Innovations in Lightweight Composites


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  • Innovations in Lightweight Composites

    1. 1. Innovations in Lightweight Composites (Technical Insights) Materials Fetching Accelerated Innovation and Substitution D509-TI July 2013
    2. 2. Contents Section Slide Numbers Executive Summary 3 Technology Snapshot 8 Technology Trends and Impact Analysis 13 Lightweight Composite Trends in Application Sectors 14 Recent Innovations and Their Market Impact 17 Industry Initiatives and Impact Analysis 20 Outlook for Lightweight Composites in the Next 5 to 10 years Demand Side Analysis 24 25 Market Impact of Technology/Business Accelerators 26, 27 Market Impact of Technology/Business Challenges 26, 28 Emerging Opportunity and Technology Roadmap 29 Emerging Opportunities–Potential Applications 30 Scenario Modeling 31 Technology Road Mapping 32 Technology Management Strategies 38 Key Patents 39 Key Industry Contacts 45 The Frost & Sullivan Story 47 D509-TI 2
    3. 3. Key Findings 1 1 The lightweightmarket is inmarket is already stage of market and technology development; is in the early ascent The prebiotics composite the early ascent established in the transportation market and it However, challenges stage as market and technology development in a wide range of other industries such as wind power,feed sectors such of increased need for specificity in targeting beneficial microbes in food, personal care, and oil and gas, and civil construction. However, challenges, such as increased need of prebiotic products for specific targeted have to be addressed for continued growth. Also, customization for low cycle time and low-cost production have to be addressed for new market penetration and continued growth. applications will help in market expansion. 2 The global lightweight composite industry is mainly concentrated in the US and EU due to the presence of many Global prebiotics industryin these regions. However, the US and EUrapidly growing in APAC, many multinational multinational companies is mainly concentrated in the industry is due to the presence of mainly due to new companies in in the transportation, andisbuilding and construction industry and increase in consumer awareness. investments the regions. However, it expected that the industry will {shift} toward APAC in the next five to six years, power holdsto the favorable regulatory environmentlightweight composites, specially in the NA region. Wind mainly due the maximum growth opportunities for and increase in consumer awareness.. 3 3 Organizations have played a vital role in collaborating and bringing together the technology prowess and product Prebiotics have emerging uses as dietarystrategy of bringing like-minded participants segments inumbrella and commercialization to the masses. This supplement and therapeutic agent in various under one the nutrition, food, personal care, and feed industries due to its conventional useand explore other new market opportunities. addressing the market has helped complement existing technologies as a dietary fiber supplement. The rise of opportunities in these segments is mainly due to R&D project, “NanoSynth”, for example, has been initiated to The new UK government funded collaborative the increasing demand of naturally derived functional foods with targeted activity. Increase in specificity and value addition will result in increase in the epoxy resins for advanced develop a synthesis platform to deliver industrial quantities of graphene-filled market growth. composite applications and so on, which would aid future improvements in a wide range of markets, such as aerospace where improvements are needed in terms of materials‟ performance. 4 Besides finding different types of composites and their manufacturing processes, there is a strong need for advanced designing tools and software simulators to speed up mass production of composites-based end products with desired performance characteristics. This creates a new competitive edge for small to mid-sized material and product designing and simulation companies. 5 Opportunities for lightweight composites are expected to emerge in the next five to six years in construction, wind power, oil and gas, and medical and consumer goods. Bio-based composites will receive greater attention in longterm applications. D509-TI 3
    4. 4. Technology Snapshot–Application Sectors Composites are multiphase materials that are formed by combining at least two or more different materials to create a superior and unique material. Today, industries are increasingly using advanced composites in more durable, lightweight and higher performance products. Composites are able to meet diverse design requirements with significant weight savings as well as high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to conventional materials. Composites are bestowed with the following benefits--improved tensile strength, excellent fatigue resistance, excellent weather resistance, excellent impact resistance, operation versatility, lower vibration transmission, improved aesthetics, improved torsional stiffness and so on. Types of Composites Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) D509-TI Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) Carbon– Carbon Composites (CMCs) These materials use a polymerbased resin as the matrix, and a variety of fibers, such as glass, carbon, and aramid as the reinforcement. Source: Frost & Sullivan Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) These materials use a metal, such as aluminum as the matrix, and reinforce it with fibers, such as silicon carbide These materials use a ceramic as the matrix and reinforce it with short fibers, or whiskers, such as those made from silicon carbide and boron nitride These materials use graphite and reinforce it with carbon fiber. The above color codes refer to the application areas mentioned in the chart 4
    5. 5. Technology Value Chain Convertors Raw Material Suppliers Raw materials are sourced from small to Raw materials are Tier 1 and Tier 2 resin, sourced from Tier 1 and fiber, and additive tier 2 resin, fiber, and companies. Some of the additive companies. Some raw material suppliers of the raw material include Evonik, Germany; suppliers include Evonik, DSM, The Netherlands; DSM, 3M, Zoltek, and etc 3M,US, Zoltek, US and so on. Some of the fibers used to reinforce composites are also supplied indirectly from convertors in a number of different forms such as roving and tow, mats, woven fabrics, preforms, and prepregs. Companies, such as Hexcel, US; Sigmatex, UK,; and Amber Composites, UK, are involved in the manufacture of different shaped reinforcing fibers. Fabricators/Finished Part part manufacturers The final processing of the ingredients/shaped ingredients to complex composite structures through different fabrication technologies, tooling and designing software. Examples of companies include Gurit, Switzerland; Toray, Japan; and Teijin, Japan.. End Users The composite component structures reach the OEMs and they assemble different structural body parts and manufacture the finished products. Technology Value Chain Analysis: •The value chain of the composite industry is interconnected with the participants in each segment working closely with each other to develop a compositebased finished product. The raw material supply market is of a very competitive nature with 60% of the market occupied by Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers. • Fibers are made available in either woven (braided fibres) or non-woven forms (mats, multiaxials), which are then processed into preforms and prepregs, depending on the application in which they will be used. •The raw material convertors consist of small-to-mid-size companies to stand-alone global corporations or subsidiaries of product developers. They undertake the preliminary manufacturing and processing of the product. •The composite finished part manufacturers are limited to mostly multinational participants in the aerospace, civil, wind, defense, and marine sectors. •In most of the cases, the composite component fabricators work closely with OEMs of the end product manufacturers to manufacture the highest quality products to meet the demanding composite applications of OEMs and customers around the world. Source: Frost & Sullivan. 5 D509-TI
    6. 6. Lightweight Composite Trends in Application Sectors (1/2) Aerospace • • • • • • • • • • • • Lightweight composites are replacing heavy metals for different aerospace structural components such as exteriors like rudders, elevators, fuselage, radomes, engine parts; and Interiors like seating, flooring, luggage bins, walls, ceilings and so on. The total aviation composites market is expected to grow from $178.5 million into $413.9 million in 2018 at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.8 per cent. This is driven largely by the high cost of aviation fuel and the introduction of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)‟s legislation setting limits on the emission of greenhouse gases. Carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy resins and glass-fiber reinforced laminates are increasingly finding applications in aircraft structures by replacing traditional heavier metal structures, whereas; laminate construction, autoclave curing, filament winding and composite compression molding are the most common focus toward the LWCS for aerospace applications. LWCS with improved damage tolerance, stealth properties, controllable curing, and bio-based resources will remain the top focus areas for the next 5 years. Newer aircraft programmes, such as B787, A380, and A350 XWB are expected to remain the key drivers for greater adoption of composites in commercial aviation. NA and EU are showing higher funding trends than the rest of the world. Some of the funding bodies include British Government‟s Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), U.S. Air Force , NASA, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and so on. The total marine composites market is expected to grow from $980 million in 2013 to $1,462.1 million in 2018, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.1%. Hulls, decks, radars, and other parts of marine recreational vessels, which include powerboats (inboard, outboard, and sterndrive), sailboats, jetboats, and personal watercrafts are increasingly using lightweight composites. Thermosets like unsaturated polyesters and vinyl esters will continue to dominate in fiberglass marine applications, while carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) will only be used in larger marine crafts. Technological advancements in integrated structures and systems, highly automated manufacturing, damage tolerance are likely to increase the adoption rate of LWC in the marine industry and bring down the cost of manufactured parts. The recreational boat market is struggling to recover from the aftermath of the financial crisis, which resulted in over a 25% annual decline in market value and forced many small boat-builders to exit. The North American (particularly the United States) marine composites market will recover faster than European market due to good rebound in recreational boat demand. The major funding bodies in R&D for marine composites are Department of Defense and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Marine Source: Frost & Sullivan. 6 D509-TI
    7. 7. Recent Innovations and their Market Impact (1/3) Recent Innovation Market Innovation Details Market Impact Aluminum Conductor Composite Reinforced (ACCR) developed by 3M, US E&E ACCR is an overhead transmission conductor with unique material used in core. The core is made of wires of high-purity aluminum reinforced with alumina fibers. The outer, current carrying wires are a hardened aluminum zirconium alloy. The resulting conductor has the same strength as similar size steel core conductors, but is much lighter and sags less Use of the lightweight, low-sag, high-capacity cable on a transmission line increases the line‟s capacity by more than 60% without enlarging towers or widening. It has been already adopted by many companies across the globe. Lightweight mineralized materials based on properties of oyster shells developed by the University of California, Berkeley, US Consumer goods, healthcare, aerospace The University of California has harnessed a mechanism by which seawater freezes to develop novel lightweight mineralized materials with unique mechanical properties based on oyster shells. Innovations of such novel materials required support from corporate and government for enhancing their chances of commercialization. TRANSONITE™ Sandwich Panels developed by Ebert Composites Corporation,, US Aerospace, marine, mass transit, consumer goods, civil Advanced proprietary fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) pultruded sandwich panels utilizing 3-dimensional skin connecting fibers. The core material may very (foam, balsa, phenolic, etc.), and a wide range of fibers, fabrics, and resins can be utilized for the composite skin. Delamination, a common problem in conventional sandwich materials, is virtually eliminated with this 3D reinforcements. It is extremely lightweight and provides greater durability than conventional sandwich panels. The ideal application includes bar stock, aerospace, air cargo containers, ballistic panels, furniture, marine, rail cars, bridge decks and so on. Wind turbine blades from ÉireComposites made from USbased Owens Corning’s Twintex® thermoplastic Wind power The wind turbine blades have been developed under the GreenBlade Project led by ÉireComposites with partners Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ahlstrom Glassfibre and Cyclics Corporation. Partial funding is being provided by Sustainable Energy, Ireland Twintex® thermoplastic is a glass fiber reinforced polypropylene thermoplastic which is an extremely tough, lightweight composite and provides for quiet and durable production of electricity from wind. ÉireComposites‟ patended MechTool tooling system has enabled production of wind turbines with a two-third decrease in manufacturing time and significant cost reduction. Source: Frost & Sullivan. D509-TI 7
    8. 8. Industry Initiatives and Impact Analysis (1/4) Alliant Techsystems Inc Rolls-Royce plc, UK (ATK), US Spirit AeroSystems , US Kaman Corporation, US Spintech Ventures, US Bell Helicopters, US • ATK has signed a $50 million contact with Rolls-Royce plc to produce aft fan composite cases for the new Trent XWB-97 engine. This Rolls-Royce engine is the sole engine now available to power the Airbus A350-1000 aircraft variant • The contract expands ATK's portfolio of high-quality composite components, includes fan containment and structural cases for commercial aircraft engines, stringers and frames for commercial aircraft fuselages and wing stiffeners, solid rocket motor casings, launch vehicle payload fairings, military aircraft wing skins for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and composite rotor tubes for nuclear power generation. • The partnership will significantly reduce the manufacturing cost, and life-cycle ; and increase the efficiency of Rolls-Royce‟s engine to power Airbus aircraft. • Spirit AeroSystems is working with Spintech Ventures to develop a new reconfigurable tooling technology for manufacturing complex composite aircraft structures with features that are not possible with traditional tools • Spintech is now offering the technology under the trade name „Smart Tooling‟. • The patented „Smart Tooling‟ allows composite manufacturers to significantly reduce some combination of labor, material, and capital cost, while significantly increasing production throughput in the production of composite parts with trapped features and/or complex shapes. • Kaman Corporation has been awarded a five-year contract with a potential value of $53 million to build composite helicopter blade skins and skin core assemblies for Bell Helicopters. • Kaman is providing 18 different assemblies for H1, 406, 407, 412, 427, 429, 430 and BA609 aircraft • The partnership will help Bell Helicopters to manufacture stiff but lightweight rotorcrafts that will reduce fuel consumption. Source: Frost & Sullivan. 8 D509-TI
    9. 9. Technology/Business Accelerators and Challenges End use market expansion/glob al demand Adequate funding and government initiatives Technological advancements Impact Market Drivers High Growing confidence in advantages of composites Secondary Benefits Low Short Term(1-3 years) Medium Term(4-6 years) Long Term (7-10 years) Impact Market Challenges Low Lack of material standardization Lack of process knowhow High cost Low manufacturing cycle time Poor reparability and recyclability High Greater the arrows higher the impact Source: Frost & Sullivan. 9 D509-TI
    10. 10. Emerging Opportunities–Potential Applications Energy Scarcity Increased Purchasing Power of Growing Middle Class Environment Protection Small, Lightweight, and Low-power Materials for Electronic Devices D509-TI Alternative energies such as wind power will continue to grow and condense the world‟s reliance on fossil based energy sources. Wind energy poses a huge growth potential for LWCs in next 5-10 years. As wind turbines are moving from land to offshore deep sea water, wind turbines are required to be more strong and long-lasting. Wind turbine towers, nacelles, blade rotors, and bearings are some of the components where LWCs will have increased application. The industry will experience technology opportunity with respect to reinforcing, machining, designing, matrix, material combination and tolerance. Developing countries, such as India, China, and Japan are experiencing increasing purchasing power of their growing middle class. That has positively affected the market growth opportunities for consumer goods and household appliances, such as furniture, kitchen cabinets, packaging, washers, washing machine drums, dryers, waste disposal units, air conditioners, and humidifiers. Composite materials deliver high performance, low weight and enhanced aesthetics for consumer goods and household appliances, surpassing competitive materials, such as aluminum and steel. To meet the industry regulations and demand from the concerned customers, OWMs today are introducing novel bio-based materials in their products. LWC is not an exception to that. OEMs are increasingly looking for green alternatives for conventional materials. LWC that will have negligible greenhouse effect or LWCs that can be reused or recycled are in demand. There is a opportunity for stakeholders falling in the value chain to replace plastic-based matrixes with novel bio-based matrixes. Nanotechnology and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are growing in functionality and adoption in military and aerospace applications. Nanotechnology and MEMS are ideal for military-aerospace applications, given the increasing need for small, light weight, and low-power composite materials. Unmanned vehicles and robotic devices, flexible electronics, thin wall connectors, and compact camera modules are some of the applications where LWCs will find increased adoption and growth opportunities. 10