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The Art & Signs of Wayfinding & Signage Design
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Creating Impactful Spatial Experiences by Carlo Giannasca

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These slides explore wayfinding and signage in the built environment. Creator Carlo Giannasca heads Urbanite at the Frost*collective – a specialist team working exclusively in the built environment, designing everything from signage and wayfinding systems to large-scale installations and environmental graphics. Carlo’s slides provide insight into the fundamentals of designing an effective wayfinding system and will discusses Urbanite’s process in delivering systems that enrich spaces and the lives of those who inhabit them.

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Creating Impactful Spatial Experiences by Carlo Giannasca

  1. 1. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 1 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  2. 2. What Urbanite do? We activate physical spaces by translating brand ideas, stories and customer journeys into three dimensions in ways that enriches both the space and the lives of those who interact with it. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 2 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  3. 3. The Purpose Urbanite of workshop team Carlo Giannasca Charlie Bromley Joanna Mackenie Adam Longo Bridget Atkinson Henry Ellis-Paul Bianca Mediati Proprietary and confidential information MADE Talk 22 July 2014 ©Urbanite* 2014 3 Designing an effective wayfinding system
  4. 4. Designing an effective wayfinding system Purpose of workshop MADE Talk_22 July 2014 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 MADE Talk 22 July 2014 4 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  5. 5. Designing an effective wayfinding system What is wayfinding? A structured number of decisions leading to the destination. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 5 Identification Identification Destination Decision point Decision point Decision point Confirmation Confirmation Confirmation Start
  6. 6. Principles Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Designing an effective wayfinding system MADE Talk 22 July 2014 6
  7. 7. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 1 Create an identity at each location that differs from the others. Source: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/infoarch/publications/mfoltz-thesis/node8.html MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 7
  8. 8. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 8 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 1 Create an identity at each location
  9. 9. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 9 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 1 Create an identity at each location
  10. 10. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 2 Create landmarks to provide orientation cues and memorable locations. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 10
  11. 11. Principle 2 Create landmarks to provide orientation cues and memorable locations MADE Talk 22 July 2014 11 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  12. 12. Principle 2 Create landmarks to provide orientation cues and memorable locations MADE Talk 22 July 2014 12 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  13. 13. Principle 2 Create landmarks to provide orientation cues and memorable locations MADE Talk 22 July 2014 13 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  14. 14. Principle 2 Create landmarks to provide orientation cues and memorable locations MADE Talk 22 July 2014 14 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  15. 15. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 3 Create structured paths that are easy to understand. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 15
  16. 16. Principle 3 Create structured paths that are easy to understand MADE Talk 22 July 2014 16 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  17. 17. Principle 3 Create structured paths that are easy to understand MADE Talk 22 July 2014 17 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  18. 18. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 4 Simplify the navigational choices. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 18
  19. 19. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 19 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 4 Simplify the navigational choices
  20. 20. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 5 Create areas of differing visual character. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 20
  21. 21. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 21 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 5 Create areas of different visual character
  22. 22. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 22 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 5 Create areas of different visual character
  23. 23. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 6 Provide the user with a map if area is large and complex. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 23
  24. 24. Principle 7 Provide the user with a map if area is large and complex Parramatta Rd Broadway George St 12 Minute Walk MADE Talk 22 July 2014 24 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 05A 01 02 11 Thomas St Mary Ann St Harris St Quay St Jones St Wattle St Buckland St The Goods Line Abercrombie St Ultimo Rd Pitt St WENTWORTH PARK VICTORIA PARK BELMORE PARK Alumni Green CENTRAL STATION RAILWAY SQUARE CHINATOWN TAFE DARLING HARBOUR ABC ULTIMO HAYMARKET CHIPPENDALE Devonshire St tunnel Central Park TAFE Macarthur Street POWERHOUSE MUSEUM BROADWAY SHOPPING CENTRE Blackfriars St Mountain St Darling Dr Regent St Lee St McKee St 21-27 51 08 Omnibus Lane Mary Ann Street Park Kelly St 03 12 04 09 05B 05C 05D 10 11 ABC 07 You Are Here 7 Minute Walk 06
  25. 25. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 7 Locate signs at decision points. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 25
  26. 26. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 26 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 7 Locate signs at decision points
  27. 27. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 27 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 7 Locate signs at decision points When placing signs at the decision points in the space, ask two questions: 1 Should a sign be placed here? 2 What destinations should be included on the sign?
  28. 28. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 8 Establish clear sight lines to aid navigation. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 28
  29. 29. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 29 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 8 Establish clear sight lines to aid navigation
  30. 30. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 30 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Principle 8 Establish clear sight lines to aid navigation
  31. 31. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 9 Provide a universal visual language that will be understood by all. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 31
  32. 32. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principle 9 Provide a universal visual language that will be understood by all MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 32
  33. 33. Designing an effective wayfinding system What not to do Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 MADE Talk 22 July 2014 33
  34. 34. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 34 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 What not to do
  35. 35. Designing an effective wayfinding system What the should have done Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 MADE Talk 22 July 2014 35
  36. 36. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 10 Assume everyone is a first-time visitor. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 36
  37. 37. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principles 11 Design for the broadest audience possible. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 37
  38. 38. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principle 11 Design for the broadest audience possible User groups to consider: Unimpaired Sight Hearing Situational Developmental Literacy Mobility MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 38
  39. 39. Designing an effective wayfinding system Principle 11 Design for the broadest possible audience Where a sign can be temporarily obscured, eg. In a crowd, the sign should be placed at a height of not less than 2000 mm above the ground plane of the finished floor 2200 1872 1709 1227 729 1000 1400 1600 2000 Signs should be placed within a zone at a height not less than 1400mm and not more than 1600mm above the plane of the finished floor. Where space in this zone is used up, the zone for placement of signs may be extended downward to not less than 1000 mm from the plane of the finished floor. Zones Common View/reach/DDA 1830 20° 30° Total Comfortable Viewing Zone = 482mm AS 1428.2 Source: National Endowment For The Arts, Needs Assessment Survey Instrument, Produced 6Y National Access Centre, USA 1200 – 1600 Tactile Signage Zone 700 Min Height Common Reach Signage Zone AS 1428.2 Tactile Signage Zone Zone of Common Reach MADE Talk 22 July 2014 39 1550 Average Eye Height 1220 Average Eye Height Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  40. 40. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 40 Designing an effective wayfinding system Source: Wayshowing; Per Mollerup Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  41. 41. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 41 Designing an effective wayfinding system 1 Define the problem.
  42. 42. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Define the problem Consider the following: 1 What is the real problem? 2 Are there related problems? 3 Is there anything unique? 4 What is the budget? 5 What is the timeline? MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 42
  43. 43. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 43 Designing an effective wayfinding system 2 Gather the information.
  44. 44. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Gather the information Consider the following: 1 Who are the users? 2 How will they use the site? 3 What will be their movement patterns? 4 When how will they access the site? 5 Does the architecture aid in wayfinding? 6 Will branding influence the design? 7 Best practice benchmarking MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 44
  45. 45. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 45 Designing an effective wayfinding system 3 Analyse the data.
  46. 46. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Analyse the data Consider the following: 1 Understand requirements of all users 2 Times places where problems occur 3 Appropriate nomenclature 4 Language requirements 5 KPIs for success MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 46
  47. 47. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 47 Designing an effective wayfinding system 4 Develop the wayfinding strategy.
  48. 48. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Develop the wayfinding strategy Strategy Options There a 4 types of strategy models that organise most wayfinding systems: 1 Connectors 2 Districts 3 Landmarks 4 Streets Source: The Wayfinding Handbook, David Gibson MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 48
  49. 49. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Develop the wayfinding strategy Strategy Options 1 Connector model The Forbidden City, Beijing • Strong central axis • Concentric system of gateways clearly lead the way • Symbolic of the courts power and dominance 2 Districts model Cambridge • Organic evolution over many centuries • Adopted a system of individual precincts with distinct names, coat of arms and specific gateways • Organising Gothic buildings into understandable entities 3 Landmarks model Rome • Devised by Pope Sixtus V to creater a grander setting for the Catholic empire • Axial roads and landmark focal points • Located at the centre point of each axis was a major civic landmark 4 Streets model New York City • A simple wayfinding mechanism was devised in 1811 • A grid of sequentially numbered streets Source: The Wayfinding Handbook, David Gibson MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 49
  50. 50. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Develop the wayfinding strategy Strategy Options NORTH BUILDING SOUTH BUILDING MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 50 CONNECTOR 1 Connector model 2 Districts model 3 Landmarks model 4 Streets model Source: The Wayfinding Handbook, David Gibson CONNECTOR WEST BUILDING EAST BUILDING MAIN STREET EAST STREET WEST STREET NORTH STREET
  51. 51. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 51 Designing an effective wayfinding system 5 Plan the signage.
  52. 52. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Plan the signage There a 4 types of sign catagories: 1 Identification 2 Directional 3 Orientation 4 Regulatory MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 52
  53. 53. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Plan the signage 1 Identification MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 53
  54. 54. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Plan the signage 2 Directional MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 54
  55. 55. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Plan the signage 3 Orientation MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 55
  56. 56. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Plan the signage MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 56
  57. 57. 1- 20 A-E A Sign Hierarchy MADE Talk 22 July 2014 57 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Plan the signage S1 External Building ID S7 Level ID S10 Amenity ID Blade sign Door ID S9 BOH Room ID Electrical Room Service Lift O1 Safety Decal S2.A External Totem O2 Operational O3 Statutory No Smoking CCTV in operation Hours of Operation Communications Room Fire Stairs FHR Fire Control Hazards S3 Tenant Directory Lift Level Directional Lift Carriage Directional Lift Carriage Identification S4 S5 S6 S8 Destination ID S2.B Bollard
  58. 58. D C B F G D C B E F G C B E F G B B S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) IDENTIFICATION DIRECTIONAL S2 S3 S4 External Totem Tenant Directory Lift Level Directional Lift Carriage Directional Lift Carriage Identification Level ID Destination ID REGULATORY MADE Talk 22 July 2014 58 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Plan the signage S1 ­­External ID T1 S3 Tenant Directory S2 ­­External Totem S2 ­­External Totem S3 Tenant Directory A H A H A H A A S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S7 ­­Level ID 00 S7 ­­Level ID 00 S7 ­­Level ID 00 S7 ­­Level ID S7 ­­Level ID 00 00 S7 ­­Level ID 00 S7 Level ID (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S5 Lift Carriage Directional (Messaging TBD) S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S9 BOH Room ID Goods Lift S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S4 Lift Level Directional (Messaging TBD) S1 ­­External ID T1 S2 ­­External Totem (WB design) S2 ­­External Totem (WB design) S3 Tenant Directory S3 Tenant Directory S9 BOH Room ID Electrical Room S7 Level ID (Messaging TBD) S1 S10 D2 External Building ID Amenity ID Suspended Directional S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 BOH Room ID O1 O2 Safety Decal Operational O3 Statutory Masterplan locations
  59. 59. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 59 Designing an effective wayfinding system 6 Design the physical forms.
  60. 60. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 60 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Design the physical forms Consider the following: 1 How it relates to the context 2 How many types are required 3 Lighting requirements 4 Dynamic signage monitors
  61. 61. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 61 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Design the physical forms Develop a proportional system whose forms maximise standard material sheet sizes to minimise waste. 1200 x 2400 (Standard sheet size) 600 x 1200 300 x 600 300 x 300 150 x 300 150x 150 600 x 600 1200 x 1200
  62. 62. Process Design the physical forms A proportional modular sign family Designing an effective wayfinding system Identification Sign 300 x 300 mm Identification Sign 600 x600 mm Directional Sign 1200 x 300 mm MADE Talk 22 July 2014 62 Identification Sign 2400 mm high Orientation Sign 600 x 3000 mm Regulatory Sign 900 x 150 mm 3000 2400 1800 1200 600 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  63. 63. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 63 Designing an effective wayfinding system 7 Design the graphics.
  64. 64. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Design the graphics Viewing distances legibility 3 metres MADE Talk 22 July 2014 64 Sign Viewing distance in meters 6 metres 9 metres 12 metres 15 metres 10 mm Letter height in millimetres 20 mm 30 mm 40 mm 50 mm The diagram above illustrates the recommended letter height relative to viewing distances for a person with average eye sight Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  65. 65. Designing an effective wayfinding system Process Design the graphics Choosing the best typeface for signage Two important characteristics of letterforms affect its legibility 1 High x-height ✓ ✕ Futura Helvetica 2 Open counter space Flama ✕ ✓ Akzidenz Grotesk Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 MADE Talk 22 July 2014 65
  66. 66. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 66 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Design the graphics Typeface Selection Criteria Consider the following: 1 The character of the architecture 2 The brand the organisation 3 Clarity and legibility 4 International recognition 5 Timelessness
  67. 67. Black Grey Red Orange MADE Talk 22 July 2014 67 Designing an effective wayfinding system Light reflectancy (LR) of typical colours Blue Yellow Green White Process Design the graphics The science of colour Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  68. 68. Process Design the graphics The science of colour K1 { } x 100 = H Text colour: White (85) Background Colour: Red (13) MADE Talk 22 July 2014 68 Designing an effective wayfinding system K1 – K2 Example 13 – 8 13 { }x 100 = 38 85 – 13 85 { }x 100 = 84 Text colour: Black (8) Background Colour: Red (13) Insufficient contrast for display Sufficient contrast for display ✕ ✓ K1 = Highest colour value K2 = Lowest colour value H = Contrast value Optimal contrast value is at least a hue of 70 In wayfinding contrast is important for ease of reading. TEXT TEXT Source: Arthur Passini Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014
  69. 69. Forward right arrow Process Design the graphics Directional Hierarchy 1 4 MADE Talk 22 July 2014 69 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Arrow configuration principles Diagrammatic Sign Elevation Forward up arrow Right arrow Left arrow Forward left arrow Diagrammatic Sign Plan View 1 2 3 4 5 4 2 5 3 1 2 5 3
  70. 70. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 70 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Design the graphics Sign layout Grid articulates zones for arrows, pictograms and type
  71. 71. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 71 Designing an effective wayfinding system 8 Implement the system.
  72. 72. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 72 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Implement the system Provide the following: 1 Drawings and manufacture specification 2 Message schedule 3 Sign location masterplan 4 Select competent suppliers you can trust 5 Prototype 6 Revise and supervise manufacture 7 Defects inspection
  73. 73. Process MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 73 Designing an effective wayfinding system 9 Evaluate the results.
  74. 74. MADE Talk 22 July 2014 74 Designing an effective wayfinding system Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Process Evaluate the results Action: 1 Evaluate after an appropriate period of use 2 Get feedback from staff 3 Get feedback from visitors 4 Identify what works and what doesn’t 5 Fix it!
  75. 75. References Websites urbanite.com.au https://www.segd.org/ http://fontsinuse.com/ tags/125/wayfinding swiss-miss.com BOOKS Wayshowing: A Guide to Environmental Signage Principles Practices Per Mollerup Wayfinding: People, Signs and Architecture Paul Arthur and Romedi Passini The Wayfinding Handbook Information Design for Public Places David Gibson Signage and Wayfinding Design Chris Calori Signage Systems Information Graphics Andreas Uebele BLOGS http://ilovetypography. com/2012/04/19/the-design-of- a-signage-typeface/ http://www.pinterest.com/ explore/way-finding/?p=2 http://opentype.info/blog/ category/wayfinding/ http://typophile.com/ node/12990 http://designspiration.net/ search/signage/ Designing an effective wayfinding system MADE Talk 22 July 2014 Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 75
  76. 76. Thanks Proprietary and confidential information ©Urbanite* 2014 Designing an effective wayfinding system MADE Talk 22 July 2014 76
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These slides explore wayfinding and signage in the built environment. Creator Carlo Giannasca heads Urbanite at the Frost*collective – a specialist team working exclusively in the built environment, designing everything from signage and wayfinding systems to large-scale installations and environmental graphics. Carlo’s slides provide insight into the fundamentals of designing an effective wayfinding system and will discusses Urbanite’s process in delivering systems that enrich spaces and the lives of those who inhabit them.

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