Thermal and Mechanical Energy Harvesting Materials


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A presentation on smart energy management, energy utilization, and development of new energy harvesting.

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Thermal and Mechanical Energy Harvesting Materials

  1. 1. Thermal and Mechanical Energy Harvesting Materials Krzysztof Grzybowski Research Analyst, Technical Insights July 29, 2009
  2. 2. Smart Energy Management–Global 245 European Energy intentsity [kgoe per 1 000 euro] 240 235 Level of energy utilization was 230 increasing in European countries during the 225 last few years. New and efficient technologies 220 allowed for significant reduction of our 215 dependence on energy. 210 Development of new energy harvesting 205 technology is a key solution in this regard. 200 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 year Source: EU Research 2
  3. 3. Are the potential Is necessary for energy sources ? energy harvester design? Where How What Which Materials should To harvest be used for wasted energy ? energy harvesting? 3
  4. 4. Are potential energy sources ? Where 4
  5. 5. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Mechanical stress Vibrations 5
  6. 6. Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting dT>0 q>0 6
  7. 7. Energy Sources Used for Harvesting 1. Presence of the streams of wasted energy that could be recovered and re-utilized (such as heat or vibrations). 2. Presence of the streams of energies in systems that are stand alone and cannot be powered by conventional sources, or the powering is too expensive. 3. Self-powered solutions operating on batteries that could be more conveniently supplied by energy harvesters. 7
  8. 8. How To harvest wasted energy ? 8
  9. 9. Piezoelectric Solutions Frequent vibrations are capable of powering any kind of energy- dependent wireless sensors. (Microstrain, Cedrat) 9
  10. 10. Thermoelectric Miniaturized Harvester Nextreme Thermal Solutions, Micropelt 10
  11. 11. Energy Streams in a Car Research groups BSST with BMW, Visteon, Marlow, Virginia Tech, Purdue, UC-Santa Cruz GM with GE, U of Michigan, U of South Florida, ORNL, RTI Michigan State with Cummins, Tellurex, NASA-JPL, Iowa State United Technologies with Pratt & Whitney, Hi- Z, Pacific Northwest National Lab., and Caterpillar 11
  12. 12. Waste Heat Recovery Systems BMW Series 5 , Model Year 2010, 3.0 Liter Gasoline Engine with Thermoelectric Generator US DOE planned decrease of fuel consumption by 10 % 12
  13. 13. Unused Industrial Heat Sources Many heat energy sources are currently well re-used via traditional heat exchangers and accumulators. This is one of the main guidelines of process engineering. However, some of the heat sources could be utilized even more deeper. Unused and Emitted Industrial Processing Heat Heat Streams 13
  14. 14. Self Powered Sensors/Actuators Morgan ElectroCeramics Ma ch n ma ine IMEC Hu ms The application of self- s yste powering wireless plex network systems takes Com place in various scales. Due to their elastic architecture, they can easily incorporate various energy harvesters. Ferrotec, EnOcean 14
  15. 15. Self Powered Systems - Comparison of Battery and Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Category intensity 2 1 Energy 0 harvesters Lithium Batteries Stability within 5 years provide 2 various Multifiber Mass Stabillity within 10 years piezoelectric 1,5 useful energy harvesting 1 features that make Env.friendliness 0,5 Maintenence cost them more 0 attractive than batteries for Self sufficiency Total cost self- powered solutions. Operation temp.range System Integration Battery replacement: Advanced Cerametrics, Advanced Linear Devices 15
  16. 16. Is necessary for the energy harvester design? What 16
  17. 17. Strategic Guidelines for Thermoelectric Harvesters • Cost • Lifetime • Value of ZT (figure of merit). Commercial modules offers ZT~1 now. In future ZT ? • Proper heat source • Its stability • Presence of high-thermal gradient • Efficient design matching the heat source characteristic • Presence of the electricity receiver or storage systems at close proximity • Size 17
  18. 18. Strategic Guidelines for Piezoelectric Harvesters • Cost • Lifetime • Value of piezoelectricity coefficient • Energy source properties • Frequency of mechanical stress (vibrations) • Amplitude • Receiver energy requirements • Presence of the electricity receiver or storage systems at close proximity • Size 18
  19. 19. Which Materials should be used for energy harvesting? 19
  20. 20. Energy Harvesting Materials – Drivers Energy harvesters can operate for long times. Despite of their high Small dimensions of most initIal costs they exclude the need of frequent system maintenance or replacement. Small size of the energy harvesters allow for their easy and noninvasive application in various solutions. Demand for Applicability reliable powering in harsh Applied energy Market need devices with long environments harvesters for quiet lifetimes providing easy to solutions use and maintain with no solutions. moving parts. Popular batteries cannot operate at high temperatures. Thus energy harvesters are good candidate to be used instead of them. Note: Size of the ball indicates importance or weight of the factor Source: Frost & Sullivan 20
  21. 21. Energy Harvesting Thermoelectric Systems Key Challenges Need of Low conversion power efficiency management systems Parasitic TE Relatively high price thermal systems effects in thermoelectrics Necessity of Accurate Difficult module Size of the bubble deposition of design describes the strength key piezoelectrics of the factor Source: Frost & Sullivan 21
  22. 22. Influence of the BixSb2–xTe3 Constituent Elements on Total Alloy Price(*) Absolute Numbers Percentage Share Trend 120.00 104.10 100% 100% 100% 0.1 0.1 0.12 100.00 75% 80.00 54.14 60.00 95.23 92.86 0.06 96.67 50% 40.00 51.56 25% 20.00 2.52 7.31 0% 4.65 7.02 0.00 2005 2009 2005 2009 The price of the tellurium is mostly impacting Antimony bismuth telluride alloys’ price. The influence Tellurium of antimony is neglectable. Source: Frost & Sullivan Bismuth (*) note that the price of the whole alloy is not directly the sum of constituent elements 22
  23. 23. Energy Harvesting Systems: Development Stage Photovoltaic microWatts/cm2 Outdoor 1E4 Thermoelectric Environment Piezoelectrics Environment Energy Harvested Thermoelectric Human Source Photovoltaic Indoor Piezoelectrics 1 Human source RF - GSM RF - WiFi 1E-3 Development stage Source: Frost & Sullivan Early Advanced 23
  24. 24. Market Impact of Top 10 Developed Piezoelectrics High Impact modified KNN High Growth Impact PZT KxNa1-xNbO3 Medium Growth Impact PbTiO3 BaTiO3 Projected Impact on the Industry Bi4Ti3O12 Low Quartz Growth Impact Low Impact Low High Probability of Success Source: Frost & Sullivan. KNN stands forKxNa1-xNbO3 24
  25. 25. Key Players Player Solution type Technical Solution Battery replacement using piezoelectric fibers Advanced composites, Piezoelectric Cerametrics Active vibration control that stabilizes the HEAD tennis racket or skis. Modules that generate and store energy Advanced Linear Piezoelectrics enable to power conventional 3.3V and 5.0V Devices electrical circuits and systems. Miniaturized energy-harvesting nodes operating in wireless strain sensors for Microstrain Piezoelectrics damage tracking of rotating helicopter parts and other critical dynamic components. Complete energy harvesting devices like piezo generator used to supply a sensor embedded Cedrat Piezoelectrics on aircraft and its RF emitter to broadcast the sensor signal. Miniature devices using its piezoceramic thick film technology for sensor systems located at Ferroperm Piezoelectrics inaccessible sites, such as the top of a windmill or inside wind turbine blades. 25
  26. 26. Key Players Player Solution type Technical Solution Equipment for testing piezo generators at very large compression force and to develop Noliac Piezoelectric efficient electronics to harvest and store the energy Morgan Energy harvesting module in car-tires Piezoelectrics ElectroCeramics sensors. Hi-Z Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric energy harvesting modules. BSST Thermoelectrics System for energy harvesting in cars. Phlips Research Thermoelectric harvester applied in Thermoelectrics labs woodstove 26
  27. 27. Key Players Player Solution type Technical Solution Bi2Te3 alloys and special high temperature Marlow Industries Thermoelectrics solders, modules for converting waste heat streams into useful DC power. IMEC Thermoelectrics Health monitoring systems Nextreme thermal Thermoelectrics Hot spot energy harvesting solutions Micropelt Thermoelectrics Hot spot energy harvesting Thermoelectrics to produce electrical energy Ferrotec Thermoelectrics from combustion of propane or natural gas 27
  28. 28. Key Players Player Solution type Technical Solution PG-1 powering fan and maintain the Tellurex Thermoelectrics temperature differential with power to spare. GMZ Thermoelectrics Bismuth Antimony Telluride alloy Variety of applications designed to increase energy efficiency. Generation of power from RTI Thermoelectrics heat sources in hypersonic vehicles using modules for the U.S. Air Force 28
  29. 29. Next Steps Frost & Sullivan Stimulus Program to support struggling companies accelerate growth. (June 30th – September 30th, 2009). ( 1-877-GoFrost (1-877-463-7678) Join us at our annual Growth, Innovation, and Leadership 2009: A Frost & Sullivan Global Congress on Corporate Growth, September 13-16 2009, Hyatt Scottsdale Resort & Spa at Gainey Ranch, Scottsdale, AZ ( Register for the next Chairman’s Series on Growth: Tools and Tactics of The Growth Team™ - Successful Go-to-Market Strategies for New Product Launch (August 4th) ( Register for Frost & Sullivan’s Growth Opportunity Newsletter and keep abreast of innovative growth opportunities ( 29
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  32. 32. For Additional Information Angie Montoya Jake Wengroff Global Analyst Briefing Coordinator Global Director Marketing Corporate Communications (210) 247-2435 (210) 247-3806 Leo O’Connor Melinda Meyer Vice President, Research Director of Sales Technical Insights Technical Insights (973) 701-6761 (203) 461-8541 32