Easy as Pie: The Complexities of Cookbook Indexing

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Indexing cookbooks can seem, on its face, to be a simple process. However, there is much more to it than first meets the eye.

This presentation explores some of the theoretical aspects of cookbooks, discusses the importance of faceted classifications in cookbook indexing and then uses numerous examples to highlight some of cookbook indexing best practices.

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Easy as Pie: The Complexities of Cookbook Indexing

  1. 1. Easy as Pie: The Complexities of Cookbook Indexing Presented by Fred Leise Chicago/Great Lakes Chapter, American Society for Indexing November 7, 2009 © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  2. 2. What You Wanted to Know Basic principles of cookbook indexing Term selection Differences from other subjects Key term categories Questions to ask the editor © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  3. 3. What You Wanted to Know What is essential in cookbook index Look at bad and good indexes © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  4. 4. Goals for This Workshop Increase your understanding of how cookbook indexes are created Improve your cookbook indexing skills Enable you to recognize good and bad cookbook indexes © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  5. 5. Workshop Overview I. Theory 1. About cookbooks 2. Facets and classification 3. Types of cookbooks 4. Indexing recipe titles © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  6. 6. Workshop Overview I. Theory (cont.) 5. Indexing additional content II. Reviews of Cookbook Indexes III. Breaking in to cookbook indexing © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  7. 7. I. Theory © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  8. 8. Special Problems in Cookbook Indexing Cookbooks are technical manuals Specialized vocabulary Obscure or confusing terminology: Boston Cream Pie doesn’t have cream in it, nor is it a pie Implicit information © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  9. 9. Special Problems in Cookbook Indexing You said Dealing with lengthy main entries Choosing appropriate subheadings Using terminology and structure that cooks with a range of experience can use © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  10. 10. Special Problems in Cookbook Indexing You said Maximum access to each recipe in shortest possible format © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  11. 11. Special Problems in Cookbook Indexing You said Choosing key ingredients for inclusion in the index Problem of multiple entries: Shepherd's pie, savory pies, minced meat, meat, beef, ground beef, mashed potato crust © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  12. 12. Qualities of Cookbook Indexers Subject matter expertise (culinary knowledge) Being a cook Being a detective © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  13. 13. Audience context Why readers use a cookbook index Do I want to buy this book? Refinding specific recipe (searchers) What can I cook with ingredient X? It’s time for backyard grilling. What’s for dessert? (browsers) © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  14. 14. Cookbook Indexes © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  15. 15. Cookbook indexes use faceted classifications. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  16. 16. Facets First introduced by S. J. Ranganathan in the early 1930s. , Personality What is it? ; Matter What is it made of? : Energy What action is it performing? . Space Where is it? ‘ Time When is it? © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  17. 17. Facets research in the cure of tuberculosis of lungs by x-ray conducted in India in 1950 L,45;421:6;253:f.44'N5 © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  18. 18. Facets Fundamental categories by which an object or concept may be described Example: facets describing a ball: size, weight, shape, color, texture, material Other possible facets? © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  19. 19. Facets Book facets Author Title Publisher Format Cost © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  20. 20. Facets in Cooking Recipe titles Dish type Ingredients Dietary type Cuisines Holidays Meal types Cooking methods © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  21. 21. Heading-Subheading Relationships whole-part relationship cars drive shaft desks desk drawers trees branches © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  22. 22. Heading-Subheading Relationships Entity-characteristics relationships iron strength of washing machines load size bloodhounds tracking abilities © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  23. 23. Heading-Subheading Relationships Heading-context relationship Roosevelt, Franklin at Yalta conference bridges of Madison County Tale of Genji film adaptations of © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  24. 24. Heading-Subheading Relationships For cookbooks, most subheadings are examples or instances of heading (classifications) Baked rice puddings English with fruit and nuts Italian with meringue Swiss © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  25. 25. Heading-Subheading Relationships dumplings gnocchi gyoza knödel pflutters spätzle © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  26. 26. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  27. 27. Cookbook indexes use faceted classifications. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  28. 28. Cookbook Types © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  29. 29. Cookbook Types Provide context for indexing Assist identification of metatopic Aid in identification of possible facets © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  30. 30. Cookbook Types 1. Ingredient-based © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  31. 31. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  32. 32. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  33. 33. Cookbook Types 2. Technique-based © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  34. 34. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  35. 35. Cookbook Types 3. Cuisine-based © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  36. 36. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  37. 37. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  38. 38. Cookbook Types 4. Type of meal © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  39. 39. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  40. 40. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  41. 41. Cookbook Types 5. Type of dish © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  42. 42. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  43. 43. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  44. 44. Cookbook Types 6. Equipment-based © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  45. 45. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  46. 46. Cookbook Types 7. General © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  47. 47. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  48. 48. Cookbook Types 8. Vanity © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  49. 49. [anything spiral bound] © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  50. 50. Cookbook Types 9. Historical © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  51. 51. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  52. 52. Cookbook Types 10. Personality-based © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  53. 53. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  54. 54. Cookbook Types 11. Textbook © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  55. 55. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  56. 56. Facets for Indexing Recipe titles Dish type Ingredients Dietary type Cuisines Holidays Meal types Cooking methods © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  57. 57. Indexing Recipe Titles © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  58. 58. Indexing Recipe Titles Alphabetization Letter-by-letter Format Indented preferred over run-in © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  59. 59. Creole Cookery © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  60. 60. Persian Cooking © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  61. 61. Index Format Single-level index The Escoffier Cook Book © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  62. 62. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  63. 63. If you do nothing else in a cookbook index, you should index recipe titles, both as main headings and as subheadings under appropriate facets. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  64. 64. Recipe Titles Capitalization: Four Styles 1. Formal (extreme upper case) All main headings capitalized All subentries that are recipe titles or title fragments are capitalized © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  65. 65. Capitalization 1. Formal (extreme upper case)   Black Beans      about      Frijoles Negros      Oaxaca Tostada Bites and Rice Black Cherry Soup Black Currant Duck Breasts © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  66. 66. Capitalization 2. Modified uppercase style Exact recipe titles are capitalized Headings are lowercase Descriptive recipe names are lower case © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  67. 67. Capitalization 2. Modified uppercase style black beans    about    Frijoles Negros    Oaxaca Tostada Bites and Rice Black Cherry Soup Black Currant Duck Breasts © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  68. 68. Capitalization 3. Modified lower case Main entries capitalized (initial cap) All subentries are lower case © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  69. 69. Capitalization 3. Modified lower case     Black beans       about       frijoles negros       Oaxaca tostada bites and rice   Black cherry soup   Black currant duck breasts © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  70. 70. Capitalization 4. Informal (extreme lower case) All headings, subheadings and recipe titles are lower case Only proper names are capitalized © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  71. 71. Capitalization 4. Informal (extreme lower case)     black beans       about       frijoles negros       Oaxaca tostada bites and rice   black cherry soup   black currant duck breasts © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  72. 72. Recipe Titles Levels of subheadings Needed versus allowable © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  73. 73. Recipe Titles four levels displayed as two 2 1 3 Culinary Arts Institute Encyclopedic Cookbook © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis 4
  74. 74. Recipe Titles Title as main entry in index © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  75. 75. Recipe Titles Title under each defining ingredient © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  76. 76. Recipe Titles Title under each additional appropriate facet © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  77. 77. Recipe Titles Title under each additional appropriate facet © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  78. 78. Recipe Titles Need for choices Grandma Greta's Romaine and Red Cabbage Slaw with Mustard Blue Cheese Dressing Single best index entry? Source: Rose Grant, “Cookbook Indexing: Not as Easy as ABC,” Culinary SIG website © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  79. 79. Recipe Titles Full title subheadings (exact quote) © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  80. 80. Recipe Titles Subhead title style Exact quote title takes more space Exact quote does not allow for inversions © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  81. 81. Recipe Titles Full title inversions Bring significant word forward © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  82. 82. Recipe Titles Problems with not inverting Pies Apple-Cranberry Pie Aunt Jenny's Rhubarb Pie Chiffon Pumpkin Pie Deep-Dish Apple Pie Rhubarb-Raspberry Pie Thanksgiving Pumpkin Pie Warm Apple Pie with Cheddar Cheese © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  83. 83. Recipe Titles Problems with not inverting Pies Apple-Cranberry Pie Apple Pie, Deep-Dish Apple Pie with Cheddar Cheese, Warm Pumpkin Pie, Chiffon Pumpkin Pie, Thanksgiving Rhubarb Pie, Aunt Jenny's Rhubarb-Raspberry Pie © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  84. 84. Recipe Titles Partial titles as subheadings © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  85. 85. Recipe Titles Partial titles as subheadings © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  86. 86. Recipe Titles Partial titles as subheadings under ingredients Grandma Greta's Red Cabbage Slaw with Mustard Blue Cheese Dressing © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  87. 87. Recipe Titles Partial titles as subheadings under ingredients Step 1. Remove heading word Grandma Greta's Red Cabbage Slaw with Mustard Blue Cheese Dressing © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  88. 88. Recipe Titles Partial titles as subheadings under ingredients Step 2. Insert comma Grandma Greta's Red Cabbage, with Mustard Blue Cheese Dressing © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  89. 89. Recipe Titles Partial titles Cracked Wheat Porridge with Almonds and Apricots Apricots cracked wheat porridge with almonds and © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  90. 90. Recipe Titles Partial title inversions - compounds Need to review wording Almonds cracked wheat porridge with, and apricots [awkward] and apricots, cracked wheat porridge with © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  91. 91. Multiple Languages Italian only as main heading; English as main heading and subheadings for the various facets © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  92. 92. Multiple Languages © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  93. 93. 19 recipes referenced Source: Rick Bayless’s Mexican Kitchen © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  94. 94. 8 recipes referenced Source: Rick Bayless’s Mexican Kitchen © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  95. 95. Recipe Titles Foreign articles Ignored in alphabetization Risotto col cavolo rosso e la pancetta coi fagiolini verdi e il peperone giallo alla friulana col rosmarino e vino bianco con salsicce e fagioli borlotti Source: Cynthia Bertelson, “A Piece of Cake?,” Culinary SIG website © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  96. 96. Recipe Titles Foreign articles Ignored in alphabetization "in the manner of" à la (French) au (French) aux (French) Source: Cynthia Bertelson, “A Piece of Cake?,” Culinary SIG website © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  97. 97. Recipe Titles Foreign articles Ignored in alphabetization     "with"         avec (French)         con (Spanish, Italian)         mit (German) Source: Cynthia Bertelson, “A Piece of Cake?,” Culinary SIG website © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  98. 98. Recipe Titles Foreign articles Ignored in alphabetization     "and"         e (Italian)         et (French)         und (German)         y (Spanish) Source: Cynthia Bertelson, “A Piece of Cake?,” Culinary SIG website © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  99. 99. Ingredients Defining ingredients: from title Salt-encrusted Cod Chicken and Lemon Salad Lentil Soup with Prunes and Pears Sour Cream Cake Italian Pine-Nut Macaroons © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  100. 100. Ingredients Major ingredients © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  101. 101. Ingredients Major ingredients © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  102. 102. Ingredients Unusual (exotic) Ingredients © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  103. 103. Ingredients Alternate names/synonyms chanterelles/mushrooms prawns/shrimp © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  104. 104. Additional Facets Cooking methods (techniques) Stewing Frying Baking Grilling Sautéeing © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  105. 105. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  106. 106. Additional Facets Dish type Dietary type Cuisines Meal types Holidays © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  107. 107. Read the entire recipe. It often contains much more information than just the title and list of ingredients. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  108. 108. Variations … [next page] © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  109. 109. Subsidiary Recipes Brownies with Milk Chocolate Icing Apple-Cassis Compote in Meringue Shells © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  110. 110. Subsidiary Recipes Braised Turkey in Teloloapan Red Mole Five-Tomato Salad with Gorgonzola and Chive Toasts © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  111. 111. Subsidiary Recipes © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  112. 112. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  113. 113. Additional Material Proper Names Illustrations Substantive content © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  114. 114. Substantive Content From explanatory material From notes Within recipe © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  115. 115. Substantive Content Background information Social/cultural information Biographical material © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  116. 116. Source: Maida Heatter’s Book of Great Desserts © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  117. 117. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  118. 118. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  119. 119. Source: Jewish Cooking in America © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  120. 120. What to Ask the Editor Size limits: minimum/maximum Indexable material Prelims Appendices Illustrations Notes © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  121. 121. What to Ask the Editor Style for recipe titles Levels of subheadings Audience © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  122. 122. Good Cookbook Indexes? It's easy to find the recipe which you need. The headings and sub-headings are logical and have the terminology appropriate for the user. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  123. 123. Good Cookbook Indexes? The subentries are descriptive by ingredient, not just a fancy name; [it] helps me to locate a recipe even if I do not know the name…I do not feel overwhelmed with information or lost in the index structure. (about The Joy of Cooking) © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  124. 124. Good Cookbook Indexes? I can always find exactly what I want: recipe title, main ingredient, procedure. Cookbook indexes need to be focused and concise. © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  125. 125. Good Cookbook Indexes? Cookbook indexes are used over and over by the same reader to find the same entry. This means that it is important not to penalize the reader for knowing exactly what they're looking for. I want to find Red Lentil Soup with Lime under "R" and Upside-Down cake under "U" when I look them up twice a month! —Thérèse Shere © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  126. 126. Resources 1. Reference list at end of article on Culinary SIG website: http://www.culinaryindexing.org/bertelson_article.html includes both online and print reference sources; out of date; a number of links don’t work 2. Cook’s Thesaurus (http://www.foodsubs.com/) © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  127. 127. Resources 3. Practically Edible (http://www.practicallyedible.com/) “The Web’s Biggest Food Encyclopedia” 4. Larousse Gastronomique, revised and updated edition, Clarkson Potter, 2009 (1,216 pages, 7 pounds) © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis
  128. 128. Contact Information Fred Leise www.contextualanalysis.com fredleise@contextualanalysis.com @ChicagoIndexer © 2009 by ContextualAnalysis

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