Chapter 5 - Organisation of society


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Chapter 5 - Organisation of society

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Organisation of Society
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>What is a social system? </li></ul><ul><li>How were the social systems in ancient India, China and Southeast Asia different/similar? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the strengths and/or weaknesses of each social system? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is a Society? A group of people ruled by the same government, sharing common needs forms a society
  4. 4. What Is a Hierarchy? It is the system by which people are ranked according to their wealth and power. It takes the form of a pyramid. People who share similar occupations within this pyramid are known as a social class .
  5. 5. Principals (e.g. Mr. Low) School hierarchy HOD's (e.g. Mr. Donald Leo) Teachers (e.g. Ms Phay) Students
  6. 6. Society in India <ul><li>Social classes were introduced by Aryans in c. 1500 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>4 varnas (classes): </li></ul><ul><li>kshatriyas </li></ul><ul><li>brahmins </li></ul><ul><li>vaishyas </li></ul><ul><li>shudras </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Shudras considered impure because they did not speak the pure Sanskrit used by the higher classes </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmins replaced kshatriyas as the most highly ranked class </li></ul><ul><li>Varnas later divided in jatis 500 B.C.E — creation of the caste system </li></ul>
  8. 8. Strict division of ancient Indian society into classes based on specific occupations What Is the Caste System? A brahmin advising a kshatriya on how to rule A vaishya selling his wares
  9. 9. <ul><li>Members of a specific caste had a specific occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Members were born into a caste and could not take up an occupation not assigned to their caste </li></ul><ul><li>Members had to marry within their caste </li></ul><ul><li>Caste was hereditary </li></ul>The Caste System
  10. 10. <ul><li>By 1000 CE, there were about 3 000 castes </li></ul><ul><li>Another group of people introduced, known as the pariahs (untouchables) </li></ul><ul><li>These people did not have proper jobs — primitive jungle people </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Caste Pyramid pariah (outcastes) kshatriyas warriors, rulers vaishyas merchants, farmers craftsmen, labourers Chapter 5 Slide 12 brahmins priests, scholars, teachers shudras
  12. 12. The Caste System in India today
  13. 13. You Be the Judge!! <ul><li>Plus, Minus and Interesting Points of the Caste System </li></ul><ul><li>Brought order to society </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone knew his or her role </li></ul><ul><li>Gave members a sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Did not allow people to change their caste, even if they were capable or talented </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chinese Society During the Shang Dynasty (1523–1027 BCE) The ruling class (King, priests, feudal shi ) The working class (farmers, soldiers, craftsmen)
  15. 15. Chinese Society During the Zhou Dynasty (1027–221 BCE) working class Ruling class scholars farmers craftsmen traders Chapter 5 Slide 15 kings, priests, feudal shis
  16. 16. Evolution of the Shi class
  17. 17. Shang Dynasty (1523–1027 BCE) <ul><li>Shi given land in return for supporting the king </li></ul><ul><li>Land passed down from father to son </li></ul><ul><li>A sh i estate can be large — included armies and farmers </li></ul>
  18. 18. Qin Dynasty (221–210 BCE) <ul><li>Qin Shihuang took away the armies and land (estates) of the shi class </li></ul><ul><li>Shi became appointed officials whose job was to look after the provinces for the Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>They did not own the land they looked after </li></ul>Chapter 5 Slide 18
  19. 19. Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE) <ul><li>Becoming a shi now depended on one’s performance in the Imperial Civil Service Examinations set by the government </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of system of meritocracy — a system whereby people are given </li></ul><ul><li>positions and rewards based on their ability </li></ul>Chapter 5 Slide 19
  20. 20. What Is Social Mobility? In China, meritocracy allowed people to move from one class to another. The ability to move from one class to another is known as social mobility. Chapter 5 Slide 20
  21. 21. You Be the Judge!! <ul><li>Plus, Minus and Interesting Points of the Social System in China </li></ul><ul><li>Brought order to society </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone knew his or her role </li></ul><ul><li>Gave members a sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed people who passed the civil service examinations to achieve social mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Women were not allowed to take the examinations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Society in Southeast Asia <ul><li>A Tribal Society </li></ul><ul><li>A tribe is a group of people who </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trace their roots to a common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ancestor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. have a common language and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Led by chiefs, lived in villages </li></ul>
  23. 23. Tribal Village to Port City ruling class (king, his famiily and nobles) trading and priestly class (traders and priests) working class (farmers, craftsmen, fishermen) The Melaka Sultanate (1411–1503 CE) Chapter 5 Slide 23
  24. 24. <ul><li>In the Khmer kingdom, there were slaves who farmed and built temples </li></ul><ul><li>The class system in Southeast Asia was flexible </li></ul>Chapter 5 Slide 24
  25. 25. Learning Outcomes Chapter 5 Slide 25 <ul><li>A social system is … </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient India was organised into… Ancient China was organised into… Ancient Southeast Asia was organised into… </li></ul><ul><li>The strengths and/or weaknesses of each system are… </li></ul>