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Chapter 7 - Scientific and artistic achievements


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Chapter 7 - Scientific and artistic achievements

  1. 1. Chapter Seven Chapter 7 Slide 1 Scientific and Artistic Achievements
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>What is a ‘Golden Age’? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the conditions that led to a Golden Age? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the scientific and artistic achievements of the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia? </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 2
  3. 3. Look at the objects above. How have they been improved by modern societies? Chapter 7 Slide 3
  4. 4. What Is a Golden Age? A period where there is a flourishing of achievements in the arts and sciences Chapter 7 Slide 4
  5. 5. Chapter 6 Slide 3 <ul><li>Characteristics of golden age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people were generally happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very little starvation or poverty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of plenty and prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peoples’ lives greatly improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to many inventions and artistic expressions . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Some Golden Ages India: Gupta dynasty (c. 320–550 CE) China: Han dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE) Tang dynasty (618–907 CE) Song dynasty (960–1279 CE) Southeast Asia: Khmer period (800–1432 CE) Chapter 7 Slide 5
  7. 7. <ul><li>Strong, stable government </li></ul><ul><li>Peace </li></ul><ul><li>People’s basic needs are met </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of expression </li></ul>What Were the Conditions that Led to a Golden Age? Chapter 7 Slide 6
  8. 8. Chapter 7 Slide 7 INDIA
  9. 9. Scientific Achievements <ul><li>Mathematics: pi , zero, decimal system </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomy: earth is round and revolves around sun </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgy: worked with bronze, iron and steel </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine: plastic surgery </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 8 Aryabhata, Indian mathematician and astrologer at the Nalanda University
  10. 10. Without the Indians, we wouldn’t have…
  11. 13. Artistic Contributions <ul><li>Literature: Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Shakuntala </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture: rock temples such as Ajanta and Ellora </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture: used stone and bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles: cotton </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 9 Illustration of Rama and Sita, hero and heroine of Ramayana
  12. 14. Timeline of Achievements BCE 2500 1000 800 600 400 200 CE 1 200 400 600 800 1000 CE Ramayana 700 BCE Casting of iron 5th century BCE Plastic surgery 600 BCE Ajanta caves constructed 2nd century BCE Mathematical concepts and numeric invented c. 320–550 CE Mahabharata 900 BCE Cotton plants grown 2500 BCE Chapter 7 Slide 10
  13. 15. China Chapter 7 Slide 11 China
  14. 16. Scientific Advances Chapter 7 Slide 12 <ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Seismograph </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical clock </li></ul><ul><li>Compass </li></ul>A drawing of ancient China’s famous astronomer, Zhang Heng <ul><li>Gunpowder </li></ul><ul><li>Printing </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgy </li></ul>Mongol bomb thrown against a charging Japanese Samurai during the Mongol invasions of Japan in 1281
  15. 17. Stages of Paper-Making <ul><li>Wood is first soaked in water until the fibres are soft. </li></ul><ul><li>A frame with a fine mesh is dipped into the softened fibres, such that a layer of fibre is embedded in the mesh. </li></ul><ul><li>The mesh is then pressed hard to remove traces of water. After the fibres dry, a layer can be peeled off to form a sheet of paper. </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 13
  16. 18. Artistic Contributions <ul><li>Silk </li></ul><ul><li>Literature: Shiji and poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery and porcelain </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture: used bronze, clay and stone e.g. terracotta warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 14 An example of a Chinese landscape painting
  17. 19. Discovery of silk 2600 BCE Bronze crafting 1500 BCE Seismograph 132 CE Diamond Sutra 868 CE Invention of paper c. 200 BCE Block printing 700 CE Timeline of Achievements Acupuncture 800 BCE Chapter 7 Slide 15 BCE 2600 1600 800 600 400 200 CE 1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
  18. 20. South East Asia Chapter 7 Slide 16
  19. 21. Scientific Advances <ul><li>Metallurgy </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of bronze spearpoints, iron bangles and red and buff pottery at Ban Chiang in 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>The control of water supply through the building of dams and canals </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 17 A commemorative plaque at Ban Chiang
  20. 22. Artistic Contributions <ul><li>Pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Ban Chiang, c. 3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Borobodur, Angkor Wat </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely Southeast Asian, </li></ul><ul><li>never exact copies of Chinese or Indian works </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 18 A sculpture from Thailand
  21. 23. Artistic Contributions <ul><li>Textiles: batik and ikat </li></ul><ul><li>Literature: hikayat, syair </li></ul><ul><li>and pantun </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 19 A batik painting depicting two Indian women Dyeing by hand
  22. 24. Bronze works 2000 BCE Pottery 3000 BCE Malay literature flourishes 15th century CE Borobodur complex built 850 CE Angkor Wat built 9th–13th century CE Timeline of Achievements Chapter 7 Slide 20 BCE 3000 2000 200 CE1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 CE
  23. 25. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>A ‘Golden Age’ is… </li></ul><ul><li>The conditions that led to a Golden Age were… </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of the scientific and artistic achievements of the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia are… </li></ul>Chapter 7 Slide 23