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Islam: A Christian Looks at the Muslim Faith

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Islam is a faith having up to 1.6 Billion adherents worldwide. It is a religion partially understood, but that has confusing and concerning areas of belief and practice that need clarification in people's minds. This slide show is heavily documented and provides answers to some important areas on the minds of people outside of Islam.

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Islam: A Christian Looks at the Muslim Faith

  1. 1. ISLAM Dr. Freddy Cardoza cc: listentoreason - https://www.flickr.com/photos/51159953@N00
  2. 2. Islam comes from a derivation "salem" meaning "peace" or "surrender" cc: Stuck in Customs - https://www.flickr.com/photos/95572727@N00
  3. 3. Ten Interesting Facts cc: A.Al-m3oosherji - https://www.flickr.com/photos/41709350@N06
  4. 4. Early Islamic Culture contributed greatly to some societies through higher education (Morocco), literacy, philosophy, mathematics, art and architecture cc: Fulvio's photos - https://www.flickr.com/photos/78722206@N00
  5. 5. There's an empty place next to Muhammad's Tomb (the Honorable Rawdah) reserved for Jesus' burial, once he returns to kill the Antichrist and rules for 40 years, then dies. They reject his resurrection, because Islam teaches Jesus did not actually die (Surah 4:158) but ascended like Elijah to heaven
  6. 6. Marriage between even First Cousins is not uncommon in Islam. This girl was married at age 9 and divorced at 10. Muhammad's youngest wife, Aisha, was 6 at marriage and 9 at consummation. He was 53.
  7. 7. In Saudi Arabia, UAE, Sudan, Brunei, Qatar and others, people who abandon Islam and convert to another religion may face the death penalty cc: Patrick Feller - https://www.flickr.com/photos/32345848@N07
  8. 8. Islamic law divides food and other products into three different types: 1) Halal (allowed), 2) Makruh (permissible but discouraged), and 3) Haram (forbidden, such as pork, carnivorous animals, certain types of cheese, and anything that causes addiction, such as alcohol).
  9. 9. Muslims Accept that Jesus was Virgin Born, but call him "Son of Mary" to eliminate God as Father Quran, Surah 19:16-34; 21:91 cc: Puzzler4879 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/24882165@N07
  10. 10. The Quran teaches Jesus was without sin ["faultless", Arabic: zakiyya], but said Muhammad and all others sinned Surah 19.19; Surah 47:19; Surah 28:16; Surah 26:82
  11. 11. Muslim literature, including the Quran, affirms Jesus will have a Second Coming Surah 43:61 cc: Jrwooley6 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/23421303@N05
  12. 12. Muhammad and Islam never claimed him to perform a miracle Surah 6:37; 10:20; 13:7
  13. 13. In Islam, marriage is seen as a contract, not a covenant. Muslim faith provides for divorce more easily than Christian faith, but divorce rates in the US are about the same among Christians and Muslims (low 30%) cc: tymesynk - https://www.flickr.com/photos/55035626@N00
  14. 14. Things You Should Know About Interacting with Muslims
  15. 15. Keep In Mind • "Muslims" are the people • "Islam" is the religion itself • "Mohammedanism" is an older term considered insulting to many Muslims • "Islam" means 'peace' or 'surrender' • "Muslim" means "one who submits" • 15% of Muslims worldwide are Arab
  16. 16. • Birth rates and world conversion rates make it a fast growing religion • Muslim women typically keep their family name when married • Muslims consider Islam a "way of life" [deen] not a religion • The first US Mosque came to Iowa in 1934 with 1200 now in the US • About 8-10M Muslims live in the US
  17. 17. • Except for family, Muslim women are not to touch or shake hands with men • Dogs, especially dog saliva, is considered especially unclean and require washings when touched • Menstruation is considered impure to Muslims, and women may not join in public prayers during that time
  18. 18. • Images or depictions of Muhammad are forbidden and offensive to Muslims • The strict sexual-visual restrictions of Islam often have the opposite effect • Tattoos for Muslims are taboo. Converts may keep or remove them • Females plucking eyebrows for greater beauty is considered forbidden (haram) • Islam is primary in some 60 nations
  19. 19. Online Muslim Dating Sites like "Muslima" Exist to Connect Islamic Men and Women
  20. 20. Five Pillars of Islam
  21. 21. 1. Repetition of the Creed (Shahada) cc: Ravages - https://www.flickr.com/photos/44124298927@N01
  22. 22. “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad (also spelled Mohammed, Mohammad) is His Prophet.”
  23. 23. The ancient Arabic words "al ilah" (The God) predate Islam. "Allah" is the only Arabic word for 'God.' So even though Arab Christians and Arab Muslims are speaking of two different concepts-meanings of God, they use the same word, "Allah"
  24. 24. 2. Prayer (Salat) 1-3-5x a day cc: Ravages - https://www.flickr.com/photos/44124298927@N01
  25. 25. An appointed person climbs the minaret 5 times daily and issues four directional (N,S,E,W) calls to prayer cc: josh.ev9 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/78233635@N00
  26. 26. What Happens at Prayer • Call to Prayer is issued • People drop everything to pray • People face Mecca (Makkah) • People stand as Quran is read • People bow to give Allah glory • People prostate up to 3x • People sit, prayers continue, then end • These are all done in unison cc: josh.ev9 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/78233635@N00
  27. 27. 3. Fasting (Sawm) cc: Ravages - https://www.flickr.com/photos/44124298927@N01
  28. 28. Fasting from Food and even Sex, especially during 30 Days of Ramadan cc: davidwjford - https://www.flickr.com/photos/33389995@N08
  29. 29. The Muslim calendar is made up of 12 lunar months, each lasting between 29-30 days (or 354 days a year). For that reason, 103 Muslim years are the equivalent of 100 solar years. So, though Muslims celebrate Ramadan annually, it occurs at a different time for those following a solar (or Julian) calendar. Muslims date their years from After Hijrah (A.H.) meaning the migration of Muhammad from Medina to Mecca cc: davidwjford - https://www.flickr.com/photos/33389995@N08
  30. 30. 4. Almsgiving (Zakat) cc: Ravages - https://www.flickr.com/photos/44124298927@N01
  31. 31. Each Muslim is expected to provide 1/40 of his income (about 2.5%) to the poor and needy (giving alms). Some countries take alms as a tax, others treat it as a freewill offering cc: Hernan Piñera - https://www.flickr.com/photos/67430875@N03
  32. 32. 5. Pilgrimage (Hajj) cc: Ravages - https://www.flickr.com/photos/44124298927@N01
  33. 33. Called the Hajj, each able-bodied Muslim is expected to visit the “holy” city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia (and other cities) to re-trace the steps of the Prophet Muhammad at some time during one’s lifetime. Sometimes Muslims will spend their entire life savings in order to be faithful to this requirement cc: Al Jazeera English - https://www.flickr.com/photos/32834977@N03
  34. 34. The Kaaba's (Stone Building) cornerstone is the Black Stone, a meteorite believed to fall at the feet of Adam and Eve cc: transposition - https://www.flickr.com/photos/52318231@N00
  35. 35. Major Pilgrimage Sites
  36. 36. Mecca, Saudi Arabia The Ka'ba/Kaaba (Cube of the Black Stone)
  37. 37. Black Stone sent by Allah as Covenant to Abraham & Ishmael, a Sign of Islam's Legitimacy
  38. 38. Medina, Saudi Arabia The Prophet's Mosque cc: Mohamod Fasil - https://www.flickr.com/photos/131688925@N04
  39. 39. Muhammad fled to Medina in 622 and overtook it. He set up the Islamic Caliphate (global rule) and is buried there cc: Mohamod Fasil - https://www.flickr.com/photos/131688925@N04
  40. 40. Jerusalem, Israel Third Most Important Site in Islam cc: betta design - https://www.flickr.com/photos/65768710@N00
  41. 41. Islam teaches of the "Night Journey" (Isra and Miraj, from Surah 17:1) where Muhammad rode a mythical winged steed (horse-or-camel-like animal) from Mecca to Jerusalem's temple, ascended to heaven, then returned to Mecca cc: betta design - https://www.flickr.com/photos/65768710@N00
  42. 42. The problem is that the 621AD journey to the Jerusalem mosque (Masjid al Aqsa) involves a building that did not exist until 691, plus Muhammad's cousin Fatikhe and wife Aisha said it was a vision and not physical. The current teaching developed in 1876, 1100 years later (see note 1) cc: betta design - https://www.flickr.com/photos/65768710@N00
  43. 43. Who Was Muhammad? cc: rstml - https://www.flickr.com/photos/42708542@N00
  44. 44. The earliest mention of Muhammad was a Greek history writing about the Arab invasion Syria, rejecting him, saying God's prophets do not come leading invasions "with sword and chariot" cc: rstml - https://www.flickr.com/photos/42708542@N00
  45. 45. Most Information about Muhammad began to be written about 4-5 generations after his death at age 63 cc: rstml - https://www.flickr.com/photos/42708542@N00
  46. 46. Muhammad • Born in 570 to a widow who died when he was 6, and raised by his uncle • At 25, he married a wealthy 2x divorced widow • After her death, he married a total of more than 15 women, plus concubines in his harem, some taken as slaves • He reportedly visited all his women in a single night (the prowess of 30 men) cc: rstml - https://www.flickr.com/photos/42708542@N00
  47. 47. • Had 7 children, all with his 1st wife • Originally, Ubu’l-Kassim, he renamed as "the Praised One" (Muhammad) • At 40 in AD 610 in Mecca in the month of Ramadan he reportedly received revelation from Gabriel. He was named God’s Prophet, to correct and finalize the teachings of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, the Six Great Prophets. cc: rstml - https://www.flickr.com/photos/42708542@N00
  48. 48. About the Qu'ran cc: khowaga1 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/8495919@N02
  49. 49. About the Qu'ran • The Quran (Koran) is not Muhammad's biography-- it helps us understand what was going on in his mind • Because the Quran is considered "dictated" from God, it appears in Arabic and Muslims expect people to learn Arabic to read it in the original language, each verse is considered a "sign from God" cc: khowaga1 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/8495919@N02
  50. 50. • Slightly shorter than the NT • Organized from longer to shorter "Surahs" • No Muslim challenges the Quran's authority. They consider it the absolute, irrevocable Word of God— the Last Word to Humanity cc: khowaga1 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/8495919@N02
  51. 51. • It is more like "God" than about God • Children sometimes memorize the entire book • It is used as an Arabic textbook • It is read upon a Muslim birth and quoted at death • It covers a 23 year period of time cc: khowaga1 - https://www.flickr.com/photos/8495919@N02
  52. 52. MUSLIM BELIEFS cc: mnadi - https://www.flickr.com/photos/22965089@N00
  53. 53. About Jesus • Jesus (Isa, Arabic) is said to be a great prophet, second only to Muhammad. • Virgin Born and Exhibited Miracles • Muslims teach Christ did not claim divinity • His death was only apparent— it was Judas Iscariot (or Simon of Cyrene)
  54. 54. About Sin • People are fundamentally good, not inheriting Original Sin • Some Muslims teach that Muhammad was sinless, others do not • After Satan tempted Adam (not Eve), he sinned, but was pardoned • Each person will answer to God by trying to balance the scale of good and evil
  55. 55. Taboos • All types of intoxicating drinks are forbidden (wines, spirits, liquors of any type) • They are not to eat swine, carnivores, rodents, reptiles, worms, etc. • Having Pets other than Cats (Muhammad loved cats) • Gambling, Lottery, Games of Chance
  56. 56. Taboos • Homosexuality • Staring at the opposite sex or making friends with them, premarital sex • Eating or washing with your left hand • Wearing clothes showing knees or higher
  57. 57. Salvation • Salvation in Islam is by works • Those faithful to Islam’s sacred law (Shari’a), go to an oasis-like paradise, while sinners go to an indescribable hell and drink boiling water. • Unfaithful Muslims will go to hell for a time, then will ultimately be liberated by Allah. (Quran 56:1-56)
  58. 58. Salvation • About heaven, the Prophet Muhammad was heard saying: 'The smallest reward for the people of paradise is an abode where there are 80,000 servants and 72 wives' cc: Juliogmilat Fotografía - https://www.flickr.com/photos/28292227@N08
  59. 59. Muslim Practices
  60. 60. Understanding Coverings
  61. 61. Different coverings (hijab) are used as expressions of modesty, by women and less often by men. Originally upper class Muslim women wore them, until about 4 generations after the time of Muhammad
  62. 62. 6 Types of Hijab 1. Hijab: head and neck 2. Shayla: head, tucked at neck 3. Khimar: head, neck, shoulders 4. Chador: head to foot 5. Niqāb: Visible eyes with Khimar 6. Burqa: mesh screen over face
  63. 63. Hands, face, mouth, and feet are washed by Muslims upon entering the Mosque
  64. 64. More Facts • Islam has no priests or sacraments • Women pray outside the main hallway of the mosque, usually a side room • On the holy day, Friday, the imam leads a sermon; other days he leads prayer • Mosque (masjid) are "places of prostration"
  65. 65. Controversial Beliefs
  66. 66. Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced (200M victims by 2016 according to UNICEF Report)
  67. 67. Jihad and Extremist Islam cc: delayed gratification - https://www.flickr.com/photos/34865803@N00
  68. 68. State Sponsors of Terror • This is a phrase meaning any nation-state who directly or indirectly facilitates, allows, or fails to prosecute terrorist acts or groups • The US Government has designated Iran, Syria, and the Sudan as such
  69. 69. Extremist Groups There are dozens. Primary ones are: • ISIS/ISIL (Iraq/Syria) • Al Qaeda (Yemen, Other) • Boko Haram (Nigeria) • Al Shabab (Somalia) • Taliban (Afghan/Pakistan) • Ansar al Sharia (Lybia-Tunisia) • Abu Sayyaf (Philippines) cc: Abode of Chaos - https://www.flickr.com/photos/40936370@N00
  70. 70. Jihadist Ideology cc: Zoriah - https://www.flickr.com/photos/46676910@N00
  71. 71. Jihadist Ideology • The World is Divided into Two Spheres: • House of Islam (Islamic nations, Sharia Law areas) • House of War (non-Islamic) cc: Zoriah - https://www.flickr.com/photos/46676910@N00
  72. 72. • The Global Goal is to Unite the World into the House of Islam • It assumes that all Muslims are bound and this identity transcends all other loyalties, even if violence is required cc: Zoriah - https://www.flickr.com/photos/46676910@N00
  73. 73. • The establishment of a global Islamic state is called the Caliphate, ruled by a Caliph, where no legislature or government exists-- only global Sharia/Quran cc: Zoriah - https://www.flickr.com/photos/46676910@N00
  74. 74. • To establish "Ummah" (global Islam), political and military groups exist all over to bring these about • Examples: Hamas (Palestine) and Hezbollah (Iran and N Iraq), PLO (Fatah), and the Muslim Brotherhood • The means to this is Jihad (Struggle) in peaceful or violent ways cc: Zoriah - https://www.flickr.com/photos/46676910@N00
  75. 75. Nothing is Too Extreme • Explosives in Children's Backpacks • Explosives in Kids' bike tubes • Bombing Weddings • Public Executions • Children as Young as 8 have been kidnapped, tortured, & executed cc: Zoriah - https://www.flickr.com/photos/46676910@N00
  76. 76. Nothing is Too Extreme • Torture with electrical shock, beatings, floggings • Crucifixion, thrown off buildings, burned alive • Sexual slavery, rape, exile, forced conversion cc: Zoriah - https://www.flickr.com/photos/46676910@N00
  77. 77. Islamist Percentages • A Pew Study showed 13%(Eastern Europe)-76% (South Asia) of Muslim areas held extremist views • 8% to 99% of Muslim areas want Sharia Law instituted • This involved 38,000 face to face interviews in 2013 cc: FirasMT - https://www.flickr.com/photos/8374178@N08
  78. 78. Muslim Infighting • Muhammad didn't name a successor • Two factions emerged: Shiite (Shia) and Sunni (and later a third, Sufi) • Shia want Caliphs and Ayatollahs to be descended from Muhammad's Bloodline • Sunnis accept any leader of any Muslim heritage and are looking for the "Madhi" a leader to create a Caliphate • Funding comes from oil sales and the black market sale of stolen antiquities cc: Abode of Chaos - https://www.flickr.com/photos/40936370@N00
  79. 79. Q & A
  80. 80. Discussion Questions • Islam believes in One God, but not a Trinity. Explain the difference • Islam believes Jesus is the second- best prophet. Why is it offensive to call Jesus only a prophet? cc: DMahendra - https://www.flickr.com/photos/7175652@N02
  81. 81. Discussion Questions • Christians are not expected to learn Greek and Hebrew, but Muslims are expected to learn Arabic. What do you make of this? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach?
  82. 82. Discussion Questions • What are your concerns about Extremist Islam? • Islam teaches salvation by 'works' (personal effort), meaning Islam has no savior. How is Christianity different?
  83. 83. Sources • http://facts.randomhistory.com/islam- facts.html • http://bit.ly/1mPYZcZ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/edwardmusi ak/11133556913/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/ouadio/1229 2419565/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk /3198997800/
  84. 84. Sources • http://www.answering- islam.org/Gilchrist/uniqueness.html • http://www.factslides.com/s-Islam • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/craig- considine/overcoming-historical- amnesia_b_4135868.html • http://www.state.gov/j/ct/list/c14151.htm • https://lebanonglc.wordpress.com/2014/10/0 8/expressing-oneself-through-body-ink- allowed-for-muslims/
  85. 85. Sources • (1) http://www.answering- islam.org/Shamoun/nightjourney.htm and http://religionresearchinstitute.org /mohammad/ascension.htm • https://www.opendemocracy.net/faith- europe_islam/mohammed_3866.jsp • http://www.answering- islam.org/Authors/Fisher/Topical/index.h tm
  86. 86. Sources • https://wikiislam.net/wiki/List_of_Muhamm ads_Wives_and_Concubines • Hopfe, Lewis. Religions of the World, 5th ed. New York: MacMillan • Dribble, R. F. Mohammed. Garden City, NJ: Garden City Publishing, 1926 • http://arabsinamerica.unc.edu/identity/veili ng/hijab/
  87. 87. Sources • https://www.reddit.com/r/atheism/com ments/2y1u9n/list_of_things_muslims_c onsider_forbidden_haram/ • http://www.pewforum.org/2012/08/09/ the-worlds-muslims-unity-and-diversity- executive-summary/
  88. 88. Image Credits • https://www.flickr.com/photos/haniamir /1576894929/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/moham medj/5180004475/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/lain32/81 18861878/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/klebtahi/ 3931316620/
  89. 89. Image Credits • https://www.flickr.com/photos/brokendru mphotography/2324386385/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/azwegers/ 6362307027/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/josepcastel l/15417550071/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/ninedrago ns/6769478303/
  90. 90. Image Credits • https://www.flickr.com/photos/lucadevito /4467077224/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/etienne_va lois/15323469835/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/omarsc/78 13126052/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/t_abdelmo umen/5221133899/
  91. 91. Image Credits • https://www.flickr.com/photos/defenceimage s/15013106350/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/784 6825950/ • https://www.flickr.com/photos/janodecesare/ 5327872299/ • Muhammad's Grave By Aiman titi - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php ?curid=14494092

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