Career planning


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Career planning

  1. 1. An Overview Of Career Planning
  2. 2. THE CONCEPT OF CAREER A career is a sequence of positions held by a person during the course of a lifetime. Lifelong, self-monitored process of career planning that involves choosing and setting personal goals, and formulating strategies for achieving them. A person’s career is shaped by many factors , namely: Performance Education Experience Influential parents Caste links Luck
  3. 3. CAREER STAGES: A career includes many positions, stages and transitions just as person’s life does. FIVE STAGES:  Exploration- it ends in one’s mid twenties as one makes the transition from college to work.  Establishment- here one begins the search for work and picks up the first job.  Mid- career- it is stage that is typically reached between the age of 35 and 50 one is no longer viewed as a ‘learner’.  Late career – here one relaxes a bit and plays the part of an elder states person.  Late stage – during this stage a person’s attention may turn to retirement.
  4. 4. HOW DO PEOPLE CHOOSE CAREERS?? The general individual characteristics that influence how people make career choices are-  Interests  Self image  Personality  Social backgrounds CAREER ANCHORS - They are distinct patterns of self perceived talents, attitudes, motives and values that guide and stabilize a person’s career.
  5. 5. CAREER PLANNING It’s the process by which one selects career goals and the path of these goals.  main focus is on assisting the employees to achieve a better match between personal goals and opportunities available.  it’s a continuous process of developing human resources for achieving optimum results. OBJECTIVES- 1.Attract and retain talent by offering career not jobs. 2.Use human resources effectively and achieve greater productivity. 3. Reduce employee turnover. 4. Improve employee morale and motivation. PROCESS- Steps in career planning process are-  Identifying individual needs and aspirations.  Analyzing career opportunities  Aligning needs and opportunities.  Action plans and periodic review.
  6. 6. CAREER DEVELOPMENT It consists of the personal action one undertakes to achieve a career plan.  It looks at the long term career  Effectiveness of employee. INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT Steps are: Performance Mentors and Sponsors Exposure Key subordinates Networking Loyalty to career
  7. 7. ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT Tools and activities employed for this purpose are-  self- assessment tools e.g. career planning workshop.  Individual counseling.  information services e.g. job posting service, skills inventory.  Employee assessment programs.  Employee development programs. CAREER MANAGEMENT It includes both organizational actions and individual efforts aimed at setting career goals, formulating and implementing strategies and monitoring the results.
  8. 8. INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS :  Identifying career options.  Set career options.  Align both and review. ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIONS:  Prepare  Implement  Monitor career plans
  9. 9. EFFECTIVE CAREER PLANNING Steps are:  Support from top management  Goals should be laid down clearly  Reward performance  Appropriate placement of employees  Career paths to be laid down clearly  Continuous tracking of career planning efforts  Publicity (everyone should be aware of the career opportunities within the organization)
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING  Benefits to employee – employee has advance knowledge of career opportunities within the organization.  Benefits to organization – organization can base their decisions more systemically.  Relations – relations between the employer and the employee would become more cordial. LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING  It is not suitable for the small units where there are few opportunities for the vertical growth of the employees.  Several environmental factors e.g. govt. policies, laws of the land, reservation based on castes, regional pressure may upset career planning.
  11. 11. EMPLOYEE SEPARATION/TERMINATION Means of Employee Separation Resignation Discharge Dismissal Suspension Retrenchment Lay-off Termination Types of Separation Voluntary Employee separation Involuntary Employee Separation
  12. 12. RESIGNATION When an employee tenders a resignation or simply quits her job, it's usually called a resignation. Some employers differentiate involuntary termination from voluntary termination, however. An employee who decides to leave the company is said to have terminated her employment and if further distinction is required, a resignation is considered voluntary termination. DISCHARGE The term "discharge" is often used to describe an employee who is fired or terminated involuntarily. It's common to hear this term used in a union work environment, as in the "the employee was discharged for just cause." The terms "discharge" and "just cause" are indicative of employment terms and conditions pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement or an employment contract. Involuntary termination refers to severing the employment relationship due to poor performance, violation of workplace policies, misconduct, absenteeism or other similar reasons.
  13. 13. DISMISSAL Dismissal from employment (also known as being “fired” or “let go”) is the termination of employment against the will of the employee. Dismissal can be due to issues with the employee’s performance, but it also may be due to factors outside the employee’s control, such as down-sizing or the elimination of a position. SUSPENSION Suspension is defined as "the placing of an employee, for disciplinary reasons, in a temporary status without duties and pay. An employee who voluntarily absents himself from the workplace, however, even due to a valid medical consideration, is not constructively suspended because the leave is not enforced.” RETRENCHMENT Retrenchment too results in the separation of employee from his employers. The principle in the procedure of Retrenchment is that the last person employed in each category must be the first person to be retrenched.
  14. 14. LAY-OFF Employee termination and employee separation are both appropriate ways to describe when an employee layoff occurs. Although the word termination sounds like the employee was at fault, termination in the case of a layoff means the employment relationship ended due to business closure or a lack of available work. Where there is an indefinite layoff, such as business closure, the termination process is more likely to be called a separation because there exists a slim possibility employees may be called back. TERMINATION Usually, this process is perceived negatively by employees. In termination, an employer uses his right to terminate the contract of an employment. There can be many reasons for an employer to terminate the contract of employment but some of the common reasons are: 1) Non-Performance 2) Indiscipline 3) Misconduct 4) Insubordination 5) Theft and etc.
  15. 15. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE  A common perception held by organization’s members.  A system of shared meaning  Culture is the social glue that helps hold an organization together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say or do.  Organizational Cultural is a basic pattern of shared assumptions, values and beliefs considered to be the correct way of thinking about and acting on problems and opportunities facing the organization.
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE  Innovation and Risk- The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks  Attention to detail-The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit accuracy, analysis and attention to detail  Outcome orientation-The degree to which management focuses on result and outcomes  People orientation-The degree to which management decision take into consideration the effect of outcome on people within the organization  Team orientation-The degree to which work activities are organized around team rather then individual  Aggressiveness-The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easy going  Stability-The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status in contrast to growth.
  17. 17. FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE  Defines the boundary between one organization and others.  It enhances commitment to organization’s mission.  It provides a sense of identity for its members.  It clarifies and reinforces standards of behavior.  Enhances the stability of the social system.  Serves as a sense-making and control mechanism for fitting employees in the organization.
  18. 18. HOW ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE FORMS  Selection  Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the organization.  Provides information to candidates about the organization.  Top Management  Senior executives help establish behavioural norms that are adopted by the organization.  Socialization  The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.
  20. 20. UNIFORMITY OF CULTURE  Organizational culture is a common perception held by the organization’s members  All members cannot share this perception at the same degree  This gives result to-  Dominant culture- it expresses set of core values shared by majority of organisation’s members  Subculture- set of values shared by minority of organization’s members and it is formed as a result of problems or experiences that are shared by members of different departments  Strong and weak cultures-in strong culture organization’s core values are both intensely held and widely shared while in weak culture values are limited to few people.
  21. 21. STRONG VERSUS WEAK ORGANIZATONAL CULTURES Strong culture  Values intensely held and widely shared  Culture conveys consistent messages about what is important  Most employees can tell stories about company history/heroes  Strong connection between shared values and behaviour Weak culture  Values limited to few people usually top management  Culture sends contradictory messages about what is important  Employees have little knowledge of company history or heroes  Little connection between shared values and behaviour
  22. 22. EFFECT OF STRONG ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE  Higher Organizational performance  Impact on Length of employment  Person/organization fit and have great influence on the behaviour of its members  Increase cohesiveness  Aids in recruitment and socialization of new employees  Creates stronger employee commitment to the organization
  23. 23. ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE  Also known as corporate climate.  It is a set of properties of the work environment,percieved directly or indirectly by the employees, that is assumed to be a major force in a workplace. FACTORS  Leadership  Communication  Motivation  Decision making  Goals
  24. 24. IMPACT  Interactions among individuals.  Attitude towards organizational rewards.  Response to the work environment.  Individual motivation to achieve work outcomes. MORALE  Maintenance of cooperative living.  Capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose. MEASUREMENT OF MORALE  Observation  Surveys  Records
  25. 25. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY AND MORALE  Teamwork  Interoffice relationships  Respect REBUILDING MORALE  Reconnecting with your team  Developing good relations  Management by walking around  Emotional intelligence  Reward your team  Feed back  Developing your team  Understanding their development needs  Training needs assessment  Cross-training  Improving the workplace  Improving communication
  26. 26. ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENTAL Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization's culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research and theory. NATURE Organization development is a life long , built in mechanism to improve immunity of organization's health to renew itself, often with the assistance of a “change agent “or “catalyst” and the use of enabling appropriate theories and technique from applied behavioral sciences ,anthropology ,sociology and phenomenology. GOALS OF ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT 1.To increase the level of inter-personal trust among employees . 2. To increase employee’s level of satisfaction and commitment . 3.To comfort problems instead of neglecting them. 4.To effectively manage conflict . 5.To increase cooperation among the employees. 6.To put in place process that will help to improve the ongoing operation of the organization on a continuous basis.
  28. 28. LIMITATIONS 1.Major time requirements. 2.Substantial expense. 3.Delayed payoff period. 4.Possible failure. 5.Possible invasion of privacy. 6.Possible psychological harm. 7.Potential conformity. 8.Emphasis on group processes rather than performance. 9.Possible conceptual ambiguity. 10.Difficult in evaluation. 11.Cultural incompatibility.
  29. 29. Thank You