PRESIDENT e leave behind the year 2010, a year full of opportunities that have taken shape; of ideas that have turned into projects, of initiatives that have borne fruits, of efforts that have become successes. We are talking about opportunities, ideas, projects, initiatives and successes that account for the daily routine of the centre that seeks excellence starting from rigorous and methodical work and also for the systematic research work on ambitious long-range milestones. It has been a year in which Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològichas had many chances for showing the scope of its scientific potential and its technological expertise. The fact is that in the past few months, Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic has carried out very significant projects both because of their dimensions and their complexity. FORMA0 is the project that has had a greater media impact nevertheless and fortunately, there have been many other projects at the same level of academic and professional demand. We have taken advantage of every research line, every assignment and every new objective for testing and showing the capacities of Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic. There have been many acknowledgements throughout the city and the region. 04
  5. 5. President’s greetingsF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c On the other hand, the year that we leave behind has allowed us to fine-tune the schedule for the moving of the centre and all its human and technical units to the Parc Central. Once we have gone beyond the stage of willing, of the creation of alliances and the search for support, the time for realisation has come, for preparing the facilities and getting ready for taking advantage of the boost of a change, not only of location but also of horizons. Parc Central´s capacity for attracting intensive economic activities in the use of knowledge and technology is closely related with Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic´s potential for offering advanced services, leading high level scientific and technological projects and being the connecting link with other excellent centres in the field of research and innovation. Finally, I would like to highlight Fundació CTM´s crucial role in the awarding of the distinction of “city of science and innovation” to Manresa. The organisation holds many of the virtues that the award acknowledges: the will for making the local productive model progress towards a more intense use of knowledge; the combination of efforts and resources of different public and private actors; the long-term vision that combines with an everyday work committed with excellence; the firm vocation for becoming present in the global economy taking advantage of the productive know-how of the business network of the area. Altogether, a great asset for the city and the region both because of the actual capacities and the future potentials. 05
  6. 6. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c Who are we? 06
  7. 7. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c WHO ARE T WE? he Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic is a non-profit private foundation. Its aim is to efficiently contribute to the improvement of competitiveness and to the technological development of companies by providing specialised services and carrying out R+D + IT projects. The team of the Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic works for companies, organisations and institutions in the fields of Materials Technology, Simulation and Innovative Design, Forming Processes, Environmental Technology, Support to Innovation and Energy. The Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic is part of the net of technological centres of the Generalitat de Catalunya (XCT) with registration number CT03/04; it is registered in the CICYT as Technological Innovation Centre (CIT) number 46 and it is also registered as OTRI (Oficina de Transferencia de Resultados de Investigación- Office for Transference of Research Results) by the Ministry of Education and Science with number 158. The Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, together with other centres of Catalonia, has participated in the creation of ACT (Association of Technological Centres) over which Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic first presided. The Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic is a member of TECNIO, a brand created by ACC1Ó which agglutinates the main expert agents in applied research and technological transfer of Catalonia. 07
  8. 8. Who are we?F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c organisaTion The areas of activity of the Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic in 2010 have been: Area of Materials Technology, Area of Simulation and Innovative Design, Area of Forming Processes, Area of Environmental Technology, Area of Support to Innovation and Area of Energy. The organisation of the centre remains as follows: download organisation F u n d a c i ó c e n T r e c T M T e c n o l ò g i c chart gENERAL MANAgER J.M. Prado INTERNAL SALES MANAgEMENT MANAgER DIRECTOR SCIENTIFIC J. Martí X. Codinach MANAgEMENT J.M. Prado J. de Pablo hEAD OF MARkET RESEARCh X. Vicas hEAD OF hEAD OF hEAD OF hEAD OF hEAD OF hEAD OF ACTINIDES COATINgS TRIbOLOgY MICROSTRuC- STEEL ShEET TEChNO- J. de Pablo J. Caro M. Vilaseca TuRES AND bEhAvIOuR LOgICAL MEChANICAL T. Lara SERvICES PROPERTIES C. Abad S. Molas hEAD OF INNOvATIvE PRODuCTS hEAD OF MANAgE- X. Vicas MANRESA´S MENT OF LAbORATORY PROjECTS N. Bahí A. Beltrán S AN S NI CI AN NI CI AN S TE Ch TE Ch NI CI EC T EC T TE Ch PR Oj PR Oj EC T AN S AN S PR Oj NI CI NI CI RY TE Ch RY TE Ch RATO RATO CI AN S LA bO LA bO TE Ch NI E RATIv NI ST AD MI AN S AN S AN S AN S NI CI NI CI NI CI NI CI TE Ch TE Ch RY TE Ch TE Ch EC T EC T RATO EC T hEAD OF bIO- PR Oj PR Oj LA bO PR Oj ENgINEERINg DIvISION S. Idelsohn 08
  9. 9. Who are we?F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c general Manager Dr. Jose M. Prado Manager of the area of Materials technology Dr. Daniel Casellas Manager of the area of Environmental technology Dr. Miquel Rovira Manager of the area of support to innovation Mr. Antoni Fargas Manager of the area of simulation and innovative design Dra. Ma Dolors Riera Manager of the area of Forming Processes Dr. Jose Ma Cabrera Manager of the area of Energy Dr. Luis Romeral commercial Manager Sr. Jordi Martí internal Management director Sr. Xavier Codinach scientific Management Dr. Jose M. Prado Dr. Joan de Pablo 09
  10. 10. Who are we?F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c goVerning Bodies Board of trustees President Most Illustrious Mr. Josep Camprubí Duocastella CITY COuNCIL OF MANRESA Vice-president Most Excellent Mr. Antoni Giró Roca UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA second Vice-president Mr. Manel Rosell Martí CAIXA D’ESTALvIS DE MANRESA secretary Mr. Josep Alabern Valentí COL·LEgI OFICIAL D’ENgINYERS INDuSTRIALS Members CITY COuNCIL OF MANRESA CAIXA D’ESTALvI S DE MANRESA CAMbRA DE COMERC I INDuSTRIA DE MANRESA COL·LEgI D’ENgINYERS TECNICS INDuSTRIALS DE MANRESA CIDEM COL·LEgI D’ARQuITECTES DE CATALuNYA COL·LEgI OFICIAL D’ENgINYERS INDuSTRIALS CONSELL COMARCAL DEL bAgES CONSTRuCCIONS SALIDO, S.A. FEDERACIÓ D’EMPRESARIS CATALuNYA CENTRAL FuNDACIÓ uNIvERSITÀRIA DEL bAgES PIMEC UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA vILARDELL PuRTÍ, S.A. 010
  11. 11. Who are we?F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c executive committee The Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic´s board of Trustees appointed the following representatives of different companies and institutions to make up the Executive Committee: President Mr. Manel Rosell CAIXA D’ESTALvIS DE MANRESA secretary Mr. Josep Alabern COL·LEgI OF.D’ENgINYERS INDuSTRIALS Members · Mr. Alain Jordà CITY COuNCIL OF MANRESA · Mr. Enric Perramon AuSA CENTER, S.L. · Mr. Pere Casals CAMbRA DE COMERÇ I INDÚSTRIA DE MANRESA · Mr. Xavier Ferras ACC1Ó · Mr. Pablo de Lastres IbERPOTA Sh, S.A. · Mr. Jaume Claramunt MAPRO SISTEMAS DE ENSAYO · Mr. Francesc X. Gil UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA 011
  12. 12. Who are we?F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c corporate advisor council President Mr. Manel Rosell CAIXA D’ESTALvIS DE MANRESA AMPhOS 21 AuTOMOvILES uTILITARI OS (AuSA) AuTOTECh ENgINEERINg bODEgAS ROQuETA CENTRE CORPORATI u INI6 CONSTRuCCIONES SOMIC CONSTRuCCIONS COTS I CLARET CONSTRuCCIONS SALIDO DENSO bARCELONA EDICIONS INTERCOMARCALS FuNDACIÓ PER L’ECONOMIA I EL MÀRQuETINg FuNDERIA CONDALS hAYE S LEMMERZ MANRESA INDÚSTRIAS PONSA L. OLIvA TORRAS LEAR AuTOMOTIvE MÚTuA INTERCOMARCAL PILAgEST PujOL MuNTALÀ RECICLATgE , TRACTAMENT, DIPÒSIT S.L. SkIS ROSSIgNOL DE ESPAÑA SuMMA vILARDELL PuRTÍ 012
  13. 13. Who are we?F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c scientific committee Most Excellent Mr. Antoni Giró Roca UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA Dr. Ferran Laguarta Bertran CENTRE DE DESENvOLuPAMENT DE SENSORS, INSTRuMENTACIÓ I SISTEMES - CD6 Mrs. Elena Guijarro CENTRO PARA EL DESARROLLO TECNOLÓgICO INDuSTRIAL - CDTI Dr. Rafael Colás UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE NUEVA LEÓN Dr. Yvan Houbaert uNIvERSITEIT gENT - DEPARTMENT MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENgINEERINg 013
  14. 14. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c Professional Team 014
  15. 15. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c PROFESSIONAL T TEAm he working teams of the Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic consist of researchers and technicians with practical experience in industrial cases; they are committed professionals who guarantee total confidentiality in the works carried out. In addition, this team of scientists and technicians has an important presence in national and international congresses and publications which guarantees a direct access to the knowledge on the latest tendencies and results in our fields of work. staff The team is made up of both, our own staff and uPC staff; this is so because the Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic is a company connected to uPC of the type 1. because of this link, the research doctors of the Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic are considered as researchers linked to the university and in the same way, the staff of uPC which carries out its researching work in a permanent manner in the Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic are considered staff linked to the centre. 015
  16. 16. Professional TeamF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c In the year 2010, the staff consisted of a total of 127 professionals with the following profiles: 50 evoluTTIoN 4 46 40 UPC FUNDACIÓ CTM 30 20 10 20 21 Historical evolution of the staff 9 10 12 The following graphic 5 shows the evolution of the staff of the Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic from the beginnings. The increase in the number of graduated staff or staff with PhD´s has been constant what has allowed the increase of the research potential of the centre. 016
  17. 17. Professional TeamF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c 140 uPC 120 108 19 FuNDACIÓ CTM 100 93 18 77 19 80 59 24 60 46 25 39 26 40 21 25 19 23 20 26 20 22 17 20 20 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 The Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic bets resolutely on the generation of knowledge which is after transferred to companies. because of this, the increase in the number of qualifications attached to our foundation is constant. 140 127 120 SChOLARS 111 TEChNICIANS 100 gRADuATED STAFF (3 YEARS) 96 gRADuATED STAFF (5 YEARS) DOCTORS 83 80 71 65 60 46 42 46 42 40 37 20 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 017
  18. 18. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c WHaT does Fundació cTM centre Tecnològic do? 018
  19. 19. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c WHAT DOES T IT DO? he Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic works for companies, organisations and institutions in R+D/IT projects of their own or together with companies, in studies and technical support, in analysis and essays, in the support to innovation and in technical training. Its activity revolves around six areas of work. AREA OF MATERIALS TEChNOLOgY AREA OF FORMINg PROCESSES AREA OF SIMuLATION AND INNOvATIvE DESIgN AREA OF ENvIRONMENTAL TEChNOLOgY AREA OF SuPPORT TO INNOvATION AREA OF ENERgY 019
  20. 20. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c areas of work 020
  21. 21. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c MaTerials TecHnologY materials T he Area of Materials Technology (ATM) is the area of the Fundació CTM which specialises in the research teCHNOlOGY into the relation between the microstructures and the mechanical properties of materials. ATM is structured into the following main units of activities: · ThE MEChANICAL bEhAvIOuR OF MATERIALS · FORMAbILITY AND MEChANICAL ChARACTERISATION OF STEELS ShEETS · SuRFACE ENgINEERINg · TRIbOLOgY · TEChNOLOgICAL SERvICES 021
  22. 22. MaterialsF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c The main lines of work of the unit of Mechanic Behaviour of Materials are: Materials for tools used in the forming processes of materials (cold forming, hot stamping of metallic sheets, light alloys injection, extrusion and forging): · Mechanical characterisation · Micro-mechanical design · Determination of failure micromechanisms · Effect of the characteristics of the process on the properties of the component Fatigue and fracture of structural materials: · high Strength Steels · Aluminium alloys · Castings · Elastomeres Determination of internal defects in structural pieces behaviour in fatigue of structural components Evaluation of the interaction with the environment: corrosion resistance, tension corrosion and fatigue corrosion The main lines of work of the unit of formability and mechanical characterisation of steel sheets are: · Characterisation of mechanical properties of steel sheets and high strength steels: mechanical resistance, behaviour in fatigue, impact resistance 022
  23. 23. MaterialsF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c · Formability characterisation of steel sheets and high strength steels · Determination of formability curves and evaluation of deformations in real pieces The main lines of work of the unit of surface engineering are: · Study of technological coatings for functional decor applications · Study and development of coated systems and/or superficial modifications for forming tools · Development of metallic and non metallic coatings over different substrates by means of PvD technique · Mechanical and topographic characterisation of surfaces and coatings The main lines of work of the unit of Tribology are: · Characterisation of the surface damage micromechanism · Non destructive inspection of the forming tools · Development of experimental methodologies for the evaluation of friction and wear in industrial systems with and without coatings · Evaluation of the behaviour in fatigue by contact The main lines of work of the unit of Technological services are: · Failure and degradation analysis in metallic and ceramic components by- Corrosion, Fracture, Wear, Soldering, Chemical microstructural and mechanical characterisation of the materials 023
  24. 24. MaterialsF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c as an infrastructure for the support to the development of projects, aTM counts with a complete laboratory for the microstructural analysis and mechanical evaluation of materials: · uniaxial tests (traction, flexion, compression) with electromechanic machines of 200 and 250 kN in various environments (saline, neutral) and at different ranges of temperature (from -40ºC up to 1200 ºC) · behaviour under cyclic loads: servo-hydraulic machines from 15 and 250kN (with devices for amplifying loads up to 500 kN), resonance fatigue machine of 150kN (frequency of 250 hz) · Evaluation of the tenacity for different kinds of materials · Laboratory hydraulic press of double effect and 150 Tm of capacity with optical equipment capable of measuring deformations in test tubes at real time without contact for the determination of the conformability of steel sheets. It counts with experimental facilities for the cutting of steel sheet in moulds so as to evaluate the behaviour of tools and the quality of the cut · Tribometers for the evaluation of the coefficients of friction and wear resistance, abrasive and adhesive, up to 900ºC · Nanoindentator for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of coatings and of multiphase materials at a nanometric scale · PvD reactor with pulsed filtered and non filtered cathodic arc for the preparation of coatings with the possibility of applying nitruration treatments · Optical microscopes, a confocal microscope and an electronic microscope with field emission (FE-SEM) with EDX and EbSD · Emission spectrometry, LECO C-S 024 · Saline fog camera and kesternic · Thermographic camera
  25. 25. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c ForMing FORMING Processes T PROCESSES he Area of Forming processes of the Fundació CTM is the one specialised in the development and research into forming industrial processes. The Area of Processes works on the optimisation of industrial processes for the forming of materials with the objective of obtaining materials with improved characteristics. The main lines of work of the Area of Forming Processes are: · Study and characterisation of the behaviour of metallic materials at high temperatures · Optimisation of the industrial forming processes · Superficial protection of steels against oxidation and corrosion · Development of processing routes for obtaining materials with nanometric grain size by mechanical milling and severe plastic deformation by ECAE · Forming of compound materials All the above mentioned lines are supported by advanced scientific equipment for thermomechanical, microstructural and thermodynamic characterisation. Next, we offer a brief explanation of each of them. 025
  26. 26. Forming ProcessesF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c study and characterisation of the behaviour of metallic materials at high temperatures One of the strong points of the Area of Forming Processes of the Fundació CTM is in fact, the description of the characterisation of the behaviour of metallic materials at high temperatures. It is well known that during hot deformation materials have to undergo some antagonistic phenomena such as hardening by deformation or softening by restoration and/or dynamic recrystallisation. The correct description and quantification of these phenomena is still subject of discussion in the scientific community, in spite of the outstanding developments of the last decades. From the Fundació CTM, we have put special emphasis on the prediction of hot flow curves according to the initial microstructure and the deformation temperatures and speed, using for this purpose equations with a physical foundation. This approach is complemented with the capacity of predicting even the microstructure resulting from hot plastic deformation. All of this can be implemented in a numerical simulation software. The results obtained have been applied to all kinds of alloys such as carbonated steels, microalloyed steels, stainless steels, copper, super-alloys and alloys with a low fusion point (Sn-Pb). On the other hand, there are industrial processes such as continuous casting that are carried out under conditions of temperature and deformation speed that can favour the appearance of fragility mechanisms and consequently, the superficial cracking of the 026 product.
  27. 27. Forming ProcessesF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c These fragilisation mechanisms depend on the alloy and the metallurgic phenomena that may occur. In microalloyed steels for example, the fragilisation can be related with the precipitation on the limits of the grain, with the transformation of austenite into ferrite or, because of low deformation speeds and high temperatures or with diffusion phenomena such as the flow. So as to be able to carry out a suitable design of the manufacturing operations that minimise the risk of appearance of cracks one needs to know the nature of these mechanisms for each alloy. In general, the study involves the carrying out of traction tests at high temperatures with the corresponding fractographic and metallographic evaluation of the samples tested in fracture. The results developed by the group with regards carbonated steels are of special interest. optimisation of the industrial forming processes As a result of the knowledge acquired in the characterisation of the behaviour of materials at hot temperatures and in collaboration with the Area of Materials Technology and the Area of Simulation and Innovative Design of the Fundació CTM, it is working on the simulation and optimisation of numerous industrial forming problems. Processes such as: · Continuous casting processes (handcraft and mould) · Lamination · Forging · Extrusion 027 · Stretching
  28. 28. Forming ProcessesF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c · Cladding · Stamping · Spinning and cylindrical and conical lamination · Forming by electromagnetic pulsation Most of these processes are developed at high temperatures but some of them, such as stamping and stretching, are developed at cold ones. We must highlight the study that the Fundació CTM is carrying out and which seeks to improve the definition of the elastic recovery by including the variations presented by the modulus of Young during the deformation itself. superficial protection of steels against oxidation and corrosion The layer of scale forms continuously during the process of hot lamination. The layer of rust (secondary) is eliminated just before the sheet enters the rolling mill. Nevertheless, the time that goes by between the pickling stage and the first roller is enough for giving way to the formation of another layer of rust, the tertiary, which is unavoidable. Its properties, which depend on the chemical composition of the steel and the conditions of the process, have a great impact on the final superficial quality of the steel. The requirements of the customers regarding the properties of the layer of scale are especially strict with the aim of being able to guarantee a suitable answer of the material in subsequent steps of the process such as pickling, stamping or direct coatings. Studies carried out by qualified staff from the Fundació CTM on the growth and mechanical behaviour of the scale layer, show that its properties can be controlled up to the point that its 028 behaviour does not have to be the expected one, that is to say,
  29. 29. Forming ProcessesF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c fragile and abrasive (detrimental for the determination of aspects such as the lamination rollers) but in suitable conditions, it could present characteristics such as ductility and great adhesiveness and evenness to steel; this would bring about many advantages i.e. reduction of the pickling costs, increase of the productivity, etc. given its versatility and low cost, steel is the material most used worldwide. Therefore, it constitutes a determinant factor in the development of industry. Its main handicap is that in the presence of aggressive atmospheres, a high level of corrosion may appear. It is for this reason that steel has to be conveniently protected with a proper coating. These coatings have to present excellent forming properties and a good adhesion to the steel substrate. The processes of transformation such as galvanizing make it possible to offer global, agile and versatile solutions which are adapted to the global and changing environment in which we find ourselves. The Fundació CTM accumulates an extensive experience in the study and characterization of the processes of galvanization as well as in the proper identification and microstructural characterisation of the coatings. obtaining materials with nanometric grain size by mechanical milling and severe plastic deformation The Area of Forming Processes has been developing several techniques for obtaining nanostructured materials so as to be able to obtain them massively. During the past 15 years, 029
  30. 30. Forming ProcessesF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c the process for obtaining nanostructured materials (or with nanometric grain size) has captured the attention of researchers, this is so, because these structures modify not only the mechanical and physical properties (electric, magnetic, hardness, elastic limit) but also the chemical ones (reactivity). At present, there are two approaches so as to obtain nanometric materials: the techniques “bottom-up”and “top-down”. The first group of techniques present problems of massivity of the manufactured pieces and a difficult control of the porosity and internal oxidation. The “top-down” techniques are the ones that have more possibilities of having an industrial scalable potential; the ones with which, more massive materials can be obtained. The approach that is being used consists basically in starting from the microstructured material and then, through several methods (mechanical milling and ECAE) carrying out the microstructural tuning with the consequent increase in the mechanical properties. Forming of compound materials This area of the Fundació CTM that has been created recently is structured within the Area of processes and focuses its activities on the following issues: · Forming of fibbers pre-impregnated with resins · Microtopographical inspection (confocal) of plastics strengthened with fibbers · Mechanical characterisation of compound materials · Implementation of laser ultrasound techniques for the detection of defects 030
  31. 31. Forming ProcessesF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c laboratory units specifically orientated to the area of Forming Processes dilatometer dil 805 BÄhr thErMoanalYs unit for the study of phase transformations (TTC and CCT curves) suffered by materials during the heating and cooling cycles (with and without deformation); flow curves at constant temperature and speed, both in traction and compression; tests of relaxation of tensions or interrupted tests. All of these tests are essential for the knowledge of their behaviour during the forming processes. Advanced microstructural characterisation by EbSD (Electron back Scattering Diffraction) FE-SEM and TEM techniques; including second phase particles, mi c ro t e x t u re s , cr yst a llography, dislocation density, recrystallisation degree,... 031
  32. 32. Forming ProcessesF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c Microtopographical inspection (confocal) The Fundació CTM counts with a confocal microscopy unit (Sensofar PLµ2300) for the inspection of sheets of up to 300mm x 300mm of plastics strengthened with Carbone fibre (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer CFRP) or glass (graphite Fibre Reinforced Polymer). The confocal microscopy can detect defects near to the surface, even if it is the apparently flat surface what was in contact with the cured mould. laser ultrasounds The Fundació CTM together with CD6 carries out research work on the application of laser-generated ultrasounds. The Fundació CTM transfers this technology to companies which specialise in ultrasound inspection and collaborates in the simulation of the propagation of the transverse and longitudinal acoustic waves which generates the incident laser. The inspection with laser-generated ultrasounds (Lu) is a technique which has the applications of a conventional ultrasound unit but that works without having contact with the inspected piece; this is so because it has two lasers, one for the generation of acoustic waves and the other, for the detection of superficial vibrations through interferometry. The direction of the propagation of these transverse and longitudinal waves is important for the determination of the physical properties of the material such as the elastic modulus, and it is necessary to resort to simulation by finite elements so as to know where to position the other laser of the interferometry unit. 032
  33. 33. F u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c siMulaTion and SIMULATION innoVaTiVe design T AND INNOVATIVE he Area of Simulation and Innovative Design is the area of the Fundació CTM that specialises in numerical simulation, both in engineering and in research and it has the following missions: · give service to all the projects of companies that may need DESIGN numerical simulation in different fields of engineering · To design and develop tools and small machinery and to collaborate in the design of productive and experimental systems Simulation is a tool in constant development that makes it possible to efficiently analyse different physical phenomena. It has contributed significantly to the improvement of design in engineering and of the methodology of the design cycle of different industrial applications. It constitutes an essential technique in the development of new processes, mechanisms and phenomena in the field of materials and furthermore, it allows generating products with a high added value. 033
  34. 34. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c PROJECTES INTERNAL PROjECTS INTERNS DISSENY INNOvATIvE DESIgN INNOVADOR PROJECTES EXTERNAL PROjECTS EXTERNS SERVEIS SERvICES At present, the main activities of the Area of Simulation and Innovative Design can be classified as shown in the following diagram: Simulation and Innovative Design works with commercial calculation programs by the finite elements method such as AbAQuS ANSYS and PROCAST; it counts with experience in simulation of mechanical and thermomechanical behaviour, static and dynamic calculations, heat transfer, stationary and transitory calculations, fluid dynamics, electromagnetism and multi-physical calculations (coupled fields). For the group, simulation has a double interest: to analyse systems and processes as well as, to achieve a deeper knowledge of the behaviour of materials. 034
  35. 35. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c The main activities of the Area of Simulation and Innovative Design are: · COLD FORMINg · hOT FORMINg · ELECTROMAgNETIC FORMINg · CASTINgS · vIbRATIONS · ELASTOMERS · FLuIDS. OPTIMISATION OF COOLINg SYSTEMS · INNOvATIvE DESIgN · uLTRASOuNDS 035
  36. 36. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c cold Forming The main lines of work within the unit of cold forming are the following: Estimate of the elastic recuperation: The objectives in this field focus on the proposal of a methodology for the correct estimation of the elastic recovery (springback) as well as, on the compensation of the forming tools, so as to obtain pieces within the tolerances in the forming of sheets with high strength steels by studying the parameters which influence the process. For this reason, numerical simulation by finite elements is the tool most used, since it´s proven by a rigorous experimental validation. It has been proven that, so as to achieve a correct prediction of the elastic recovery, it is essential to have the knowledge of the variation of the modulus of elasticity depending on the plastic deformation and the cyclic behaviour of the AhSS under study. A method for the compensation of springback using Abaqus has been designed. This method makes it possible to obtain the geometry of the compensated tools (punch, mould and pusher) in such a way that the piece obtained after the elastic recovery coincides with the geometry originally designed. Progressive forming The progressive forming processes are a set of forming techniques in which the preform is deformed locally until obtaining the final shape. This kind of process has the 036 important advantage of reducing considerably the strength
  37. 37. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c and size of the machinery needed so as to obtain certain final geometries. An important family of progressive forming processes is the one known as spinning. This family includes the traditional spinning and the conical and cylindrical laminations. In the first two processes, a circular preform of sheet goes around at great speed and is deformed by applying pressure with a tamper on an also revolving mould. With one or various passes, the preform achieves the desired shape. In the cylindrical lamination, a tube of a certain thickness spins around at great speed while a certain number of tampers, generally three, reduce locally its thickness. At the end of the process we obtain a tube with its thickness evenly reduced. The fine-tuning of the parameters of the spinning processes is still to this day, a matter of experience, trial and error. Computer simulation makes it possible to obtain not only a deeper knowledge of the process (because we have a complete image of the state of tensions and deformations of the material) but also, a tool for predicting the effect of the change of parameters of the process. Recently, the group has worked on the simulation of the cylindrical lamination process of steels with a high elastic limit. This work has included the characterisation of the materials for this kind of processes and the development of experimental techniques for validating the simulations. Prediction of the breaking At the same time that the development of new high strength 037 steels grants many advantages, it also generates new
  38. 38. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c inconvenients during their forming process. The complexity of the present geometries of work induces nonlinear deformation paths in multiple-step operations. The simulation methods used up to this moment for the prediction of possible fractures of the material during its forming process are way too conservative. The FLD (Failure Limit Diagram) criteria are a clear example. There are several criteria for the prediction of the fracture of sheets that have been, up till now, in phase of being validated and also an agreement by the scientific community. Among these stands out the Forming Limit Stress Diagram (FLSD). This method has been used by the Fundació CTM obtaining very good results. The simulation by finite elements makes it possible to introduce the FLSD criterion for determining if the piece that has to be inlaid will present restriction or not. Finally, all this procedure makes it possible to greatly reduce the experimental tests, which in many occasions are difficult to carry out and mean a great initial cost (forming tools). The following figure shows the same piece experimentally inlaid and simulated by finite elements (FLSD criterion). wear The evolution of the materials being used in the steel forming industry has put die stamping tools under high mechanical requirements, which result in an important wear of these and in many cases in fractures that render them useless. Faced with these problems, the group of simulation and innovative design has worked on the development of simulation strategies 038 capable of modelling the wear and failure of forming tools.
  39. 39. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c These techniques consist in programming a script for post- processing the simulation results and in the modelling of tools with deformable elements. At present, the group has the capacity for carrying out the design of tools presenting calculations of the life span that make it possible to make a correct selection of the material and adjust the maintenance plans of the productive systems. Hot Forming The forming of sheets at high temperatures has gained prominence in recent years, especially in the car industry. It makes it possible to obtain pieces with high mechanical properties in relation to the weight and to reduce negative phenomena related to the cold forming process, such as springback. Numerical simulation using finite elements in this field is an essential tool for the adjustment of this kind of process, as well as for other processes such as forging, extrusion, lamination, etc. Numerical simulation using finite elements allows us to study, among others, the following aspects of the hot forming process: thermomechanical study of the tools: · Distribution of temperatures and tensions in the tools during the forming cycles · Design and analysis of the cooling systems · Selection of materials · Stabilisation cycles of the process thermomechanical study of the piece: · Study about the conformability and selection of the suitable format 039
  40. 40. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c · Prediction of the distribution of temperature and final mechanical strength research into new hot forming processes electromagnetic forming The electromagnetic forming technique is based on the generation of high intensity transitory magnetic fields through a rapid discharge (20-150µs) of electric energy on a specially designed coil. The transitory magnetic field induces eddy currents on the piece (good electrical conductor); the interaction between the coil currents and the ones induced on the piece, generate forces of repulsion that accelerate the piece and make it deform. This forming technique presents important advantages regarding conventional techniques; some of these advantages are: reduction of the elastic recovery and the speed of the process. The nature of the process in which electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal phenomena in transitory regime are developed, involves the need of using calculation tools by the finite elements method in the design stages of the process. Simulation makes it possible to evaluate the electromagnetic efficiency of the coil, obtaining the evolution of the electromagnetic fields and forces developed during the electrical discharge. This analysis, solved together with the thermal and mechanical analysis, makes it possible to determine the temporary evolution of the distribution of strains, temperatures and deformations of both the piece and the coil. The results obtained in the simulation together with the proper selection of materials, have allowed us to obtain a robust and 040
  41. 41. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c suitable design of the forming tools and the final deformation and shape of the piece. casting In the last few years simulation has joined the workflow of the foundry companies helping to optimise the components and manufacturing processes while reducing the time and costs that characterise the test and error method. The Simulation department counts with a set of programs which make it possible to simulate a wide range of casting processes such as: · Casting by gravity · high Pressure Die Casting (hPDC) or Low Pressure Die Casting (LPDC) · Continuous casting With these tools the department can carry out a complete analysis of the casting process that includes: · Cast steel flow in the cavity until is full · Profile of temperatures and stresses on the pieces and the moulds during the process · Evolution of the solidification front · Detection of the appearance of different kinds of defects · Determination of the microstructure of the component All these data make it possible to approach the design or improvement of a casting process without having to actually manufacture pieces until very advanced stages of the process. At the same time, the reasons for the appearance of defects in an already established industrial process can be detected quickly facilitating (this way) the correction and improvement. 041
  42. 42. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c The tests carried out at the experimental facilities of Fundació CTM allow us to validate the predictions made by the simulations. Vibrations One can consider a vibration the temporary periodical variations of different magnitudes. In fact, a mechanical vibration is the movement of a body that oscillates around a point of equilibrium. The causes of mechanical vibrations are many but basically, they are closely related to mechanisation tolerances, calibration, relative movements between touching surfaces or the balance of rotating or oscillating parts. The phenomena we have just listed almost always produce a movement of the system from its point of stable equilibrium originating a mechanical vibration. The majority of the vibrations in machinery and structures are undesirable because they increase the strains and for the loss in energy that accompanies them. Furthermore, they are the source of the wearing down of materials, damage due to fatigue as well as of annoying movements and noises. Simulation by finite elements makes it possible to obtain the intrinsic modes of a structure, i.e. the intrinsic resonance frequencies of the structure with the representation of the deformation of the said frequencies (MODAL MODEL). The knowledge of the intrinsic modes of the structure enables the evaluation of its usage independently of its area of operation. Furthermore, the results of the modal analysis facilitate the definition of structural improvements on contributing a numeric and graphic model of mechanical behaviour. 042
  43. 43. simulation/designF u n d a c i ó c T Mc e n T r e T e c n o l ò g i c For the determination of the dynamic behaviour of a mechanical structure, 3 different models exist: · Spatial model: All structures can be modelled spatially by means of a set of mass systems, a shock absorber and an equivalent mould. For this purpose, we define a series of characteristic matrices of the system (matrix of the mass, matrix of the shock absorber, matrix of stiffness) that is under analysis · Modal model: given the said matrices, the modal analysis is limited to the resolution of a problem of autovalues · Response model: Mathematical expression which, based on the modal model and the shock absorbency value, enables us to obtain the FRFs of a structure, i.e. what its behaviour is in relation to the excitation frequency Fatigue of the components The application of loads or periodic movements on a component can lead it to fail at load levels that are much lower than it would be expected in a monotonic load situation. Predicting life under fatigue of a component can be dealt with using two very different strategies: · To reproduce the working conditions in the laboratory and cycle until the part fails · To study the properties of the material under fatigue and estimate its life according to the loads it has to bear In the study of behaviour under fatigue simulation is a very effective tool given that it enables the determination of the states of tensions and deformations of the components in service under very different load states. These tensions and deformations can 043

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