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Genero presentation at IFLA


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Presentation of the paper Genero - a way out of the Copyright dilemma? at the annual IFLA library congress

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Genero presentation at IFLA

  1. 1. For the Audiovisual and Multimedia section at the IFLA 2010 conference By Øystein Jakobsen (FriBit) and Pål Lykkja (University Library in Oslo)
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>The libraries and the Copyright stalemate
  3. 3. Copyright and Copyleft
  4. 4. Background and description of Genero
  5. 5. Summary </li></ul>
  6. 6. Copyright stalemate affects the libraries <ul><li>Huge amounts of information produced </li><ul><li>Beginning of time -> 2003 = 2 days now
  7. 7. Public domain = before 1900, microscopic </li></ul><li>Other organisations now distribute info to the public </li><ul><li>Wikimedia
  8. 8. Isohunt
  9. 9. Amazon
  10. 10. Flickr </li></ul><li>Libraries are not permitted to copy </li></ul>
  11. 11. What the libraries are becoming...
  12. 12. The IFLA Call for papers <ul>“ Open access - on the horns of a dilemma between piracy and legality?” <li>There are several obstacles to putting audiovisual and multimedia materials on the Internet. </li><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure
  13. 13. metadata and bibliographic control aspects
  14. 14. copyright and licensing restrictions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul>One of two things must happen </ul>For the libraries to be relevant in the information society, they must be permitted to copy. Either <ul><li>Libraries are permitted by law to make copies
  16. 16. Libraries focus on works where exclusive rights have been waived, where they may copy (Free culture) </li></ul>
  17. 17. About the Copyright stalemate <ul><li>None
  18. 18. Statute of Anne 1709
  19. 19. US Constitution 1790
  20. 20. Bern convention 1886
  21. 21. Recent developments </li><ul><li>” Mickey Mouse Forever”
  22. 22. Copyright on Software
  23. 23. HADOPI
  24. 24. ACTA
  25. 25. Patents on methods and biology </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Introducing Copyleft <ul><li>Free Software Foundation
  27. 27. Open Source Initiative
  28. 28. Creative Commons
  29. 29. Wikimedia
  30. 30. Free Culture Forum </li></ul>
  31. 31. Theoretical foundation for Genero <ul><li>When marginal cost approaches 0, the unit cost will approach 0 </li><ul><ul><li>“The penny gap”
  32. 32. Google mail, Google maps </li></ul></ul><li>“Innovation happens elsewhere” </li><ul><ul><li>Let others innovate on your content or platform
  33. 33. Amazon, programmable web </li></ul></ul><li>Reduction of transaction costs </li><ul><ul><li>Legal, technological, normative and social
  34. 34. Pirate bay </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Conventional distribution model Copyright holder User Distributor User User Copyright holder Copyright holder
  36. 36. Example: Apple Copyright holder User User User iPod iTunes iPhone Apple TV Copyright holder Copyright holder
  37. 37. Example: Warner User Copyright holder MSN Music User User Warner store Warner music Copyright holder Copyright holder iTunes
  38. 38. Problems with conventional distribution models <ul><li>Vertical integration
  39. 39. Bilateral agreements
  40. 40. Common interest groups </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated permission regime
  41. 41. High risk </li></ul><ul><li>No consumer rights
  42. 42. Constant lawsuits
  43. 43. Damages the Internet </li></ul>Less competition Inefficient Unhappy customer base
  44. 44. The architecture of the internet <ul><li>Set of standards </li><ul><li>TCP-IP, HTML, CSS </li></ul><li>Set of rules </li><ul><li>Net Neutrality </li></ul><li>Set of technologies </li><ul><li>DNS </li></ul><li>Service providers </li><ul><li>ISP's, Domain registrars </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Principles for designing Genero <ul><li>Non-exclusive
  46. 46. End-to-end principle
  47. 47. Encourage new distribution channels
  48. 48. Use and reuse must be permitted and promoted.
  49. 49. Regular behavior by regular people must be permitted.
  50. 50. Conventional law enforcement at a minimum </li></ul>
  51. 51. Genero system
  52. 52. Culture in silos
  53. 53. Culture in silos
  54. 54. Free culture connected
  55. 55. Free culture connected
  56. 56. Free culture connected ...
  57. 57. Genero Initiative <ul>Standards organisation to maintain the Genero system </ul><ul><li>Defines the Registry behaviour
  58. 58. Rules for distributors and aggregators
  59. 59. Maintains the Genero licence
  60. 60. Maintains the Attribution guidelines
  61. 61. Provide support functions </li></ul>
  62. 62. Genero licence
  63. 63. Example entry Service Provider Registry Copyright holder Metadata: Author: John Glenn Copyright owner: John Glenn Content category: Music Tags: reggae, jazz, fuzzpop Content type:Music album Licence: Genero Content type: Music album Content category: flac song01.flac.torrent song02.flac.torrent Content category: Source song01.midi.torrent song02.midi.torrent Content category: Misc cover.front.jpg.torrent cover.back.jpg.torrent storplakat.jpg.torrent Monetization distribution: Author- John Glenn: 75% Service Provider- SuperPublish: 10% Sampled- Peter sellers: 15% Business terms UnitCost: 0 RevenueShare: 30%
  64. 64. Distributor -> creator payment User Distributor Copyright holder Aggregator Registry Copyright holder Copyright holder Aggregator Genero Payment Provider $ $ $ $ $ $
  65. 65. <ul>InWeave Iterative Research Model </ul>
  66. 66. Sample endorsements <ul><li>...Genero provides the basic platform for new business models around free culture to emerge. </li><ul><ul><li>Cory Doctorow, author </li></ul></ul><li>..[Genero] can make it possible to easier distribute digital media in the libraries. </li><ul><ul><li>Nils Pharo, Project manager </li></ul></ul><li>... Genero is a key way to find the benefits of global scale business models of the future that reconciles both old and new ways to create. </li><ul><ul><li>Mario Pena, Community and Business Manager </li></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Summary <ul><li>Copyright restricts the libraries </li><ul><li>to such an extent that they are becoming irrelevant for the public at large </li></ul><li>Genero represents a new Copyright system
  68. 68. When the this new system emerges, the libraries need to embed its values in the foundation </li></ul>