Exploring CLT Possibilities in a Professional Development Program


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  • Evidence: A lesson plan + samples from data.
  • Exploring CLT Possibilities in a Professional Development Program

    1. 1. Frank Giraldo Masters in English Didactics University of Caldas
    2. 2. Exploring CLT possibilities in a Professional Development Program for In-service English Language Teachers
    3. 3. A Professional Development Program Qualitative Action Research In-service / Pre-service English language teachers’ classroom performance
    4. 4. Question and Purpose What is the effect of a Professional Development Program on the in-service and pre-service English language teachers’ classroom performance in an English language institute? • Find out nature of impact of PDP on the teachers’ classroom performance.
    5. 5. Rationale • Learning to reflect to work collaboratively to analyze and change experience • Educating teachers in a post-method pedagogy on context-sensitive grounds SLTE 6 teachers’ professionalism in ELT Teacher Educator
    6. 6. S E T T I N G
    7. 7. Needs identified among in-service teachers Reflection and awareness upon own classroom practice Practice of current language teaching methodolo gies Awareness on the importance of student motivation and participation in class Approa ch to gramm ar teachin g Tasks for different learning styles and strategies Problem: Birth of action research cycle
    8. 8. General Objective To improve the teaching performance of in-service and pre-service English language teachers through the implementation of a professional development program. What is the effect of a Professional Development Program on the in-service/pre-service English language teachers’ classroom performance in an English language institute?
    9. 9. Specific Objectives 1. To increase teachers’ awareness about their own classroom practice. 2. To strengthen the teachers’ practice of current methodologies for language teaching. 3. To raise teachers’ awareness on the importance of students’ motivation and participation in class. 4. To promote a principled approach to grammar teaching. 5. To foster the inclusion of tasks for different learning styles and strategies.
    10. 10. Professional Development: Freeman, 1989 Villegas-Reimers, 2003 Diaz-Maggioli, 2004 Richards and Farrell, 2005 Wilde, 2010 Curriculum Development: Brown, 1995 Richards, 2001 Nation and Macalister, 2010 Theoretical Framework Teacher Performance: Ur, 1991 Brown, 2001 Harmer, 2007 Westwood, 2008 Ontario’s Educational Board, 2010 Richards, 2011 Reflective Teaching: Cruickshank, 1981 Zeichner, 1982 Bartlett, 1990 Richards and Lockhart, 1994 Ur, 1991 Harmer, 2007b
    11. 11. Current Methodologies for Language Teaching: Stryker and Leaver, 1997 Richards and Rodgers, 2001 Bingham and Skehan, 2002 Brown, 2007 Harmer, 2007b Student Motivation and Participation: Ur, 1991 Lightbown and Spada, 2006 Harmer, 2007a Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2011 Theoretical Framework Grammar teaching: Ur, 1991 Thornbury, 1999 Brown, 2007 Learner Styles/Learning Strategies: Lightbown and Spada, 2006 Oxford, 1990; 2003
    12. 12. Álvarez and Prada 2005 Sierra 2007 Theoretical Framework Cadavid, Quinchía, and Díaz 2009
    13. 13. Approach Naturalistic Anti-positivist Idiographic Burrell and Morgan, 1979 Method Action Research Carr and Kemmis, 1983 Methodology Methodology Qualitative Creswell, 1979
    14. 14. D I A G N O S T I C S T A G E
    15. 15. Needs identified among in-service teachers Reflection and awareness upon own classroom practice Practice of current language teaching methodolog ies Awareness on the importance of student motivation and participation in class Approach to grammar teaching Tasks for different learning styles and strategies
    16. 16. A C T I O N E V A L U A T I O N S T A G E S
    17. 17. The Professional Development Program • • • - 7 sessions, 3 hours, weekly Praxizing (Sharkey, 2009) Activities: Discussions of readings assigned prior to workshops Tutor presentations Class observations: live and videoed Planning, executing and reflecting upon lessons Learning activities Talks by experts; talks with students
    19. 19. SAMPLE DATA
    20. 20. • The in-service teachers made effective connections between theory and practice through the design of a lesson plan. This practical activity demanded conscious work from them. • There were contradictions between what they said they did and what they really did in their teaching. The analysis of their own lesson plan helped them reach that conclusion. • There was an increasing awareness towards Communicative Language Teaching.
    21. 21. • The tutor guidance was key for good results. When I interacted with them, the practical activity was more enriching. • Observation went well because it combined theory and practice. • The lesson plan with activities from the three current methodologies helped them relate theory and practice. • There was more individual attention to every single in-service teacher. • There was an increasing awareness on structuring activities more logically.
    22. 22. Participant # 2 • S/He has changed his/her teaching. • S/He has more theory to apply in classes and has positive results among students. • S/He has been able to become aware of his/her and his/her students’ progress. • S/He has applied all current methodologies for language teaching. S/He didn’t do it before but is now. S/He has seen the results.
    23. 23. Participant # 2 • S/He has increased his/her interest in these methodologies and has applied them, which s/he didn’t do before. • S/He has developed strong interests towards task-based language teaching and in general towards all current methodologies for language teaching.
    24. 24. Participant 4 Observation 1: Students use language structures meaningfully and to interact with others. Language at the oral level is then used for a writing product, which means activities are coherent somehow. Observation 2: Your grammar teaching is improving continuously and the pacing is consistent. Lesson coherence: between eliciting parts of a house, describing your own as support and listening activity, and the students talking about their own house, coherence was high.
    25. 25. Participant 4 Observation 1: Give tasks a clear communicative goal. They wrote the routine to show you their linguistic competences, which is perfectly fine. In CLT and TBLT, what would they do this for? Observation 2: The way they did the writing was only for language display purposes, not for communication.
    26. 26. “So, for example, when I would give my lesson on Saturday, and then we would have the course on Thursday, and it was about a certain, you know, concept or something, then I would reflect if I have done it, if I haven’t done it; if I should do it better, how should I do it better? So, I would be constantly reflecting, you know, on what I already know and how I can improve that, and yeah.” Extract from an interview.
    27. 27. FINDING On classroom performance Holistic view of language Principled approach to grammar teaching Structured, coherent teaching Planning based on current methodologies Care for students’ needs and motivation
    28. 28. FINDING On awareness of teaching and classroom performance Noticeable improvement in grammar teaching Beginning practice in methodologies for ELT Sensitivity towards students’ needs and motivations Strategy-based instruction Coherent teaching
    29. 29. FINDING On the Professional Development Program as a Reason for Improvement Successful combination of theory and practice: - Theory and classroom activities Experiential learning activities Talks by experts Practical planning activities Reflection upon teaching Role of teacher educator - Feedback on practical planning activities: making sense of theory - Observation cycle: Pre, while, post (reflection in action) - Reflection on action: Theorizing from practice
    30. 30. Conclusions and recommendations
    31. 31. Professional development programs do have an impact on teachers’ classroom performance. 1 Conditions for this to happen: •Teachers’ prior knowledge. •Particular contexts. •Sensitive to teachers’ needs. •Not a top-down agenda. •Careful needs analysis: Experience, knowledge, beliefs, skills.
    32. 32. Theory and practice have a symbiotic relationship in professional development programs, and this relationship directly benefits teachers’ classroom practice. 2 But how? •Teachers using, criticizing and adding to theory. •Bringing improvement thanks to reflection. •Theory: reflects teaching needs, explicit use of it in workshops; meaningful use of it; practice and follow-up.
    33. 33. The teacher educator plays an important role in helping teachers improve. 3 What should this role be like? •Focus on strengths and aspects to improve. •Connect theory and practice: Critical questions. •F2F contact; monitoring plan: Observation system •Talking about teaching; making sense of theory. •Professional growth and feedback for PDP.
    34. 34. Special recommendation 4 Licenciaturas should consider the findings in this AR study. Use them how? •Subjects combining theory and practice. •Attention to practicum courses.
    35. 35. References (1) • • • • • • • • • • Álvarez, G. and Prada, C. (2005). Teachers in a public school engage in a study group to reach general agreements about a common approach to teaching English. PROFILE: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 6, 119-132. Bartlett, L. (1990). Teacher development through reflective teaching. In J. C. Richards & D. Nunan (Eds.), Second Language teacher education (pp. 202-214).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bingham, M. and Skehan, P. (2002). Communicative, task-based, and content-based language instruction. In R.B. Kaplan (Ed.),The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 207-228). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Borg, S. (2009). Introducing language teacher cognition. Retrieved January 9th, 2013 from http://www.education.leeds.ac.uk/research/files/145.pdf Brown, J.D. (1995). The elements of language curriculum. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. Brown, D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (3rd ed.). New York: Pearson Longman. Burns, A. & Richards, J. (2009).The Cambridge Guide to Second Language Teacher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress. Cadavid, I., Quinchía, D. and Mosquera, C. (2009). Una propuesta holística de desarrollo profesional para maestros de inglés de la básica primaria. IKALA: Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 14 (21), 133-158. Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: Education, knowledge and action research. London: Deakin University Press. Cohen, L. and Manion, L.& Morrison, K. (1998).Research methods in education. London: Routledge.
    36. 36. References (2) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Council of Europe (2001).Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, and assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Los Angeles: Sage. Diaz-Maggioli, G. (2004).Teacher-Centered Professional Development. ASCD Publications. Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation.(2nd ed.) Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman. Freeman, D. (1989). Teacher training, development, and decision making: A model of teaching and related strategies for language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 23 (1), 27-45. Glaser, B. J. & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research.New Jersey: Aldine Transaction. González, A. (2007). Professional development of EFL teachers in Colombia. IKALA: Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 12 (18), 309-332. Harmer, J. (2007a).How to teach English. Harlow, England: Pearson Longman. Harmer, J. (2007b).The practice of English language teaching. Harlow, England: Pearson Longman. Hopkins, D. (1995). A teacher’s guide to classroom research. Buckingham: Open University Press. Lightbown, P. & Spada, N. (2006).How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lyster, R. (2007). Learning and teaching language through content: A counterbalanced approach. Amsterdam, PHI: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Macaro, E. (2009). Developments in language learner strategies. In V. Cook & L. Wei (Eds.), Contemporary Applied Linguistics: Language teaching and learning. Volume 1 (pp.10-36). London: MPG Books Group. Ministry of Education in Ontario, Canada (2010). Teacher performance appraisal: Technical requirements manual. Available at: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teacher/pdfs/TPA_Manual_English_september2010l.pdf
    37. 37. References (3) • • • • • • • • • Mitchell, R. & Myles, F. (2004).Second language learning theories (2nd ed.). London: Hodder Arnold, Hodder Education. Nation, I.S.P. & Macalister, J. (2010).Language curriculum design. New York: Routledge. Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston, MA: Newbury House Publisher. Oxford, R. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: An overview. Learning styles and Strategies / Oxford, GALA. Richards, J.C. & Lockhart, C. (1994). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J.C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J.C., & Farrell, T. (2005).Professional development for English language teachers (strategies for teacher learning). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J.C. and Rodgers, T. (2001).Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J.C. (2011). Competence and performance in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    38. 38. References (4) • • • • • • • • • • Sharkey, J. (2009). Can we praxize second language teacher education? An invitation to join a collective collaborative challenge. Íkala Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 14, (22), 125-150. Sierra, A. (2007). Developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes through a study: A study on teachers’ professional development. IKALA: Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 12 (18), 277-306. Stryker, S. & Leaver, B. (1997).Content-based instruction in foreign language education: Models and methods. Georgetown University Press. Thornbury, S. (1999).How to teach grammar. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Limited. Ur, P.(1991). A course in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Villegas-Reimers, E. (2003). Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature. Paris: UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning. Wallace, Michael J. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Westwood, P. (2008). What teachers need to know about teaching methods. Victoria, AU: ACER Press. Wilde, J. (2010). Guidelines for professional development: An overview. In C. Casteel and K. G. Ballantyne (Eds.), Professional Development in Action: Improving Teaching for English Learners. (pp. 511). Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Available at http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/3/PD_in_Action.pdf Wright, T. (2010).Second language teacher education: Review of recent research on practice. Lang. Teach., 43 (3), 259–296. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    39. 39. frankgiraldodesign.wordpress .com icaros@utp.edu.co