Leadership Behavior and Contingency Path Theory

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Book used: Pierce & Nordstrom (2011) Leaders and the leadership process

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  • 1. Support. Behavior that enhances someone else's feeling of personal worth and importance. 2. Interaction facilitation. Behavior that encourages members of the group to develop close, mutually satisfying relationships. 3. Goal emphasis. Behavior that stimulates an enthusiasm for meeting the group's goal or achieving excellent performance. 4. Work facilitation. Behavior that helps achieve goal attain- ment by such activities as scheduling, coordinating, planning, and by providing resources such as tools, materials, and technical knowledge.
  • Direct and indirect relationships
  • Ask how grievances will look like (follower) How would you show consideration? (leader)
  • Topic of ranges/ credit theory – at some point structure becomes less important given a certain amount of consderation  Do we need to include more variables? What about trust?
  • Low consideration and high structure go with high grievances and turnover Strucutre seems to be fine when consideration (the feeling ob being taken care of) is given … Leaders: How does this look like? Mutual trust Tolerance
  • Ask how grievances will look like (follower) How would you show consideration? (leader)
  • Followers: can you imagine reacting upon leadership, job engagement etc solely by positive experiences? Why would you think were the negative emotions insignificant?
  • The self-identity system encompasses the intrapersonal self defined by internal dispositions, abilities, and dynamics. The leader identity system reflects the interpersonal self as defined by the leader’s relationships with others. It serves as the bridge between the individual and the collective self or social identity and is associated with group membership and group process (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Both the self- and the leader identity systems are embedded in the spiritual identity system. The model assumes that authentic leaders are motivated to sustain multiple identities in harmony and congruent with one another. Brewer (2003) posited that balance or the optimal self can be achieved by adjusting individual self-construals to be more consistent with the group prototype by developing a stable leader identity system or by shifting social identification to a group that is more congruent with the self-identity system. Finally, the spiritual identity system functions as a superordinate configuration of behaviors based on transcendent behaviors and values
  • Objective- examine how LMX is related to specific leadership behaviors that have been identified as relevant for understanding effective leadership
  • this study is to identify specific types of relations-oriented behavior that managers can use to improve their exchange relationship with individual subordinates. An improved relationship will result in desirable outcomes such as increased job satisfaction, task motivation, and performance by subordinates.
  • Tries to figure out.. The effect of leadership behavior on subordinates satisfaction and motivation
  • Tries to figure out.. The effect of leadership behavior on subordinates satisfaction and motivation
  • Debate question.. With a similar situation: Which position is harder? Something like: Tim Cook (new CEO apple) or Jamie Oliver in his cuisine ?
  • Leadership Behavior and Contingency Path Theory

    1. 1. Today we talk about: Leader Behavior and the importance of context Diogo Andrade & Franziska Becker And applying! Welcome to our facilitation!
    2. 2. What is leadership? How does it look like to be a good leader? When do I feel being well led? Why is my leader a good leader? Why is my team a good team?
    3. 3. Did you make any experiences with good or bad leader behavior? Experience is a great teacher. John Legend
    4. 4. Today: Chapter 7: Leadership & Leader Behaviors Chapter 8: Contingency & Path- Goal Theories of leadership
    5. 5. Agenda for today <ul><li>Chapter 7 & Chapter 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Four- factor theory of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership behavior on Employee Grievances and Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Self- Sacrifice and Leadership Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Behavior on LMX </li></ul><ul><li>Path- Goal Theory of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>2. How do you make leaders more effective? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Leader and Leaders Behavior How does this topic contribute to our understanding of leadership and leader effectiveness/ success? <ul><li>Examination of what leaders do helps us understanding what it means to be a good leader </li></ul><ul><li>People with specific traits (previous chapters) are more likely to engage in leadership positions </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership seen as an activity highlights the importance of context and makes useful behavior situation-specific </li></ul>
    7. 7. 4- Factor Theory Bowers & Seashore (1966) Organizational Effectiveness
    8. 8. Four- Factor Theory of Leadership <ul><li>Bowers & Seashore </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship, mutual trust, respect, warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Organization, communication, getting jobs done </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation on the basis of #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity& awareness of Social relationships, pressures from in- & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Production emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Production orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Employee orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Group maintenance functions </li></ul><ul><li>Goal achievement functions </li></ul>Ohio State University University of Michigan Research Center for Group Dynamics <ul><li>Human relations skills </li></ul><ul><li>Technical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative skills </li></ul>Mann’s three skills
    9. 9. 1. Support 2. Interaction facilities 3. Goal emphasis 4. Work facilitation <ul><li>Friendship, mutual trust, respect, warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Organization, communication, getting jobs done </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation on the basis of #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity& awareness of Social relationships, pressures from in- & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Production emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Production orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Employee orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Group maintenance functions </li></ul><ul><li>Goal achievement functions </li></ul>Ohio State University University of Michigan Research Center for Group Dynamics <ul><li>Human relations skills </li></ul><ul><li>Technical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative skills </li></ul>Mann’s three skills
    10. 10. Four- Factor Theory of LSH <ul><li>What were the most important aspects for you here? </li></ul><ul><li>Our Top 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction + performance = effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of Peer & managerial leadership characteristics on leadership effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>General conclusion </li></ul>
    11. 11. Deeper insights to Bower & Seashore (1966) Performance factors Satisfaction factors
    12. 12. Goal emphasis (def.) - Behavior that stimulates an enthusiasm for meeting the group's goal or achieving excellent performance. Interaction facilitation (def.) – Behavior that encourages members of the group to develop close, mutually satisfying relationships. Did you all understand the results?
    13. 13. General conclusion It is interesting, that the best predictor is the best peer measure of possible leadership effectiveness If you want the people who work for you to behave in a certain way, model that behaviour yourself.
    14. 14. LSH patterns Employee Grievances & Turnover Fleishman & Harris (1962)
    15. 15. Leadership patterns/ behavior Group behavior Consideration Structure Grievances Turnover
    16. 16. “ Thus, it appears that for neither Consideration nor Structure is there an “optimum” point in the middle of the range below and above which grievances rise” Given our last session on leader emergence can you think of a sound reasoning for this result?
    17. 17. Grievances Turnover Escape of a problem in absence of mutual trust Little increase in grievances and turnover when… High structure is seen as threat when…
    18. 18. Leadership patterns/ behavior Group behavior Consideration Structure Grievances Turnover Physical & Mental health ? Possible mediator: Follower’s emotions?
    19. 19. Follower’s emotions Physical & Mental Health <ul><li>New leadership research branch with the advantage of being fact- based (specific behaviors rather than styles) </li></ul><ul><li>empirical evidence that leader behavior has an effect on the likelihood of employees ’ blood pressure, heart diseases, musculoskeletal symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>good leadership was associated with a 27% reduction in sick leave and a 46% reduction in disability pensions (Kuoppala, 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treating all employees equally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping promises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing the right skills training for job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ relationships between followers’ experienced employee-centered leadership and job engagement and intentions to leave the organization, respectively, are fully mediated by their positive emotional experiences ” (..) (Glaso et al., 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: </li></ul><ul><li> potential for strengthening the follower’s sense of being a valuable and competent person </li></ul>
    20. 20. Leader Self- Sacrifice & Leadership Effectiveness De Cremer & Knippenberg (2004)
    21. 21. ‘‘ leadership involves persuading other people to set aside for a period of time their individual concerns and to pursue a common goal that is important for the responsibilities and welfare of a group’’ (Hogan, Curby, & Hogan, 1994, p. 493; Chapter 7) Leadership Femininity has been associated with an expressive orientation, an affective concern for the welfare of others (Gershenoff & Foti, 2003; Chapter 4) ‘‘ Behavior indicative of friendship, mutual trust, respect and warmth.” (Pierce & Nordstrom, 2011; Chapter 7 ) Femininity Consideration ‘‘ e.g. charisma, expertise, friendship.” (Pierce & Nordstrom, 2011; Chapter 6 ) Personal Power ‘‘ Self- sacrificial leader is able to motivate followers to go beyond their self- interest and to look to the welfare of the collective (..)” (Pierce & Nordstrom, 2011; Chapter 6 ) Self- Sacrifice
    22. 22. Attributes of a social nature Leader’s display of self- confidence in pursuit of collective goals communicate the likelihood or expectation of collective success Self- confidence The accelerator/ the communicator/ the motivator
    23. 23. It is not that complex … Self – sacrifice = the collective is valuable = “A leader needs follower to be a leader” Self- confidence = expectation of collective success = communicating (an exchange tool) goals Leadership effectiveness Collective identification
    24. 24. How does this look like in real life?
    25. 25. A more holistic view on leadership effectiveness Klenke, 2007 We need leaders who have a deep sense of purpose and are true to their core values . George suggested that corporate boards choose authentic leaders for (..) values and ability to motivate employees to create genuine value for customers.
    26. 27. Influence of Leader Behaviors on the Leader-Member Exchange Relationship Gary Yukl, Mark O´Donnel, and Thomas Taber (2009)
    27. 28. Antecedent
    28. 29. Influence of Leader Behaviors on the Leader-Member Exchange Relationship Transformational Leadership behavior is associated with high LMX Supporting - Acting considerate, showing sympathy and support when someone is upset or anxious, and providing encouragement and support when there is a difficult, stressful task Recognizing - Providing praise and recognition for effective performance, significant achievements, special contributions, and performance improvements Developing - Providing coaching and advice, providing opportunities for skill development, and helping people learn how to improve their skills Consulting - Checking with people before making decisions that affect them, encouraging participation in decision making, and using the ideas and suggestions of others Delegating - Assigning new responsibilities and additional authority to carry them out, and trusting people to solve problems and make decisions without getting prior approval
    29. 30. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb00643.x/pdf identified specific types of relations-oriented behavior that managers can use to improve their exchange relationship … outcomes such as increased job satisfaction, task motivation, and performance by subordinates
    30. 31. Today: Chapter 7: Leadership & Leader Behaviors Chapter 8: Contingency & Path- Goal Theories of leadership
    31. 32. “ as conditions change, so do the leadership needs that are created and the leader behaviors that will prove effective” – book- pg 194 “ the context creates a unique set of group need, which then calls for a different approach to leadership” – Stogdill (1948)
    32. 33. Self Assessment exercise: Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Masculinity – Associated with an instrumental orientation, a cognitive focus on getting the job done Femininity – Associated with an expressive orientation, an affective concern for the welfare of others Low LPC- leaders are more task oriented High LPC- Leaders are more relationship oriented
    33. 34. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Robert J. House & Terence R. Mitchell (1974) Effects of supervisory training concluded that the effects of supervisory training in modifying behavior were very short lived and did not improve performance
    34. 35. Path- Goal Theory of Leadership Leaders are effective because of impact on subordinates: Motivation Performance Satisfation
    35. 36. Path- Goal Theory of Leadership
    36. 37. Path- Goal Theory of Leadership Not enough evidence for supportive leadership Achievement oriented leadership- followers confident that their efforts would pay-off in effective performance     Leader Directiveness Supportive Leadership Achievement Oriented Leadership Participative Leadership Locus of Control Internal X External X Ability High - Low             Task autonomy X stressful, frustrating or dissatisfying X non-repetitive X ambiguous task X X X clear task Structure Low X High             Result: satisfaction satisfaction performance satisfaction performance
    37. 38. Path- Goal Theory of Leadership » make connection to leadership styles.. In order to get the answer: It all depends - sentence pg 204
    38. 39. How Do You Make Leaders More Effective? New answers to an old puzzle Fred E. Fiedler (1972) Effects of supervisory training concluded that the effects of supervisory training in modifying behavior were very short lived and did not improve performance
    39. 40. Are leadership training programs irrelevant?
    40. 42. Contingency theory of leadership:
    41. 43. How Do You Make Leaders More Effective? New answers to an old puzzle
    42. 45. Sources and interesting links <ul><li>Interesting links on practical approaches to leadership: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership effectiveness through strategic leadership development: http://www.vrhconsulting.com/2003VRHSpringNEWSLINE.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of leader behavior on Employee Health retrieved at: February 29 th , 2011 from: http://www.boston.com/jobs/employers/hr/nehra/2011/02/the_impact_of_leader_behavior.html </li></ul><ul><li>Klenke (2007), Authentic Leadership: A Self, Leader, and Spiritual Identity Perspective, Leadership Development Institute, Regent University </li></ul><ul><li>Pierce & Nordstrom (2011), Leaders and the Leadership Process, McGrawHill </li></ul>

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