Advances in Sensors for Automotive Driver Assistance Systems (Technical Insights)
Advances in Sensors for Automotive Driver AssistanceSystems (Technical Insights)December 2012D4C5-TISensors Enabling Safer Automobiles
D4C5-TI 2Key FindingsThe need for increased safety for vehicles, vehicle occupants, and other road users , along with the incentive of productdifferentiation is driving the adoption of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in automobiles.Driver monitoring systems can help in preventing accidents that are caused due to lack of concentration on the part of the driver.Key sensor technologies for ADAS:• Vision Based--used primarily for parking assistance, blind spot detection, and adaptive cruise control• Radar (radio detection and ranging)--used primarily for adaptive cruise control, obstacle detection, and blind spot detection• Lidar (light detection and ranging)--has the potential to support autonomous driving• Ultrasound--used mainly for parking assistance and automatic parking systems• Infrared--used exclusively for night vision systemsThe high cost of infrared systems has limited its application to the premium car segment. In order to achieve greater adoption, thecost of such systems must be reduced drastically.The value chain plays a very important role in the development of ADAS systems. Suppliers are collaborating with each other aswell as vehicle manufacturers to bring cost effective and efficient solutions to the market.The key ADAS are Adaptive Cruise Control, Parking Assistance, Lane Departure Warning, Blind Spot Detection, Night Vision andCollision Avoidance systems.Cost is a major factor that acts as a barrier for high adoption of ADAS. Moreover these systems are needed to be highly reliableand should provide minimum false alarms.
D4C5-TI 3Key Findings (continued)ADAS systems are currently present predominantly in the premium vehicle segment but with the decrease in cost, they areexpected to trickle down to the mid and low segments.RegulationsMulti-FunctionalSystemsDemand for IncreasedSafetyCost Reduction ofSensorsCompetition amongVehicle ManufacturersDriving ConvenienceKey DriversReliabilityHigh CostImmunity to HarshConditionsDistractionCaused to DriverFalse AlarmsKey ChallengesMajor Vehicle manufacturers like BMW, Toyota, Honda, Ford, Volkswagen and others are incorporating ADAS primarily in thepremium segment and as options in some of the mid segment vehiclesIn the medium to long term, vision sensors and ultrasonic sensors will be most used sensor technologies to be used for ADASfollowed by Radar.
D4C5-TI 4Advanced Driver Assistance Systems -- ClassificationAdvanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)Adaptive CruiseControlLane DepartureWarningBlind Spot Detection Parking Assistance Night VisionAdaptive CruiseControl is the abilityof a vehicle to followits preceding vehiclewhile maintaining apredetermineddistance (in metersor seconds). Thistechnology allowsdriving comfort whileat the same timeprovides safety to thefollowing vehicle.Lane DepartureWarning is atechnology whichassists the driver inmaintaining thevehicle between thelane markers.Whenever a vehicletreads outside itslane, warning signalsare provided.When a person isdriving a vehicle,spots on the outsidewhich are not visibleto him are calledblind spots.Technology enablingdrivers to have anawareness aboutentities present intheir blind spotprovides safety bothto the vehicle andentities in the blindspot.Parking cars in tightspaces can be aproblem as it is notpossible toaccurately gauge thedistance betweenone’s vehicle andsurroundingobstacles. Parkingassistance providesdistance and visualinformation, whichadds to the safety ofa car.Human visionbecomes limited indark conditions,especially whenthere is a light beamfalling on the driver’seyes. Night visionsystems provide anenhanced visionsystem that candrastically improvethe safety ofvehicles andpedestrians alike.Source: Velodyne Source: Continental Source: Autoliv Source: Bosch Source: Autoliv
D4C5-TI 5Benefits of ADAS and Driver Monitoring SystemsEnhanced DrivingConvenienceBenefitsofADAS Reduced TrafficCongestionImproved PedestrianProtectionIncreased Fuel EfficiencyReduction in VehicleCollisionsIncreased Vehicle SafetySystems, such as obstacle detection, lane departure warning, lane keep assist,adaptive cruise control, and so on help avoid accidents and thus increase the safetyattribute of a vehicle.Assistance provided by cruise control or night vision systems increasesthe convenience of driving. Even parking assistance systems arecurrently capable of automatically parking a car which requires thedriver to provide minimum inputs.Automatically adjusting speeds on highways by using theadaptive cruise control feature has a direct effect on increasedfuel efficiency.Traffic congestion caused by driver errors can be avoided byusing various ADAS applications.Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users. Pedestrian detectionfeatures and advanced night vision systems help in the detection ofpedestrians and enable timely intervention by the driver or automaticsystems and prevent collision with pedestrians.All the ADAS applications are intended at reducing vehicle collisions. Even when thedriver is unaware of a potential collision, sensor systems provide warnings or takeover partial control of the car to mitigate a collision.
D4C5-TI 6Technology CapabilityACC NV PA LDW BSD CW PDVisionRadarLidarUltrasoundInfraredACC – Adaptive Cruise ControlNV – Night VisionPA – Parking AssistanceLDS – Lane Departure WarningBSD – Blind Spot DetectionCW – Collision WarningPD – Pedestrian DetectionThis table shows the capabilities of different sensors in providing ADAS functionalities.Denotes Capability
D4C5-TI 7Key TrendsCMOS over CCDImage SensorsHigh Dynamic Rangein CamerasSensor FusionMulti FunctionalSystemsVehicle ControlBased on SensorOutputKey TrendsUtilizing data from morethan one sensor to havea more robust ADASSensor output used inADAS can be utilized toprovide input to vehiclecontrol mechanismsHigh dynamic range is theability to capture imageswithout oversaturating orunderexposing the pixelsCMOS image sensorsare able to provideimage quality at parwith CCD imagesensors along withother benefits such ashigh speed and lowcostSensors able tofulfill therequirements ofmultiple driverassistancesystemsSystem on a Chip(SoC)Integration of variouscomponents on a chipSource: Frost & Sullivan Analysis
D4C5-TI 8Technology Adoption CycleSource: Frost & Sullivan AnalysisMaturityDevelopment Growth DeclineTimeMarketPenetrationInfrared Imaging is used primarily for night visionapplications. The cost of these systems is too highfor large-scale adoption in automobiles. It is in thedevelopment phase with a focus on cost reduction.Vision systems are emerging and there is aconstant need for innovations to make thecameras smaller and of higher resolution.Lidar is notextensively used inautomotiveapplications becauseof its high cost.However, forautonomous drivingand high driverassistance thesesensors will berequired.Ultrasound sensorsare highly matureand are extensivelyused in providingparking assistance.These sensors areused for short rangeobstacle detectionand are likely to beused for detectingvehicles in the blindspot.Radar systems arepredominantly being used foradaptive cruise control. Otherapplications like lane keepingassist, parking assistance andblind spot detection are alsoenabled by radar.Infrared SensorsUltrasonic SensorsVision SensorsRadarLidar
D4C5-TI 9Evaluation of Opportunities for Emerging Data StorageTechnologiesEvaluation of Technologies - Automotive Sensors for ADASTechnology Potential Application NeedsCostTech MaturityBreadth of ApplicationsBenefitted Performance inDiverse weatherconditionsLevel 0CriteriaLevel 1CriteriaAlternativesSource: Frost & Sullivan AnalysisReliabilityVision based Radar Lidar UltrasoundAHP TreeIndustry InitiativesPartnerships andCollaborationsPatents
D4C5-TI 10Questions?Jeannette GarciaCorporate Communications- North AmericaDirect: 210.477.8427Email: email@example.com