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Slides from a lecture given at the Athena Institute, VU University of Amsterdam. The lecture focuses on a part of my PhD thesis, which is concerned with the boundary work that research councils perform when they finance a new emerging fields of science and technology. In particular, research councils that are organized along disciplinary boundaries, tend to fraction the new interdisciplinary fields along the established disciplinary borders, unless decision-making entities are organized 'above' or 'next to' the disciplinary structures. Similarly the distinction between research funding organizations for science and those for technology development, creates a split in the funding of fields such as nanotechnology that tend to cross this boundary. The Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swedish foundation for Strategic Research, Academy of Finland, and Tekes are discussed in these respects.