(ISIA 4) Cours d'algorithmique (1995)

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Lectures given at ISIA, Ecole des Mines de Paris (1995)

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(ISIA 4) Cours d'algorithmique (1995)

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  3. 3.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#%G¿ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687FuÁ ÂaÓ6•ÃÄHD7Å2zC EGF À 687¬Æ}è6 ÇEG~8APÃ(xP25E5È  t ”„vy–wsutš•„¬†‰„‡ˆÉ”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…TˆhBƒ‹‚5t˜„‰ˆ±“•tu… ”wsyˆÊŒwsQt˜ˆƒ†…„a‘—“Bt¢“•rŒwrŠ„QS € …•r‚{©sˑwƒ‹†‰†‰„²ˆ „º…­…•r‚ÄrsQ”˜‚eŒ˜„ Ìh“•ƒ Œ˜„f̓“•sQr„ÎS À 687¬Æ}è6 F–ÇEG0ÅEG~†9•734zxƒÈ  tIˆ†”„‡†…„„vy…T‚…“•twt˜„—ƒwt ”„‡†•”„Ž„„tu…Ê”wsQr$…‚™v‡ƒ8» †‰‚…„„r‡„¨…ˆ“•ta†‰„³ˆ”„„”wsQr„hŒwƒÏr„‡ˆŠ…T„µŒ‹„ª†es’†‰‚…ˆ…T„QS  t°rŠ„„v¨“•žŽ„„t—v¨„ ½Šƒ˜ˆT8ƒ“’Щsϓ•‘…T„t˜‚™rh†™sˆ…‚‰ˆ…T„‰¡†‚eŒ˜„QS À 687¬Æ}è6 7xDFE€6Q9B7Å4zxƒÈ  t°‚et˜ˆ”„„r„ƒƒ—t˔wsQrˆƒwtˆ…„‡ˆË”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆ5„„t †‰„²ˆ5”˜†™sWÑv‡sQt•…(v¨“Brr„„vy…„„Ž„„t•…„S € …•r‚¨”wsQrD‚™t˜ˆ„r$…T‚‰“Bt¶Œ˜‚™v–˜“y…T“BŽ‚™8ƒ˜„ S À 687¬Æ}è6 ~˜4zC ÆP9Qè25E5È v–wsQ8ƒ˜„ ”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…Ò„²ˆ…¦v¨“•ž”—sQrB”„Ÿsuƒ8˜ sQƒ…yr„‡ˆ­„¨…Ê“•tIv¨“•ž”†…T„’†…„at˜“•—‘wr„fŒ“’$”„‡†•”„„Ž„tu…Tˆh”˜†eƒ˜ˆ¸”€„¨…T‚›…ˆ 8ƒ˜„‰†eƒ˜‚tS  t¢v‡sl†™v‡ƒ˜†…„œsy‚et˜ˆ‚“ˆ±“•t¢rsutš€S À 687¬Æ}è6ŸÓT|DFl7Å4zxƒÈ§Ô „¨…(„„t¸Õœƒ8¡wr„ˆ†™sµ ”„¨…y–˜“†Œ˜„f֌˜‚V¡˜‚…ˆ„„r»$”€“•ƒ—r» r8”„¨š8t‹„„rל…•rº©„‡ˆD„„t´¡B“yš8ƒ˜„¸„„tÉsy†›š•“Br‚›…•–—Ž‚™8ƒ˜„QS À 687¬Æ}è6 ~˜4zC ÆDÓ6Q9B7C EGx9—È ”Ø–†•”„„Ž„„t•…TˆzŒ˜‚™rŠ„„vy…T„„Ž„tu…z“•r±Œ˜“•t8» tD”„‡ˆDš8r¾sQvº„Ž©s—ƒwtÒv²sy†™v‡ƒ‹†“ˆTƒwrh†‰„„ƒ—r­v¨†‰„¨f¦S € Ù “•rt˜„¸‚™tf”„„rŠ‚‰„„ƒwrŠ„ Œ˜„fډÌ3Ûφ‰“yšÜۇÎS
  4. 4.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#%€Ý WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck Âa4zFy7h9B7Å4zx HD| ÆD6•45Þh0ßEGC E Ü“l…T“•t˜ˆˆà á â•ã '•älånåæånä ãyçQ謃wtœ„„t˜ˆ±„„Ë‘˜†…„DŒ˜„hÛ ”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆ}©s܅•rŠ‚‰„„r¨S ©Y vy–wsuBƒ‹„ ”„‡†•”„Ž„„tu…Ëãy鵄‡ˆ…´syˆˆ“†v¨‚•”„Iƒwt˜„Év¨†…„f ƒwt˜‚™8ƒ˜„ëê„郌“’Xƒwt „„t˜ˆ„„—‘˜†‰„I…“y…•sy†…„„Ž„„t•…Ž“•rŒ‹“•twtD”„¶Œ˜„¦vº†‰„ftˆìÌtí äyî ÎyS  t ”—r„„twŒ í á ï`ÛÄðS  t¢v–˜„„rv–˜„¸ƒwt˜„f”€„„r—ƒ…•s…T‚…“•t¯ñ Œ‹„œòªç …T„²†‰†‰„a8ƒ˜„u£ óƒô õ¯ö ê÷ø é™ù ô ê÷ø`ú ù € ¥ „²ˆ¢”„²†”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆ¸Ì3v¨†‰„¨fæˆy㈱“•tu…¬ˆŠ…T“†vyx‡”„‡ˆ¬ŒwsQt‹ˆ¬ƒwt¢…•sQ‘˜†…„„sQƒIû Œ˜„ …•sy‚‰†…†‰„aÛD£wê„éÄá û´ï ó ðS ü –wsQ8ƒ˜„f”€„„rËƒ†…•s…T‚…“•tžr„„8ƒ˜‚…„„r$…ƒýÏsþ·„„v…•s…T‚…“•t˜ˆ‡S  ”D”„„rs¼…T‚‰“•t¯Œ˜„ ‘wsyˆ„Q£—v¨“•ž”wsursy‚‰ˆ±“•tҌ‹„‰ÿ—v¨†‰„ftˆ­„º…ƒ”€„„r—ƒ…•s…T‚…“•t“S U‚8“•t°ƒ†…T‚‰†…‚‰ˆ„ƒƒ—t˜‚™8ƒ˜„„Ž„tu…z†…„ª…•sQ‘‹†‰„„sQƒœû sy†‰“Brˆd“Bt°8ƒwsy†…‚¡ €„µ†‰„D…•r‚ Œ˜„ 9u687ƒEGx Æh03Ã(~˜E S—U‚W†‰„‡ˆ¯”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆˆ‚™Œ˜„„t•…T‚eBƒ‹„‡ˆ­ˆ„fr„¨…•rŠ“•ƒ8¡B„„t•… v¨†™syˆ±ˆ”„‡ˆa©sˆes¢ ptɌwƒÒ…•r‚¨ˆTƒ˜‚›¡lsutu…ƒ†…„„ƒwrµ“BrŒwr„ r„‡†™s¼…T‚VfPŒwsQt˜ˆÜû¤£˜“•t ”wsQr†…„ Œ˜„ 9Q687¸F9QèÞh0ÅE S
  5. 5.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#%¦¥ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687ÊÆDè6 ÇEG~8APÃ(xP25EGF¨§ À 687°ßà Þh|D003EGF € …yr‚P„„t ”˜†™suv¨„ÒˆŠ…•sQ‘˜†…„QS € ¥ ’d‚™ŒD”„‡„ž„‡ˆŠ…ŽŒ˜„—fhsy‚er„ÉŒ˜„‡ˆTv¨„twŒwr„¯†‰„²ˆ ”„²†”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆa†‰„‡ˆ¯”‹†™ƒ˜ˆ¯”€„¨…T‚ …TˆŽ…•sQt—Œ˜‚‰ˆ¯8ƒ˜„I†…„‡ˆ ”„‡†•”„„Ž„tu…Tˆa†…„‡ˆ¯”˜†™ƒ‹ˆ š8rsQtwŒ‹ˆ­r„„Ž“Btu…T„tu…ƒÌł™ŒD”„‡„ Œ˜„‰‘—ƒ˜†‰†…„ ¤©©© !$# ÎyS € ”—syˆˆ„‡ˆhˆTƒwv²v¨„‡ˆˆ‚›¡B„‡ˆƒŒ—sQt˜ˆDûŽS ü –wsQ8ƒ˜„f”wsyˆˆ±„‰v¨“Bt˜ˆ‚‰ˆŠ…T„‰„„t¯ƒwt ”wsQrv¨“Bƒwrˆ¸ˆ”„„8ƒ˜„„t•…T‚‰„‡†@S%fƒwrsQt•… vº„Ë”wsurv¨“•ƒwrŠˆ'£·“BtŸ”€„„r—ƒ……T„a†‰„²ˆ ”„²†”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆ vº“•t˜ˆ†”„„v‡ƒ†…T‚VftˆÏt˜“•t8»“•rŒ˜“•t—t}”„‡ˆ‡S ¥ „ž…•su‘˜†‰„„suƒ „²ˆ…œ…•r‚•”„¯ˆ‚ †‰“•rˆÊŒ“’Xƒwt˜„f”wsyˆ±ˆ„‰“•t«„þ·„„vy…yƒ˜„‰suƒwv‡ƒwt˜„f”€„„r—ƒ…•s…T‚…“•t“S Æ}6•4{~˜EGHD|P6•E)( r‚ Ù ƒ˜†…†‰„QÌ10 Ó6 û¹£ #32©452 Î76 0 è6 ó £ 7x9uE€25E€6 68 pt¨£ Þ­4‡4z03E€ÃÄx 6 Þ­E€2z7x 9 ó Û £Vá 9A@CBED ãF6 G AD703E xP4(9  Gt HP4 Þ­E€2z7x 9 ó Û £Vá HPIQzãF6 Ó456 ó £Vá R 9Q4 Û S R HP4 73Ó û´ï óAT Rð î ûžï ó ð 9•APEGx Þ­E€2z7x Ud„rËƒ…„„r¨Ìhû ä ó ä ó¦T RÎV6 9 ó Û £Vá 9A@¦BED ãF6 EGxDH 6 EGxDH 6 EGx}H 6
  6. 6.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#%¦W WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck X 4zC Æh0ÅEw®}7h9}ÇE H}| 9Q687Žßà Þh|}003EGF Y ®{E€68~w7~˜E ` acbdbfehg5iqp7rsptbur vxwrypP€Fe¦burs‚ryƒi„v…rtb‡†tˆ‰pP€‘’wr“v”eCp7r ûxI ó3• Q B–B ã g5e¦p—bur„iE†…˜ybur™†Fe vedryƒigf–ryphgig5e¦f1jk†Fƒiml ÿ ähnwä™owähp—ä R ä ÿ q €Fƒrƒ‰rypse¦ƒ rhtCryuˆ‰bvrt€we burxigpyf w† ˜seCbdburtv…ry)†FƒAv…r Û S R ˆz†g'g{ryg¤g5ez'yrcgcg5f1jrcg‘|~}e€rybrcgyi‚bvrƒˆ‰pyf‡t v„d…e¦ƒ‰rƒˆz†g'g{r‡† €  tœ”—„ƒ…§Ž“†Œ˜‚¡ €„„r(†t’Xsl†›š•“•rŠ‚™–•…•Ž„h”—“Bƒwr(†™sƒˆ m ”wsyˆ±ˆ„D„„tœt˜“y…•sutu… Bƒ‹„­ˆ„„ƒ˜†…ˆP†‰„‡ˆ¹”„‡†•”„Ž„„tu…ˆzŒ˜„­ûžï‰R ånå ۗS ˆ T Rð—‚etu…„„r¡˜‚‰„„t—t˜„„t•…P†‰“•rŠˆ Œwƒ‚ˆ m ”—sQrv¨“•ƒ—rˆ‡S %‰sQt˜ˆf†‰„žv²syˆ‰†…„ž”˜‚™rŠ„‘£(“•tì„þ·„„v‡ƒ…„¤Š ç{‹ '鍌 ' ó á ç ø 瓋 ' ù v á ŽIÌ3Û v Î v¨“•ž”wsQr±sy‚‰ˆ“Bt˜ˆ‡SÄU˜ƒwr‰ƒ—t …•sQ‘‹†‰„„sQƒ¦…•r‚•”„£·“•t1s‘«”€„„rËƒ†…•s…T‚…“•t ©s „þ·„„vy…•ƒ‹„„rªžsl‚‰ˆ­Û S R v¨“•ž”—sQrsy‚…ˆ“•t˜ˆ‡S Y ®{E€68~w7~˜E ’ }e€r“ˆ€rsƒ‡g{r'”y•mjk€Fehg–v…r—bVd8†FƒA†”bf˜‘g{rxryƒ‘)€F˜”ryƒƒ‰r v…r™yrsi†”b¡šF€Fpyf1iœ›¦r‡†
  7. 7.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#%z WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687¬ÆDÓ6 ÇEG~BAPÃÄx{25E ž À 687Ê6•Ã¨Æh7HPE ŸV  45Ó6•E¢¡ € …yr¨©„‡ˆ­„7£žv‡sQv¨„œ„t¶”wrs…T‚e8ƒ˜„¯Ìg¤ ¥§¦‘¨ i !$# ÎyS  t¶”wsQr$…•s¼š•„œ†‰„œ…•s» ‘˜†‰„„suƒŸ„„t Œ˜„ƒ8˜Ÿˆ“•ƒ˜ˆ¦»3…•sQ‘˜†…„„sQƒ8˜ ”wsQrfrsQ”w”€“•r$…Ò©sIƒwt ”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…fã vy–˜“u‚‰ˆ‚8sQƒœ–—syˆTsQrŒ Œ˜„DžsQt˜‚@©„r„ƒ©s­vº„DBƒ‹„P†‰„D”wr„Ž‚‰„„r·…ysQ‘˜†‰„sQƒ ˆ“Q‚ … v¨“•t˜ˆ…‚›…•ƒD”„aŒ˜„²ˆI”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆª‚et8f”„„r‚‰„ƒwrˆ—©s«ãυysQtwŒ˜‚…ˆ’8ƒ˜„a†…„‚ˆ±„„v¨“•twŒ v¨“•t•…T‚‰„„t•…³†‰„‡ˆ«”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…TˆPˆTƒw”D”„„rŠ‚‰„„ƒwrŠˆ ©s¹ã˜Sw㰄²ˆ…ƒsQ”—”—„²†”„ Æh7 0 4(9 S € su”w”€„‡†‰ˆƒr8”„v‡ƒwrˆ‚›ftˆµˆTƒwrh†‰„‡ˆÊŒ˜„„ƒ8˜Òˆ“Bƒ˜ˆ¦»Å…•su‘˜†‰„„suƒ8˜“S € ft“•t—vy…T‚‰“Bt ”wsur$…T‚›…‚‰“•twt—sQtu…—†‰„¯…•sQ‘‹†‰„„sQƒ sQƒ…“•ƒwraŒwƒ ”˜‚V¡B“l…„S ( r‚ „„t¢”˜†esQv¨„QS Æ}6•4{~˜EGHD|P6•E)( r‚©ƒsQ”˜‚™Œ‹„QÌ10 Ó6 ûŽ£ #m2©52 6 ó ä õ £ 7xz9QE€25E€6 ÎV6 0 è6 x—£ 7xz9QE€25E€6 6 Þ­E€2z7x 7ÅÓ ó î õ 9BA{EGx Þ­E€2z7x ˆ™£Vá ª @ IkH ó H ó¬« Û}ÌÅû ä ó ä õ ÎV6 ( r‚f©ƒsu”˜‚™Œ˜„uÌhû ä ó ä ˆ™S RÎV6 ( r‚f©ƒsu”˜‚™Œ˜„uÌhû ä ˆ T R ä õ Î76 EGxDH 6 EGx}H 6
  8. 8.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#%¦­ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687Ê6•Ã¨Æh7HPE EGx Æh03Ã(~˜E ¥ sœft“•twvy…‚‰“•t ‚è6Q9•7h9•734zx „‡ˆ…ÊŒ}”„„v‡r‚ …T„fv¨‚V»$Œ‹„‡ˆˆ“•ƒ‹ˆ‡£ ÓT|Dx}~†9•734zx U‡sur$…T‚›…‚‰“•t“ÌÅûŽ£ #m2©452 6 ó ä õ £ 7x9uE€25E€6 Îy£ 7x9uE€25E€6 6 0 è6 x®£d†t£ 7x9uE€25E€6 6 Þ­E€2z7x B £Vá ó‰T R6 ˆ £Vá õ 6 G AD703E B ô ˆ HP4 ÞÜE€2z7x G A}703E ûžï¯ˆ˜ð±° ûžï ó ð HP4 ˆ £Vá ˆ²S R6 G A}703E B ô õ Ã(xDH ûžï B ð ô ûžï ó ð HP4 B £Vá B T R‘6 73Ó B î ˆ 9•APEGx Þ­E€2z7x Ud„rËƒ…„„r¨Ìhû ä B ä ˆGÎV6 B £Vá B T R6 ˆ™£Vá ˆ™S R‘6 EGxDH EGxDH Ud„„r—ƒ…T„„rºÌhû ä ó ä ˆWÎV6 ª @ IH ó H ó¬« Û £›á ˆA6 EGx}H 6
  9. 9.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#%¦³ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck X 4zC Æh03Ew®P7h9DÇE HD| 9u687Ê6•Ã¨Æh7HPE Y ®{E€68~w7~˜E ´ acbdbfehg5iqp7rsptbur vxwrypP€Fe¦burs‚ryƒi„v…rtb‡†tˆ‰pP€‘’wr“v”eCp7r ûxI ó3µ @k¶ óE· ã g5e¦p—bur¸i¬†C˜yburh†Fe ved¹ryƒigf–ryphg¤g5e¦f1j†Fƒiml ÿ ä™nwähowä™pwä R ä ÿ 䙺wä'» q €Fƒrƒ‰ryp¤bur—gs¼›½wry)†xv…ryg¸†¼ˆhˆryb¯g¸pwr““e¦phg5f¾hg¿ry˜h€AÀ Á iwrcg{| € %fsQt˜ˆ—†‰„Iv²syˆŽ†‰„ ”˜‚™r„£‡†‰„É…•r‚­r±sQ”˜‚™Œ‹„IsŸƒ—t˜„Iv¨“Bž”˜†‰„˜˜‚ …˜”„Ò„„t ŽÉÌÛ v ÎyS®%‰sQt‹ˆ­ƒwtɍŽ„‡‚‰†…†‰„„ƒwrÜv‡syˆ­“•ƒ«„„t¢Ž“¼ÂB„„t—t˜„‘£•†t’ sy†›š•“Br‚›…•–—Ž„ s˃wt˜„fv¨“•ž”‹†‰„˜˜‚›…‹”„¸„„t)ŽÉÌÛ°†‰“lš­ÛˆÎyS Y ®{E€68~w7~˜E à Ä~pP€Fe¦jr'” b‡† '€”uˆ‰bur™tFf1iwr s€F˜”ryƒrƒ‰r v…r bVd8†Fb• šF€Fpyf1iœ›¦‚r|ÆÅƁ wrybffœ€Fp7rsp bVd4†Fb¡šF€Fpyfdid›¦rLjz€”eCp ȓe€r vh†Fƒ‡g buryg '†g—ryf1b1bvrye¦phgyɖf1bʃ‰r¸p7rhȓe¦f–rypyiËȓe€r ŽIÌ3ۈΠ€¼ˆ¿wrypP†”iqfœ€”ƒ‡g{|
  10. 10.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('œÌ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687ÊÆDÓ6 F–ÇEG03EG~9B7Å4zx  tÒv–˜„„r±vy–˜„¬ƒ—t ”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…P„˜…•r²¾„„žsy†ÄÌ3”wsQrP„˜“S††‰„ ”‹†™ƒ˜ˆÜ”—„º…T‚›…¯”„‡†•”„» Ž„„tu…¨ÎyS  t †‰„¯”€„„r—ƒ…T„Žs²¡B„„vφ™s¦”wr„Ž‚t©„„r„—”˜†™suv¨„¯ŒwƒŸ…•sQ‘‹†‰„„sQƒ ”wƒ˜‚‰ˆƒ“Bt҂›…‹”„r„ s²¡B„„v¸†‰„ ˆ“Bƒ˜ˆ¦»Å…•su‘˜†‰„„suƒ¢ûÍGá ûžï`ÿ åæå Û(ð5„¨…¬sy‚et˜ˆ‚5Œ˜„ ˆTƒ˜‚›…„QS Æ}6•4{~˜EGHD|P6•E)( r‚ U„‡†‰„vy…T‚‰“Bt“Ì10 Ó6¤( £ #m2©52 6XŒ˜„‘wƒ…„£ 7xz9QE€25E€6 ÎV6 0 è6 ‚ΣXx€£ 7x9uE€25E€6 6 Þ­E€2z7x 7ÅÓ · ã‘Ï5QH î Û 9BA{EGx Þ­E€2z7x ó £›á · ã‘ϼQHy6 Ó456 ˆ™£Vá · ã‘Ï5QH 9u4 Û HP4 73Ó û´ï¡ˆ˜ð î ûžï ó ð 9BA{EGx ó £Vá ˆr6 U§„„rËƒ†…T„„r¨Ìhû ä · ã“Ï5QH ä ó ÎV6 ( r‚ U†„‡†‰„„v…T‚‰“•t¨Ìhû ä · ã‘Ï5QH T RÎ76 EGxDH 6 EGx}H 6 ¥ sŽv¨“•ž”˜†…„˜˜‚›…‹”„¸„„t¢Ž“¼ÂB„„t—t˜„‘£†ŒwsQt˜ˆ³†‰„aŽ„‡‚…†‰†…„„ƒwr­Œ˜„²ˆ­v‡syˆc£€ŒwsQt˜ˆ †‰„œv‡slˆµ†‰„ ”˜‚™rŠ„ „‡ˆ…Ü„„t‘ŽIÌ3Û v ÎyS
  11. 11.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('' WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687¬ÆDÓ617xDF¼E€6Q9•734zx € ( r‚W”wsQrD‚™t‹ˆ„„r$…T‚…“•tIŒ˜‚evy–‹“y…T“•Ž‚eBƒ‹„QS  t´ˆƒw”w”€“Qˆ„ Bƒ‹„’†…„‡ˆ ó S RҔ—r„„Ž‚‰„rˆ ”„²†”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆ ˆ“Btu…a…•r‚•”„‡ˆa„¨…Ï“•t v–˜„„r±vy–˜„¹†™s씘†™sQvº„¢Œwƒ ó m ”„²†”„„Ž„„t•…­Œ—sQt˜ˆ¬†‰„‡ˆ ó S Rϔwr„Ž‚‰„„rˆ²S  tI†t’`‚et˜ˆ†”„„r„ë©sŽ†™s«‘€“•twt˜„ ”˜†™sQvº„‰„¨…Ü“•t¢v¨“Btu…T‚etƒ‹„{½Šƒ˜ˆBƒ¨’XsQƒIÛ m ”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…„S U–†™ƒ˜ˆ‚…„„ƒwrˆ³¡QsQrŠ‚™sQt•…T„‡ˆÜŒ}”„„”€„„twŒwsQt•…³Œ˜„¸†™sˆ…“v²sy†‰‚…ˆTs…T‚…“•t“£ ¤ …•r‚¨”wsQrh‚™t˜ˆ±„„r$…T‚…“•t¢ˆ†”„„8ƒ˜„„t•…T‚…„‡†‰†…„QS ¤ …•r‚¨”wsQrh‚™t˜ˆ±„„r$…T‚…“•tIŒ˜‚evy–˜“l…T“•Ž‚™8ƒ˜„uS ÐyіÒ'ÓEÔ3ՓÖ5іÔ×sØfÙ4ÚfÛPÜ % Øf݇٧ެÛ7ßFÙ¹àâáPÞ ø¯ã ä чå‡æèç$éEê¬ë ìœé3ígî é æðï¡ñhòóÔ3ôVÔmÑ ù î ã ä єõ÷öðø7öèù'æðï¡ñhòóÔ3ôVÔmÑ3î ú Ô3ô7ï¡ñ ïüû é‘ý ' ò–þ5Ô ñ ú Ô3ô7ï¡ñ ×yØfÙÚfÛPÜ % Øf݇ٹÞEÛ7ßFÙ¹àâáÿÞ ø å¡  és‹ ' ù î ïüûk壢 鼋 '¥¤ ý 妢 é ¤ ò–þ5Ô ñ ú Ô3ô7ï¡ñ § æ Œ©¨¥ç !#™é%$3ç ø å¡  '   铋 '  å£¢ é ¤ ù î æ Œ 妢 é ¤ î û‰Ò7Ñ ú æ Œ’é5‹ ' ÕyÒ(' ñhòœÒ § ÕyÒ å£¢ ú0) '¥¤ æ Œ 妢 ú ¤ î 妢§ ¤ æ Œ î Ô ñ5Õkî Ô ñ5Õkî Ô ñ¼Õî
  12. 12.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('3v WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck X 4zC Æh0ÅEw®}7h9}ÇE H}| 9Q687¬ÆDÓ6 7xDFE€6Q9B734zx HD7~8A{4(9u4zC 721ˆ|{E Y ®{E€68~w7~˜E 3 q €”ƒƒ‰ryp b7d…f1uˆ b‡†FƒiE†Figfœ€Fƒ v…r—b‡†‚ˆ‰pP€‘’wr™vFe¦p7rªÂž03Ã4 ~˜E€wyxDF¼E€6Q9•734zx–|65ʆFf1imrcg vxwrspP€Fe¦buryp w† b$† s†”f1ƒ bVd4†Fb¡šF€Fpyfdid›¦r g5e¦p—bur™iE†…˜yburh†”e¢l ý 䙺wähpwä ÿ ä87·ä R ä™owä87 9 €F¿‚ryƒi†F wrybffó€Fp7ryp b7d8†Fb¡šF€”pyf1id›‡‚r g5f‘€”ƒ eCigf1bffâg{r v…r b‡†  wrys€”f1p7r½g5e‘ˆhˆ bwry‚ryƒri¬†Ffdp7rA@ igpyf ƒA€Fƒ g5iE†…˜ybur8B † ü “•ž”˜†…„˜˜‚›…‹”„žŒwsut˜ˆ †‰„«Ž„‡‚…†‰†…„„ƒwrœŒ˜„‡ˆav²syˆ †‰‚et}”„„sy‚er„QS ü “•ž”˜†…„˜˜‚›…‹”„ ŒwsQt˜ˆˆ†‰„­v²syˆ‡†…„­”˜‚er„ƒ8ƒwsQŒwr±s…T‚™8ƒ˜„uS ü “•ž”‹†‰„˜˜‚›…‹”„D„„t—Ž“yÂ8„„twt˜„P„„t ŽÉÌÛ°†‰“lš­ÛˆÎyS Y ®{E€68~w7~˜E C Ä~pP€Fe¦jr'”~buryg–p wryg5e¦bfi¬†”idg gyeCp—b‡†—c€Fuˆ‰bvrhtFf1iwrvFe iqpyf ˆ¢†Fp¤f1ƒ‡g‘rypyiqfó€Fƒ vFfœ5›z€FiE€F‘fœÈ{e¢r|
  13. 13.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('3¿ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687ƒÆDÓ6 ~‹4zC ÆP9Qè25E  tËv‡sl†™v‡ƒ˜†…„¬”€“•ƒwr–v–wsQ8ƒ˜„ž”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…zˆ“•t¹rsQtš€£l†‰„ƒt‹“•Ë‘wrŠ„µŒ“’¦”„²†”„» Ž„„tu…ˆ’‚et8f”„r‚‰„„ƒ—rˆ¯©s҆eƒ˜‚tS ¥ „Ë…•r‚ˆ„‡ˆ…œt‹“•t™„„t1”˜†™suv¨„QS%¸„Ž”˜†eƒ˜ˆ ‚…† ”—“uˆ„¯Œ˜„‡ˆœŒ‹‚¡£žv‡ƒ˜†›…‹”„²ˆ †‰“•rŠˆT8ƒ˜„¯†‰„‡ˆ1”„‡†•”„Ž„„tu…ˆ’t‹„Žˆ“•t•…a”˜†eƒ˜ˆaŒ˜‚‰ˆ» …T‚™twv…Tˆ‡S  t ƒ…T‚…†‰‚…ˆ„¶…T“•ƒ½¦“•ƒwrŠˆŽƒwt „²ˆT”wsQv¨„ë ”„„Ž“Q‚™rŠ„´†…‚™tD”„„sl‚™r„¶„„t „þ·„„v•» …•ƒwsQt•…ª…“•ƒ½¦“•ƒwrˆ ç ø 瓋 ' ù v v¨“•ž”—sQrsy‚…ˆ“•t˜ˆ‡S Æ}6•4{~˜EGHD|P6•E)( r‚ ü “•ž”…•s¼š•„QÌ10 Ó6¢( £ ü £ #32©52 ÎV6 0 è6 ‚Σ ½£ 7x9uE€25E€6 6 ( …•rŠ‚‰„Q£ #m2©52 6 Þ­E€2z7x Ó456 ó £Vá R 9Q4 Û HP4 D ï ó ð‡£Vá R‘6 Ó456 ó £Vá R 9Q4 Û S R HP4 Ó456 õ £Vá óAT R 9Q4 Û HP4 73Ó ûžï ó ðFE ûžï õ ð 9•APEGx D ï ó ð‡£Vá D ï ó ð T R‘6 EG0F¼EGD ï õ ð‡£Vá D ï õ ð T R‘6 Ó456 ó £Vá R 9Q4 Û HP4 ûHPI ó ãwï D ï ó ðeðd£Vá ûžï ó ðó6 Ó456 ó £Vá R 9Q4 Û HP4 ûžï ó ð‡£Vá ûHPI ó ãwï ó ðó6 EGx}H 6 € ”€„„ƒÉƒ…T‚…†‰‚‰ˆ†”„ „„t¢”wr±s…T‚™8ƒ˜„uS
  14. 14.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('hÝ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687ÊÆDè6ŸÓT|DFy734zx Ô ”„¨…y–˜“†Œ˜„ ‘wsyˆ†”„²„ ˆTƒwrI†…„ ”wr‚™t—v¨‚™”€„ H vFf1j‘fâg{ryp ˆz€Fe¦p p wrmš¨ƒ‰rypPI £ “•t¢ŒD”„„vº“•ž”€“Qˆ„fƒwt¢”wrŠ“•‘˜†@©„„Ž„¸„„t«ˆ“•ƒ˜ˆ¦»¦”wr“•‘˜†@©„„Ž„‡ˆ³”wƒ˜‚‰ˆƒ“Bt¢r8”„» ˆ“•ƒwŒIr8”„v‡ƒwrˆ‚›¡B„„Ž„„t•…³v¨„‡ˆƒ”—r“•‘˜†@©„Ž„‡ˆ‡S‹ØPt pt¢£‹“•tIŒD”„„Œ—ƒ˜‚›…܆™sŽˆ“¼» †™ƒ…T‚…“•tžŒwƒÏ”wr“•‘‹†t©„„Ž„D“•r‚ š•‚™t˜„²†§©s’†t’ sy‚™Œ˜„ÊŒ˜„‡ˆ‡ˆ±“Q†™ƒ…‚‰“•t˜ˆDsuƒ8˜Ëˆ“•ƒ˜ˆ¦» ”wr“•‘˜†@©„„Ž„‡ˆ‡S €  tŸŒ˜‚›¡†‚…ˆ„ž†‰„—…•sQ‘˜†…„„sQƒŸŒ‹„°…•sy‚…†‰†…„¯Û „„t1Œ˜„„ƒ8˜™ˆ±“•ƒ˜ˆ¦»Å…ysQ‘˜†‰„sQƒ8˜ û ' „¨…Üû v Œ‹„‰…•sy‚…†‰†‰„ Q ç vSR „¨…UT ç vSV S  t҅•rŠ‚‰„œr8”„„v²ƒwrˆ‚›¡B„„Ž„„t•…µû ' „¨… û v „¨…­“•t ÓT|DFy734zxDxPE †‰„‡ˆÜŒ˜„„ƒ8˜Òˆ±“•ƒ˜ˆ¦»Å…ysQ‘˜†‰„sQƒ8˜Ò…•r‚•”„²ˆ‡S Æ}6•4{~˜EGHD|P6•E)( r‚eqpƒ‹ˆ‚‰“•t¨Ì10 è6 ûŽ£ #m2©52 6 ó ä õ £ 7xz9QE€25E€6 ÎV6 0 è6 ˆÄ£ 7x9uE€25E€6 6 Þ­E€2z7x 7ÅÓ ó î õ 9BA{EGx Þ­E€2z7x ˆ™£Vá Ì óAT õ Î HD7 0 ÿF6 ( r‚™qGƒ˜ˆ±‚‰“•t“ÌÅû ä ó ä ˆ·Î76 ( r‚™qGƒ˜ˆ±‚‰“•t“ÌÅû ä ˆ T R ä õ ÎV6 qGƒ˜ˆ‚…“•t“Ìhû ä ó ä ˆ ä õ ÎV6 EGxDH 6 EGx}H 6
  15. 15.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('œ¥ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck )1032545687@9BADC E HPE WP|DFy734zx ÐyіÒ'ÓEÔ3ՓÖ5іÔYXa`ÿÜ‡Ù§Þ¬Û ø¯ã ä чå‡æèç‡é3ê¬ë ìóéEí¬î é   §   ú æðï¡ñhòœÔmôVÔ3Ñ ù î ã ä Ѧb ödc‰öfegö Ø÷æðï¡ñhòœÔmôVÔ3Ñmîhg‡æ ç‡é3êgë ìœé3í¬î ú Ô3ô7ï¡ñ i æ Œ‰é î æ Œ § ) ' î p æ Œ’é î '‰þ¼ïqüÔ iUr § ä ñ5Õ r ú ÕyÒ ú Ô3ôVï¡ñ ïüû‘妢i ¤ r 壢 ¤ òqþ¼Ô ñ ú Ô3ô7ï¡ñ s ¢p ¤ æ Œ 妢i ¤ î p æ Œ p ) ' î i æ Œ i ) ' î Ô ñ5Õ Ô(qt1Ô ú Ô3ô7ï¡ñ s ¢p ¤ æ Œ 妢 ¤ î p æ Œ p ) ' î æ Œu ) ' î Ô ñ5Õkî Ôÿñ¼Õî ïüû i ý § ò–þ5Ô ñ û ÒVÑ ! æ Œv òœÒ ú ÕyÒ ø(w %h# Ù§Û s ¢p ¤ æ Œ 壢 ! ¤ î p æ Œ p ) ' î Ô ñ5Õ Ô(qtdÔeû ÒVÑ ! æ Œ i òœÒ § ÕyÒ ú Ô3ô7ï¡ñ s ¢p ¤ æ Œ 壢 ! ¤ î p æ Œ p ) ' î Ô ñ5Õkî û‰Ò7Ñ p æ Œ ' òœÒ ç ÕyÒ å£¢ p ¤ æ Œ s ¢p ¤ î Ô ñ¼Õî
  16. 16.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('œW WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck X 4zC ƪ03Ew®}7@9DÇE HD| 9Q687¬ÓT|DFy734zx € ( r‚…„„rªŒ‹„„ƒ8˜Ò†‰‚…ˆ…T„‡ˆ­…yr‚•”„‡„‡ˆÜr„„8ƒ˜‚…„„r$…ƒƒ—t´…T„„ž”‹ˆª†…‚™tD”„„sy‚er„QS ¥ sŽv¨“•ž”˜†…„˜˜‚›…‹”„¸„„t¢Ž“¼ÂB„„t—t˜„‘£†ŒwsQt˜ˆ³†‰„aŽ„‡‚…†‰†…„„ƒwr­Œ˜„²ˆ­v‡syˆc£€ŒwsQt˜ˆ †‰„Iv²syˆ°†…„I”˜‚er„«„‡ˆ…Ž†es™ ¾„„Ž„uSzU“Q‚ …Žê•Ì3ۈ΂†esŸv¨“•ž”‹†‰„˜˜‚›…‹”„«”€“•ƒwr …•r‚‰„rµÛ ”„²†”„„Ž„„t•…Tˆ‡S  t¢s˜£ ê•Ì3ۈÎ}á xy€  ‚‰ˆƒÛ á R ê•ÌQ ç vSR Î T ê•ÌT ç v‚V Î T ƒ „ Û ˆ‚™t˜“Bt“S ““©ƒ ƒ „‡ˆŠ…­†‰„‚v¨“8„7£¹vº‚‰„„t•…­Œ‹„‰†™s¹”wr“†vp”„„ŒwƒwrŠ„’Œ‹„ƒfhƒ˜ˆ‚…“•t“S €  tŽŽ“•t•…•r„³Bƒ‹„­†t’¦”„„8ƒws¼…T‚‰“•t¹rB”„„v‡ƒwrˆ±‚V¡B„ƒŒ‹„­†™s vº“•ž”˜†‰„¨˜†‚ …˜”„­„‡ˆ… „„tsŽIÌ3Ûφ‰“yš v ۇάÌ3ê•Ì3ۈΠô ƒ Û°†…“yš v ۈÎyS Y ®{E€68~w7~˜E … ÅƁ wrybfœ€Fp7ryp ¼ryi¸†Fb¡šF€”pyf1id›‡‚r vCr½¾5††‘€Fƒ w† yr ȓe€r™bur‘igpyf’ved…e¦ƒ‰r™bfvg5imr™iqpyf¦wrrig{r‚¾5†g'g{rsryƒ i3ry¢ˆg—bf1ƒ„wr“†Ff1p7r| q wrypP€Fe¦bursp—bVd8†Fb¡š”€Fpyf1iœ›¦‚r„g5e¦p—bVd™wr{¼›z†Fƒigf1b1b$€Fƒ‰l R äc»˜ä ý 䙺wä ý ähpwä™nwä ÿ q €Fƒrƒ‰ryp²bVd8†Fps˜yp7r v…rcg)†¼ˆhˆryb¯g¿p wrh“e¦phg5f4¾hg‘| Ä~pP€Fe¦jryp¿b‡† '€F¿• ˆ‰burhtFfdiwr ê•Ì3ۈΠw† bVd8†FfœvCr‘v…r„b7d8†Fps˜yp7rsv…ryg¸†¼ˆhˆryb¯g¸pwrh“e¦phg5f¾hg{|
  17. 17.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('– WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck À 687ÊÆDÓ61FÃÄ|–9•F %‰ƒ …T„„rŽ„ìsQtšB†™sy‚…ˆ ©s¦‘¨™'#™ÿ¨!u# “•ƒ …yr‚ ”wsurÒv¨“Bž”wsQr$…T‚eŽ„„t•…„S € “BtÒv¨“Bt˜ˆ‚™Œ¨©„r„ Œ˜„²ˆµ„„t•…T‚‰„rˆµŒ‹„Žï`ÛÄð5á âFR älånåæånä Û}è‹S  tÒr±sQtš•„¸v–wsQ8ƒ˜„I”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•…–„tŽft“•twv…T‚‰“•t«Œ˜„¬ˆTsÏv¨†‰„¨f¦SpU‚G†‰„‡ˆ¯”„‡†•”„» Ž„„tu…ˆ¨¡lsur‚‰„„t•…ˆŒwsQt˜ˆh™ð‹sl†‰“•rˆ§“•tav‡r8”„‡„}ƒwt …•sQ‘˜†…„„sQƒ‰1‚et˜‚›…‚™sy†…‚‰ˆ†”„ ©s‘Ò„º…œ“•tŸr±sQtš•„φt’¦”„‡†•”„„Ž„„t•… ã ‘ ïdÛ(𪌗sQt˜ˆ‰û´ïXãðS  tŸ”wsQr±v¨“•ƒ… sy†‰“•rŠˆ‰†‰„—…•sQ‘˜†…„„sQƒ ‰ Œ˜„²RI©s’‡ „º…‰“•t¦„„tìŒ}”„„Œwƒ˜‚ …‰†es҆…‚‰ˆ…T„Ž…yr‚•”„‡„ Œ˜„ àµS € ( r‚us­ƒwt˜„Pvº“•ž”˜†‰„¨˜†‚ …˜”„–„„txŽIÌ3Û T ‡ ÎyS  t v–˜“Q‚‰ˆ±‚›…“‡ á ŽIÌ3ۇЌ˜„Pfhs·Ñvº“•t¢©s¬“•‘…„„t˜‚™r§ƒwtœ…•r‚8†‰‚et}”„„sy‚er„QSQƒ“y…„•”­8ƒ“’d‚‰†ÂÏsʈ„ƒ˜†‰„„Ž„tu… ‡ ¡Qsy†‰„ƒwrˆƒ”€“Qˆˆ±‚™‘˜†…„‡ˆ¸”—“Bƒwrµã–‘ àµS € “BtÒv–wsy‚et˜„‰†…„‡ˆÒ”„‡†•”„„Ž„tu…TˆP„tÒv¨“u†‰†‰‚…ˆ‚‰“Bt“S € ( r‚p¡Qsy†‰‚eŒ˜„œ8ƒ˜„ ”€“•ƒ—rµŒ˜„‡ˆh…–Âw”€„‡ˆ¯”„tƒw ”„„r•”„‡ˆ–“•rŒ‹“•twtwsQ‘‹†‰„‡ˆ‡S
  18. 18.   ¡  ¢ ¡ £ ¤¦¥¨§© ¥ !$#Š%('œ­ WWW versionpagehtmlcopyright1996NielsenFranck —É|}~™˜5Ew9ìF¼456Q9¦ŸyFl|D7@9uE¢¡ Æ}6•4{~˜EGHD|P6•E Ù ƒwvxy„¨…U“Br$…„Ì10 Ó6 ûŽ£ #m2©52 ÎV6 0 è6 ó ä õ £ 7x9QE€25E€6 6%d¯£ #32©452™¡¥4m#¬ 6 ¶ £ ¡¥43#E 6 Þ­E€2z7x Ó456 ó £Vá R 9Q4 ‡ HP4 d«ï ó ð‡£Vá Û ó B 6 Ó456 ó £Vá R 9Q4 Û HP4 ƒfõF« QHã‘I€Ìhûžï ó ð ä d«ï û´ï ó ð™ð@ÎV6 õ £Vá R6 Ó456 ó £ T R 9Q4 ‡ HP4 Þ­E€2z7x 73Ó d«ï ó ð6eá Û ó B 9•APEGx ÞÜE€2z7x ¶ £Vá d«ï ó ð–6 G AD703E ¶ eá Û ó B H{4 Þ­E€2z7x û´ï õ ð‡£Vá ¶ ågf @¦B 6 õ £Vá õ¢T R‘6 ¶ £Vá ¶ h½D Q ó f @ ۉHy6 EGx}H 6 EGx}H 6 EGxDH 6 EGx}H 6 € ü “•ž”˜†‰„¨˜†‚ …˜”„’†…‚™tD”„„sl‚™r„QS € Y¬† š•“•r‚ …•–wŽ„ÏsQŒwsQ”†…•sQ‘˜†…„°”€“•ƒ—rʆ…„‚…•rŠ‚†…„˜˜‚™v¨“lš8rsQ”w–‹‚™8ƒ˜„ · Œ˜‚›» Ž„„t˜ˆ‚…“•t˜„‡†W„„tsŽIÌ · ۈÎ
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