THE CONCEPT OF CAREER
A career is a sequence of positions held by a person during the course of a
Lifelong, self-monitored process of career planning that involves choosing and
setting personal goals, and formulating strategies for achieving them.
A person’s career is shaped by many factors , namely:
A career includes many positions, stages and transitions just as person’s
Exploration- it ends in one’s mid twenties as one makes the transition
from college to work.
Establishment- here one begins the search for work and picks up the first
Mid- career- it is stage that is typically reached between the age of 35 and
50 one is no longer viewed as a ‘learner’.
Late career – here one relaxes a bit and plays the part of an elder states
Late stage – during this stage a person’s attention may turn to retirement.
HOW DO PEOPLE CHOOSE CAREERS??
The general individual characteristics that
influence how people make career choices are-
CAREER ANCHORS -
They are distinct patterns of self perceived talents, attitudes, motives and
values that guide and stabilize a person’s career.
It’s the process by which one selects career goals and the path of these goals.
main focus is on assisting the employees to achieve a better match between
personal goals and opportunities available.
it’s a continuous process of developing human resources for achieving
1.Attract and retain talent by offering career not jobs.
2.Use human resources effectively and achieve greater productivity.
3. Reduce employee turnover.
4. Improve employee morale and motivation.
Steps in career planning process are-
Identifying individual needs and aspirations.
Analyzing career opportunities
Aligning needs and opportunities.
Action plans and periodic review.
It consists of the personal action one undertakes to achieve a career plan.
It looks at the long term career
Effectiveness of employee.
INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Mentors and Sponsors
Loyalty to career
ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Tools and activities employed for this purpose are-
self- assessment tools e.g. career planning workshop.
information services e.g. job posting service, skills inventory.
Employee assessment programs.
Employee development programs.
It includes both organizational actions and individual efforts aimed at
setting career goals, formulating and implementing strategies and
monitoring the results.
INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS :
Identifying career options.
Set career options.
Align both and review.
Monitor career plans
EFFECTIVE CAREER PLANNING
Support from top management
Goals should be laid down clearly
Appropriate placement of employees
Career paths to be laid down clearly
Continuous tracking of career planning efforts
Publicity (everyone should be aware of the career opportunities within the
ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING
Benefits to employee – employee has advance knowledge of career
opportunities within the organization.
Benefits to organization – organization can base their decisions more
Relations – relations between the employer and the employee would become
LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING
It is not suitable for the small units where there are few opportunities for the
vertical growth of the employees.
Several environmental factors e.g. govt. policies, laws of the land, reservation
based on castes, regional pressure may upset career planning.
Means of Employee Separation
Types of Separation
Voluntary Employee separation
Involuntary Employee Separation
When an employee tenders a resignation or simply quits her job, it's usually called
a resignation. Some employers differentiate involuntary termination from
voluntary termination, however. An employee who decides to leave the company
is said to have terminated her employment and if further distinction is required, a
resignation is considered voluntary termination.
The term "discharge" is often used to describe an employee who is fired or
terminated involuntarily. It's common to hear this term used in a union work
environment, as in the "the employee was discharged for just cause." The terms
"discharge" and "just cause" are indicative of employment terms and conditions
pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement or an employment contract.
Involuntary termination refers to severing the employment relationship due to
poor performance, violation of workplace policies, misconduct, absenteeism or
other similar reasons.
Dismissal from employment (also known as being “fired” or “let go”) is the
termination of employment against the will of the employee. Dismissal can be due
to issues with the employee’s performance, but it also may be due to factors
outside the employee’s control, such as down-sizing or the elimination of a
Suspension is defined as "the placing of an employee, for disciplinary reasons, in a
temporary status without duties and pay. An employee who voluntarily absents
himself from the workplace, however, even due to a valid medical consideration,
is not constructively suspended because the leave is not enforced.”
Retrenchment too results in the separation of employee from his employers. The
principle in the procedure of Retrenchment is that the last person employed in
each category must be the first person to be retrenched.
Employee termination and employee separation are both appropriate ways to describe
when an employee layoff occurs. Although the word termination sounds like the employee
was at fault, termination in the case of a layoff means the employment relationship ended
due to business closure or a lack of available work. Where there is an indefinite layoff, such
as business closure, the termination process is more likely to be called a separation
because there exists a slim possibility employees may be called back.
Usually, this process is perceived negatively by employees. In termination, an
employer uses his right to terminate the contract of an employment. There can be
many reasons for an employer to terminate the contract of employment but some
of the common reasons are:
5) Theft and etc.
A common perception held by
A system of shared meaning
Culture is the social glue that
helps hold an organization
together by providing
appropriate standards for what
employees should say or do.
Organizational Cultural is a basic
pattern of shared assumptions,
values and beliefs considered to
be the correct way of thinking
about and acting on problems
and opportunities facing the
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
Innovation and Risk- The degree to which employees are encouraged to be
innovative and take risks
Attention to detail-The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit
accuracy, analysis and attention to detail
Outcome orientation-The degree to which management focuses on result and
People orientation-The degree to which management decision take into
consideration the effect of outcome on people within the organization
Team orientation-The degree to which work activities are organized around
team rather then individual
Aggressiveness-The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive
rather than easy going
Stability-The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining
the status in contrast to growth.
FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Defines the boundary between one organization and others.
It enhances commitment to organization’s mission.
It provides a sense of identity for its members.
It clarifies and reinforces standards of behavior.
Enhances the stability of the social system.
Serves as a sense-making and control mechanism for fitting employees in the
HOW ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE FORMS
Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the organization.
Provides information to candidates about the organization.
Senior executives help establish behavioural norms that are adopted by the
The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.
HOW ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES HAVE AN
IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION
UNIFORMITY OF CULTURE
Organizational culture is a common perception held by the organization’s
All members cannot share this perception at the same degree
This gives result to-
Dominant culture- it expresses set of core values shared by majority of
Subculture- set of values shared by minority of organization’s members and it
is formed as a result of problems or experiences that are shared by members
of different departments
Strong and weak cultures-in strong culture organization’s core values are both
intensely held and widely shared while in weak culture values are limited to
STRONG VERSUS WEAK ORGANIZATONAL CULTURES
Values intensely held and
Culture conveys consistent
messages about what is
Most employees can tell
stories about company
Strong connection between
shared values and behaviour
Values limited to few people
usually top management
Culture sends contradictory
messages about what is
Employees have little
knowledge of company
history or heroes
Little connection between
shared values and behaviour
EFFECT OF STRONG ORGANIZATIONAL
Higher Organizational performance
Impact on Length of employment
Person/organization fit and have great influence on the
behaviour of its members
Aids in recruitment and socialization of new employees
Creates stronger employee commitment to the
Also known as corporate climate.
It is a set of properties of the work environment,percieved directly or
indirectly by the employees, that is assumed to be a major force in a
Interactions among individuals.
Attitude towards organizational rewards.
Response to the work environment.
Individual motivation to achieve work outcomes.
Maintenance of cooperative living.
Capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently
in pursuit of a common purpose.
MEASUREMENT OF MORALE
CORRELATION BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY AND MORALE
Reconnecting with your team
Developing good relations
Management by walking around
Reward your team
Developing your team
Understanding their development needs
Training needs assessment
Improving the workplace
Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization's
culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research and
Organization development is a life long , built in mechanism to improve immunity
of organization's health to renew itself, often with the assistance of a “change
agent “or “catalyst” and the use of enabling appropriate theories and technique
from applied behavioral sciences ,anthropology ,sociology and phenomenology.
GOALS OF ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT
1.To increase the level of inter-personal trust among employees .
2. To increase employee’s level of satisfaction and commitment .
3.To comfort problems instead of neglecting them.
4.To effectively manage conflict .
5.To increase cooperation among the employees.
6.To put in place process that will help to improve the ongoing operation of the
organization on a continuous basis.
PHASES OF ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT
STAGE 1 : CHAOS (fire fighting mentality)
STAGE 2 : STABILITY ( back with basics )
STAGE 3 : HIGH PERFORMMANCE (out standing , sustainable result )
1.Major time requirements.
3.Delayed payoff period.
5.Possible invasion of privacy.
6.Possible psychological harm.
8.Emphasis on group processes rather than performance.
9.Possible conceptual ambiguity.
10.Difficult in evaluation.