Chapter 6 - Religion


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Chapter 6 - Religion

  1. 1. Chapter 6: Religion
  2. 2. What is a religion? Belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power Organizes the society and teaches people how to behave Has a set of practices that followers adhere to
  3. 3. Hinduism – How did it start? <ul><li>No one really knows! </li></ul><ul><li>But historians have concluded that: </li></ul><ul><li>- Hinduism is born in India and is at least 3000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>- Hinduism developed through a mixing of the beliefs of the Aryans and the Indus people. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Beliefs <ul><li>Worship of many deities. – Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in non-violence – not suppose to kill people or animals </li></ul><ul><li>Has high respect for the power of priests. – Brahmins </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in reincarnation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reincarnation <ul><li>Also known as Samsara </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s past action is known as karma , and it will determine the quality of his next life </li></ul><ul><li>Good deeds => good caste in the next life </li></ul><ul><li>Bad deeds => lower caste in the next life e </li></ul>
  6. 7. How to get out of this cycle? <ul><li>If a person has done enough good deeds in several lives, his soul can be freed from this cycle of rebirth. </li></ul><ul><li>He will then join Brahma , the creator god, in heaven. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Hinduism in Southeast Asia Hindus came to Southeast Asia around the 1 st century CE. Hindu priests were invited by rulers to their courts to teach Indian culture.
  8. 9. Hinduism in Southeast Asia: Architecture Angkor Wat, Cambodia
  9. 10. Hinduism in Southeast Asia: Architecture Prambanan, Central Java, Indonesia
  10. 11. Hinduism in Southeast Asia: Architecture Phimai, Northeastern Thailand
  11. 12. Hinduism in Southeast Asia: Architecture Sri Dandayathapani Temple, Singapore
  12. 13. Hinduism in Singapore
  13. 14. Hinduism in Singapore
  14. 15. Hinduism in Southeast Asia: Art and culture Story of Ramayana A popular story in Central Java Defines relationships, ideal characters and how people should behave
  15. 16. Hinduism in Southeast Asia: Art and culture Story of Mahabharata: Talks about Hindu Mythologies Dharma, Karma Moksha etc.
  16. 17. Buddhism <ul><li>A religion largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama </li></ul>
  17. 18. Who is Siddhartha Gautama? <ul><li>Born in Lumbini </li></ul><ul><li>His father was Suddhodana, the leader of a clan </li></ul><ul><li>Mother was Queen Maha Maya </li></ul>
  18. 19. Queen Maya's dream Queen Maya dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side. Ten months later Siddharta was born Buddha’s birth is widely celebrated as Vesak Day
  19. 20. Stone carving to depict Queen Maya’s dream
  20. 21. Early life <ul><li>Luxurious life as a prince </li></ul><ul><li>But Siddharta felt that material wealth was not the ultimate goal of life </li></ul><ul><li>He stepped out of his palace to search for the real meaning of life </li></ul>
  21. 22. Four Noble Truth <ul><li>Life means suffering </li></ul><ul><li>The origin of suffering is attachment </li></ul><ul><li>The cessation of suffering is attainable </li></ul><ul><li>The way to end suffering is to practice the Eightfold Path </li></ul>
  22. 23. Truth #1: Life means suffering <ul><li>Physical suffering such as pain, sickness, injury, tiredness, old age, death </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological suffering such as sadness, fear, frustration, disappointment, and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Truth #1: Life means suffering <ul><li>Positive experience such as happiness, comfort etc. </li></ul><ul><li>But these are transient (impermanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Happy moments will pass by, our loved ones will pass away </li></ul>
  24. 25. Truth #2: The origin of suffering is attachment <ul><li>Attachment to transient things </li></ul><ul><li>Our perception: what we think is important to us </li></ul><ul><li>Roots of our suffering are desire, passion, pursuit of wealth and prestige, striving for fame </li></ul><ul><li>Craving and clinging </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it ignorant? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Truth #2: The origin of suffering is attachment <ul><li>Because the objects of our attachment are transient </li></ul><ul><li>The “self” is imagined </li></ul><ul><li>Loss is inevitable </li></ul>
  26. 27. Truth #3: Cessation of suffering is attainable <ul><li>By trying to attain Nirvana </li></ul><ul><li>Nirvana means freedom from all worries, troubles, complexes, fabrications and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>How to do so? </li></ul>
  27. 28. Truth #4: Path to the ending of suffering: practice the Eightfold Path <ul><li>Right View </li></ul><ul><li>Right Intention </li></ul><ul><li>Right Speech – (Integrity) </li></ul><ul><li>Right Action </li></ul><ul><li>Right Livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Right Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Right Mindfulness (clear consciousness, contemplate) </li></ul><ul><li>Right Concentration </li></ul>
  28. 29. In other words...
  29. 30. The spread of Buddhism <ul><li>King Ashoka </li></ul><ul><li>He won the war of Kalinga but was horrified by the death and destruction he caused. Later, he became one of the biggest advocators of Buddhism. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Reflect Buddhism in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Buddhism came to SEA c. 300 CE. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought by Indian/Chinese traders and Buddhist missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist monk Yijing spent 6 months in Palembang (671 CE). </li></ul>
  31. 32. Borobudur in Indonesia
  32. 33. I Islam in Southeast Asia The belief that Allah revealed his messages to Prophet Muhammad. Followers of Islam are known as Muslims and they adhere to the Qur'an.
  33. 34. Role of Melaka in the spread of Islam in SEA Marriage Missionaries Conquests Traders Conversion