Turkey: A Bridge Between Two Separate Worlds


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Individual report about the country of Turkey for the class of Politics of the Middle East (Spring 2013): History of the Anatolian Region, Turkish ethnicity, Ataturk and the Republic, Domestic and Foreign Politics, Religious Composition, GDP Structure, etc.

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Turkey: A Bridge Between Two Separate Worlds

  1. 1. Francisco Garrido-Garza POLS 4314.01 Turkey: Domestic Policies 23 April 2013 Dr. Sonia Alianak Turkey: A Bridge Between Two Separate Worlds I. Introduction The Republic of Turkey, as it is known today and recognized by the world, was established in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1918) when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, along with radical and nationalist reformers, removed the Ottoman Sultanate by incorporating new western-secular ideas and practices(Hitman III & Hooglund, 1996). However, its location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a place of significant geostrategic importance as it has always been throughout history. For more thana millennium, important civilizations and hegemonic empires, ranging from Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and Arabs to the Ottoman Empire, ruled and disputed the place because of its favorable geographic conditions and for its only direct trade routes between East and West. Therefore, as a result of its location between the Black and Mediterranean seas, and by managing multiple diplomatic relations with both European and Middle Eastern neighbors, Turkey gained its recognition as a regional power(Bhalla, Goodrich, & Zeihan, 2009).But on the other hand, the country still faces geopolitical and socio-cultural challenges in and beyond of its territory. The colors and design of the flag closely resemble the banner of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1918), which preceded modern-day Turkey. The crescent moon and star are traditional symbols of Islam. In the middle of two continents (Europe and Asia), Turkey’s location is a place of significant geostrategic importance as it has always been historically.
  2. 2. Garrido-Garza 2 II. Early Civilizations and the Persian Wars (1500-449 BC) Historically, Anatolia (today’s Turkey and west of the Caucasus) and its surroundings were – and still are –important and strategic. Tribes, traders, caravans, armies, pilgrims, and nations, have either settled or traversed it.First, from around 1500 to 600 BC, the Anatolian region was populated by two major Bronze-age civilizations: Hittites and Assyrians. These two ancient civilizations, later on,wereabsorbed by the Persian Empire and then, by the Greeks. In 500 BC, the Persian Empire extended from Western India to the Bosphorus straitwhere Greeks inhabited. They maintained their power and influence through their imperial government system of allowing local autonomy to their conquered subjects under the supervision of the Persian central authority. Also, they built the first trade roads and ports in the Region and linked them with the rest of the Empire (the Middle East). Then, around 490 BC, the Greeks from the neighboring West, went to war against them, and all of their battles took place in both sides of the Bosphorus(Greece and Anatolia)(Ochsenwald & Fisher, 2004, p. 11). III. Greek Anatolia and the Hellenistic World (323-146 BC) In the next century, the Greeks under the rule of Alexander the Great, pushed the Persians out of Anatolia,and absorbed the whole region as well as summing much of the Middle East to their extending empire. Unlike the Persians, the Greeks did not provided autonomy to the conquered populations; they imposed their own Greek rulers and as a result, most of the Middle East submitted to the Greek customs, language and culture. The Hellenistic World in 200 BC.
  3. 3. Garrido-Garza 3 However, after Alexander’s death, the Hellenistic World remained but in separate kingdoms under the rule of his former chief generals. Therefore, the Middle East entered to a period of vast international tradeand prosperity as long as the Silk Road routes were developingthroughout the region because of extending east throughgood diplomacy among the kingdoms. Thus, the Greek culture and languagedominated and endured for centuries in all the Middle East until a new Western Empire emerged and succeeded the Greeks by100 BC: the Roman Empire (2004, p. 14). VI. The Byzantine Empire (330-1453) Not all the Middle East but precisely the western part, including Anatolia, was Roman territory. In 330, the Roman Emperor Constantine transferred the imperial seat to Byzantium: a city at the Bosphorus strait (Anatolia) founded by the Greeks in the 600s BC. Then, Byzantium changes its name to Constantinople and assumed the role of Rome. Since that then, the Eastern Roman Empire (Eastern Europe, Anatolia, the Black Sea region and the Eastern Mediterranean strip) prevailed and re-emegred as the Byzantine Empire while the Western part of the Roman Empire collapsed in the mid-400s (2004, p. 15).The Byzantine Empire was, in fact, the continuation and heir of Rome but it was totally a Christian- authoritarian state and mostly Greek in language. It lasted for about eleven centuries until, in 1453, the Ottomans (Muslim Empire) came and swept the Byzantines out of Anatolia, and installed their imperial seat at Constantinople. They renamed it Istanbul, as it is known in present day(2004, p. 149). V. The Turks and the Ottoman Empire (1299-1918) Centuries before the emergence of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1928), Byzantine Anatoliawas often susceptible of foreign invasions and raids from all directionsdue to its vast flow of international trade (Silk Road routes): Norse/Slavic barbarians from the north, Muslim-Arabs from the south, and Mongols and Turks from the east (Ottoman Empire (1301-1922), 2009). Nonetheless, the Turks, who were at their
  4. 4. Garrido-Garza 4 beginnings nomadic tribesmen from the steppes of Central Asia, converted to Islam between the eight and ninth centuries as well as adapting to the Abassid rule. By the 1000s, the Turks were Sunni Muslims and important allies of the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) in the Muslim world for the fact they helped to expand Islam throughconquests beyond the Muslim boundaries (Sansal, The Ottoman Empire, 2011). But when the Abbasid Empire fell by effects of the massive Mongol invasions in the mid-1200s, the Turks declared themselves as an independent state and established their own sultanate throughout Central Asia and Eastern Anatolia (Ottoman Empire (1301-1922), 2009). At the same time, the Byzantine Empire was reduced and gradually weakened as most of the Anatolian region was divided into ghazis1 . For instance, one of these was ruled by the Osmanlis: a powerful tribe which, from the late 1200s,would become the Ottoman Dynasty,and would obliterate the Byzantines completely by the mid-1400s(Armstrong, 2002, p. 109). In 1326, the Osmanlis, or Ottomans, expanded and took over Bursa:a former Byzantine city very close to Constantinople. It became the capital of the growing (Ottoman) Empire temporarily while they were still seizing more Byzantine land. Gradually, the Ottomans were expanding westward. They successfully skiped Constantinople by 1372, and conquered a few populations in the Balkans (Southeastern Europe) such as Adrianople, and established control there by 1398. Therefore, the Byzantines found themselves surrounded by the Ottomans until in 1453, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire, changes into Istanbul, and became the new capital of the Muslim world(2002, p. 109). 1 Former Byzantine towns and villages ruled by Turkish tribal chiefs. The Ottoman Empire expanding west in the early 1300s.
  5. 5. Garrido-Garza 5 By the late 1400s, the Ottoman Empiremade Islamdom to be the greatest power bloc in the world by controlling over 80 percent of the Mediterranean trade with the east. Since the fall of Constantinople, Europe found itself into a period of economic hunger due to the Ottoman blockade(Standage, 2009, p. 83). Moreover, by the early 1500s, the Ottoman Empire still advanced into Eastern Europe as its limits extended into the Eurasian steppes and Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, Muslim merchantsprospered along the Eastern Mediterranean and then, established more tradeposts and docks along the coasts of Eatern Africa, Southern Arabia. They definitely controledtheonly direct trade withIndia and China(Armstrong, 2002). The Ottoman Empire was inspirely sustained by Islamic institutions like the Ummayad and Abbasid empires did.It reached its height in the mid 1500s under the Sultanate of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1522- 1566). The Empire covered the today-countries of Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Ukraine,Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Armenia, Georgia, Iraq, Egypt, some of the Arabian Peninsula, and much of the coastal strip of North Africa. The Ottoman political system was dynastical, highly centralized and hierarchical. The Sultan was regarded as the Caliph or “protector of Islam,” the judicial and education systems were run and administered by the state, privileges for the nobility were monitoredand the military was run by corps of slave-soldiers known as janissaries(Ottoman Empire (1301-1922), 2009). Despite the succes of the Ottoman expansion in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, problems in government and social organization occured frequently. Although the Empire was absolutely Muslim, there was a significant number of ethnic-religious minorities: Christians and Jews as well as Greek, Slavic, and Armenian communities.Positively, there was religious tolerance by imperial codethroughout The Ottoman Empire during the Sultanate of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1522-1566).
  6. 6. Garrido-Garza 6 the Empire. But on the other hand, strict laws and taxes were imposed to the non-muslim minorities(2009). For example, the millet system allowed non-muslim towns and villages to rule themselves autonomously but under the supervision of the Ottoman authority. The purpose of this system was suposedly to assure and maintain order and stability in non-muslim towns and villages. Consequently, the millet system often caused certianinjustices such as favoritism and inequality regarding religion and ethnicity. Simmilarly, there was the devshirme system: a strict law that forced non-muslim families to give at least 20 percent of their male children to becomejanissaries(2009). By the early 1700s, the Empire was waning just when the neighboring European adversaries such as the Austrain-Hungarian and the Russian empires were growing eastward and were gradually diminishing Ottoman prescence in Eastern Europe. The development of the European colonial trade with the New World caused the Ottoman Empire to face a gradual loss of its wealth and influence. At the same time, the Ottoman Empire became less centralized while its bureaucracy was expanding and therefore, political instability and government inneficiency increased, and endured until its fall(Country Studies: Turkey, 2011). V. The Decline of the Ottoman Empire (1700s-1918) The Ottoman statewasfalling behind European interests gradually. Continuous wars with Russia and the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in the Balkans and around the Black Sea,the Ottoman territory was being reduced. Later on, British and French economic interests in the Middle East emerged sincethe Napoleonic Wars. Thus, throughout the next century, Great Britain, France, Russia and Austria increased their continuing interventions. Russia was the most consistent enemy of the Ottoman Empire. As it was expanding in Central Asia such as absorbing the Caucasus region,Russia wanted to decrease Ottoman control in the Black Sea by ambitioning to dominate Istanbul in order to allow its docks at Crimea a direct access to the Mediterranean. Britain and France sought to increase commerce and profits in the Ottoman
  7. 7. Garrido-Garza 7 landsby making arrangements with Arab traders andOttoman bureaucrats as well as making military and naval alliances (Ochsenwald & Fisher, 2004, p. 295). Thus, the Ottomans counted with the British and French during the Crimean War against Russia (1853-1856). Due to the increasing British-French influence andcommerce throughout the 19th century, the then-reduced-and-weakened Ottoman Empire was gradually becoming a secular-westernized country because of the growing flow of modern-western ideas which inspired groups of intellectual Ottomans. These groups became known as “the Young Ottomans” who, later on in the next decades, formed coalitions and carried reforms of westernization and secularism besides the pursuit of Turkish autonomy. This growing movement, however, was originated in the 1870s and created by coalitions of young educated Ottomans who most of them, studied in European countries.They were developing a vision of Turkish nationalism accompanied with modern-western ideas. Therefore, by the dawn of the 19th century, the Young Ottomansevolved as the Young Turksand made possible the complete extinction of the Ottoman Sultanate along with itsold imperial traditions by 1918 (2004, p. 304). VI. WWI, Ataturk and Turkish Nationalism (1911-1923) Modern Turkish Nationalism was basically an ideology constructed by the Young Turk elite envisioning a Turkish identity under principles of secularism and modernity. It was definitely a radical movement resented towards the endurable Ottoman inefficiency fueled by the frequent debts because of the constant wars with Russia and the Balkansthroughout the 19th century until WWI(2004, p. 393). During WWI, the Ottomans allied with Germany and the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in The Ottoman Empire in the late 1800s.
  8. 8. Garrido-Garza 8 order to revengeagainst the Russians in both fronts (Balkans and Caucasus). The then-weak Ottoman Empire struggled to retake the Balkans but failed in the end. But in the Caucasus, in 1917, where Russia lost control because of the Bolshevik Revolution,the Ottomans could retake its eastern part but faced revolts from the Armenians (2004, p. 371). In 1918 after WWI, Britain and France took over much of the remaining Ottoman Empire fromnorth of the Arabian Peninsula to Southeastern Anatolia, and created mandates. Thence, former-Ottoman territory but ethnically Arab (Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Iraq), belonged no more to the Ottomans but became territories under British-French supervision. Nonetheless, in the Ottoman heartland (Turkey), due to the previous resentments towards the Ottoman inefficiency since the late 19th century, plus the critical situation that the Turks themselves experienced from the Balkan Wars to WWI, Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk” along with radical nationalist reformers influenced by the Young Turk enlightenment, overthrew the Ottoman Sultan and created a whole Turkish republic free of permanent inefficiency and regional conflict(Armstrong, 2002, p. 148). VII. The Republic of Turkey and the Single-party Rule Period (1923-1946) Ataturk became the first president of Turkey in 1924 when he and his followers, with popular support, overthrew the Ottoman Sultan after a series of rebellions. He moved the capital to the modern- city of Ankara in central Anatolia. The new republic, at the same time, promulgated its first constitution based on Turkish nationalism and radical-secular influences. In the following twenty years, the government endured as one-party government system (Republican People’s Party) still supervised by Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk” (1881-1938) was first an Ottoman military officer who fought in the Balkan Wars and WWI. Then, after being the chief leader of the Turkish nationalist reaction, he became the first president of the Republic of Turkey.
  9. 9. Garrido-Garza 9 Ataturk through his close political associates (Party’s co-founders and former revolutionaries) (2004, p. 395). Although the new (Turkish) constitution of 1924 enacted that the form of government is democratic, the new Turkish republic remained for more than twenty years under supervision of the People’s Republic Party: Turkey’s first political party and founded by Ataturk and his Young Turk fellowmen(Özbudun, 2011, p. 5). During the establishment of the Republic at the Treaty of Lausanne (Switzerland) in 1923, Ataturk’s reforms were approved in the reconstructed Grand National Assembly (Turkish parliament), signed into law, and therefore, the nation was being transformed into a western, secular and autonomous country under the six principles of the Turkish Revolution: Republicanism, Secularism, Populism, Nationalism, Statism and Reformism (Ochsenwald & Fisher, 2004, p. 396). First, the Sultanate and all kind of royal privileges were abolished. Also, this treaty finally accomplished regional peace with Greece and the USSR (Russia and the Black Sea countries)(Sansal, Treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne, 2011). In effect, the Turkish people looked confident and enthusiastic about the changes that the People’s Republic Party brought. Turkey’s first policies towards modernity and secularism were to confiscatemadrasahs2 and abolish religious laws preserved by the Ottomans in the previous centuries. Thus, the Constitution enforced the education system as public and secular free of religious teaching. In addition, the new laws allowed – but enforce at the beginning – men and women to wear as westerners(Armstrong, 2002, p. 158). Even though the madrasahs and capitulations became extinct by force of Ataturk’s ideals towards a modern nationalistic Turkey, Islam still was the dominant religion in Turkish society. In comparison with 2 Religious schools or colleges for the study of the Islamic religion. Source: The World Factbook – CIA *Mostly Sunni
  10. 10. Garrido-Garza 10 the Ottoman millet policy of religious tolerance, the Constitution provided the same rights to allTurkey’s citizensregardless ethnicity and religious affiliation. By 1934, the Grand National Assembly finally shaped the domestic politics as they are known today: four-year term for deputies, universal suffrage, and multi-party policies(Ochsenwald & Fisher, 2004, p. 395). Ataturk was labeled as dictator for the reason he stayed in power until his death in 1938. But people were confident and convinced that he knew what was the best for the country. As he transformed Turkey entirely into a modern and stable state, he is remembered as the father of Turks. Then, after his death, an environment of pluralism emerged as far as political competition increasedbecause of the multi- party system that reigned Turkish politics throughout the twenty century as of today. VIII. Turkish Politics and Government Structure (1946-) Turkey’s constitution still conserves Ataturk’s principles. It has been amended several times since its creation in 1924 and its legal system is similar to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR); similarly, the Swiss civil code(The World Factbook, 2013). Since 1945, Turkey has functioned under a multi-party system allowing a wide array of political groups to represent the population. For example, there are approximately 61 political parties (registered and banned). But only, political parties receiving more than 10 percent of the suffrage, and represented in the Parliament, are considered as major parties. As in 2011, only five political parties dominated the whole Parliament. However, some of the major and most influential political parties in both Turkish society and politics are the People’s Republic Party (center-left), National Action Party (far-right), Democratic Party (center-right), Motherland party (center-right), Democratic Left Party (center-left), Justice and Development Party (center-left), Peace and Democracy Party (center-left), and Young Party (center-right). Besides having about eight big political parties in Turkish politics, there are in addition too many minor political parties, ranging from parties poorly represented in Parliament to banned parties or
  11. 11. Garrido-Garza 11 interest groups. For instance, some of them are Muslim extremists, Kurdish separatists and workers’ pact.(Sansal, Political Parties in Turkey, 2011). Turkey’s type of government is republican, functions under a parliamentary democracy, and is divided into three main branches: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is administered by two co-executive officers in charge of the Turkish state and government: president and prime minister. The president is the head of state, is elected every five years through universal suffrage, and can be re- elected for just one term. The prime minister, in contrast, is the head of the Turkish government, is appointed by the president, but must be approved first by the Parliament through a vote of confidence. The role of the prime minister, besides assisting the president, is to nominate members for the executive staff (Council of Ministers)(The World Factbook, 2013). The legislative branch, however, is the unicameral chamber of representatives at the Grand National Assembly (Turkish Parliament). The legislative power consists in the representation of the 81 provinces through 550 seats. According to the Constitution, in order to be represented in Parliament, a Source: All About Turkey – Political Parties in Turkey Main & Major Political Parties in Turkey (2013) Abdullah Gül: 11 th and current President of Turkey. Elected in 2007.
  12. 12. Garrido-Garza 12 party must win at least 10 percent of the national vote during a national parliamentary election and any member of the Grand National Assembly only can last for a four-year term. Democratically, anyone can run for a parliamentary seat regardless party representation. But in order to be elected, candidates must win over 10 percent of the vote in the province from which they are running(2013). And the Turkish judicial branch is definitely the Turkish courts supervised by the Minister of Justice (executive staff member): Constitutional Court, High Court of Appeals (Yargitay), Council of State (Danistay), Court of Accounts (Sayistay), Military High Court of Appeals and Military High Administrative Court. All Turkish courts have no jury system; judges render decisions after establishing the facts in each case based on evidence presented by lawyers and prosecutors(2013). 1) Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK – People’s republic Party (1923 – 1938) 2) İsmet İNÖNÜ – People’s republic Party (1938 – 1950) 3) Celal BAYAR – Democrat Party (1950 – 1960) 4) Cemal GÜRSEL – Military-Independent (1960 – 1966) 5) Cevdet SUNAY – Independent (1966 – 1973) 6) Fahri KORUTÜRK – Independent (1973 – 1980) 7) Kenan EVREN – Military-Independent (1980 – 1989) 8) Turgut ÖZAL – Motherland Party (1989 – 1993) 9) Süleyman DEMİREL – True Path Party (1993 – 2000) 10)AhmetNecdet SEZER – Independent (2000 – 2007) 11)Abdullah GÜL – Justice and Development Party (2007 – ) Source: Republic of Turkey – Ministry of Foreign Affairs Presidents of the Republic of Turkey RecepTayyipErdogan: 25 th Prime Minister of Turkey since 2003.
  13. 13. Garrido-Garza 13 IX. Population and the Kurdish Problem As of March 2013, the estimated population of Turkey is 79,749, 461 and it ranks the seventeenth comparing to the world. The country’s capital is Ankara since 1923 and is the second largest city after Istanbul. Historically, Istanbul has always been the largest population in Anatolia because of its favorable position at the Bosphorus strait – where the Black and Mediterranean seas connect each other as well as forming the bridge between Europe and the Middle East. However, more than 70 percent of the Turks live in urban areas(The World Factbook, 2013). Nowadays, around 17 percent of the country lives in poverty, and the unemployment rate is at 9 percent. The vast majority of the population – both urban and rural – has access to clean water and sanitation by right. Turkey’s life expectancy is around 72.7 years (70.8 in males and 74.7 in females). Despite Turkey shares border with multiple neighbors with similar and different ethnic backgrounds, there are three main ethnic groups besides its small minorities such as the Sephardic Jews: 70 percent of the population is Turk, 18 percent is Kurdish, and the rest (12 percent) are Greeks, Russians, Georgians and Armenians (2013). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Istanbul Ankara Izmir Bursa Adana Gaziantep Konya Population(millions) Turkey’s Largest Cities (2013) Source: Turkish Statistical Institute
  14. 14. Garrido-Garza 14 The Kurds are the fourth largest ethnicity in Western Asia after the Arabs, Persians (Iranians) and Turks. They live in an invisible nation called Kurdistan: an ethnical region situated in the adjacent parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. Nonetheless, the largest single group lives in Eastern Turkey. Their problem is that throughout centuries, since the times of the Ottoman Empire, the Kurds have been struggled for autonomy and recognition. Most of them are Sunni Muslims but they are, in fact, divided among speakers of numerous dialects and differ in terms of tribal customs. During the establishment of the Republic, the emerging nationalist policies encouraged the Kurds to assimilate the Turkish customs, laws and language. But the Kurds in the 1930s instead, resisted to these changes and aimed to independence from Turkey through several rebellions in the 1930s. Ataturk, as a response, for the maintenance of order and safety, he ordered to calm the Kurds by relocating them in Eastern Anatolia. As revolts from the Kurds in many parts of Turkey increased gradually by the late 1930s, Ataturk took military action against them. Since that then, Kurdish identity has been denied and suppressed – as of today (Ochsenwald & Fisher, 2004, p. 395). Nowadays, there are political parties (weak and banned) and activist groups representing the struggles and interests from the Kurdish minority. Some of them, for example, are the People’s Labor Party, Pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party, People’s Democracy Party, and Marxist groups(Sansal, Political Parties in Turkey, 2011). Kurdistan: an invisible nation without state. Ethnical region situated in the adjacent parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0-14 15-24 25-54 55-64 65 and older Population(millions) Age Male Female Total Population: 79,749,461Age Distribution (2013)
  15. 15. Garrido-Garza 15 X. Economy, Labor and Infrastructure Turkey’s GDP (783.1 billion usd) growth has been averaged 6 percent of annual growth these last years. Although it is not part of the European Union despite there were attempts to join it, Turkey is seen as Europe’s fastest growing economy as long asthe country constantly struggles strengthening its economy. The neighboring European Unionis Turkey’s primary export market by absorbing half of Turkish exports. Therefore, Turkey demonstrates to have a solid trade partnership with its western neighbors. In addition to its marked economic increase, Turkey, over the past years, strengthened trade and economic relations with Russia and China as well as with the Arab world although social confrontations with Kurds and Syrian refugees happen regularly (Dessi, 2010). Turkey’s main free-market economic activities are services, agriculture, industry and energy. Almost half of the labor force is employed in the area of services, whereas 26 percent works in industrial facilities and around one fourth in agriculture(The World Factbook, 2013). Programs of privatization and competition allowed firms, banks and business entrepreneurs to accelerate Turkish economy as attracting more foreign investment to the country. In addition, these programs reduced state involvement in any economic sector such as industry, banking, communication, etc.(2013). In the industrial sector, construction, automotive and electronics, are growing and surpassing other major industries such as textiles and food processing. Other important and major industries throughout the country are mining, steel, lumber and paper (2013). In energy, Turkey leads in petroleum, coal, natural Agriculture 9% Industry 28%Services 63% GDP: $ 783.1 billion Source: The World Factbook – CIA GDP Composition
  16. 16. Garrido-Garza 16 gas, solar and wind. Since May 2006, oil flows through a continental pipeline (Baku-Tsilisi-Ceyhan pipeline) from the Caspian Sea to Europe and generates up to 1 million barrels per day. However, there are projects going on towards the construction of more pipelines in order to help transport gas and oil from Central Asia through the country. But in order to keep importing natural gas and oil from Central Asia, Turkey must maintain good relations and trade with its eastern neighbors(2013). XI. Turkey in Summary Turkey is both European and Middle Eastern because of its cultural contrast and historical backgrounds. Rather than threats or military muscle flexing, Turkey has overwhelmingly relied on peaceful and strategic methods for the well of the Turkish people such as good diplomacy and economic relations to further its interests in the Middle East. As a result of its location between the Black and Mediterranean seas, and by managing multiple diplomatic relations with both European and Middle Eastern neighbors, Turkey gained its recognition as a regional power (Dessi, 2010). In comparison with many Middle Eastern countries, Turkey demonstrates to be a modern country with a stable economy and vast pluralism in politics(Gelvin, 2012, p. 153). But on the other hand, the country still faces geopolitical and socio-cultural challenges in and beyond of its territory as with the Kurds in the East. Agriculture 26% Industry 26% Services 48% Labor force: 27.1 million Source: The World Factbook – CIA Labor Force by Occupation
  17. 17. Garrido-Garza 17 Bibliography Ottoman Empire (1301-1922). (2009, September 4). Retrieved March 17, 2013, from BBC Religions: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml Country Studies: Turkey. (2011, March 22). Retrieved April 15, 2013, from The Library of Congress: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+tr0018) Turkish Presidents. (2011). Retrieved April 21, 2013, from Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/sub.en.mfa?3d0044d0-43e7-4364-b09c-e9280cc97a7d The World Factbook. (2013, April 12). Retrieved April 21, 2013, from Central Intelligence Agency: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html Turkish Statistical Institute. (2013). Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/Start.do Armstrong, K. (2002). Islam: A Short Story. New York: Modern Library. Bhalla, R., Goodrich, L., & Zeihan, P. (2009, March 17). Turkey and Russia on the Rise. Retrieved March 12, 2013, from Stratfor Global Intelligence: http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20090317_turkey_and_russia_rise Dessi, A. (2010, December 18). Can Turkey Be a Source of Stability in the Middle East? Retrieved March 12, 2013, from The Heptagon Post: http://www.heptagonpost.com/Dessi/can_turkey_be_a_source_of_stability_in_the_middle_east Gelvin, J. L. (2012). The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press. Hitman III, P. M., & Hooglund, E. (1996, March 18). Turkey. Retrieved March 12, 2013, from Library of Congress Country Studies: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+tr0009) Ochsenwald, W., & Fisher, S. N. (2004). The Middle East: A History (6th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Özbudun, E. (2011). The Constitutional System of Turkey: 1876 to the Present. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Sansal, B. (2011). Political Parties in Turkey. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from All About Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkey.com/parti.htm Sansal, B. (2011). The Ottoman Empire. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from All About Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkey.com/ottoman.htm Sansal, B. (2011). Treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from All About Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkey.com/antlasma.htm#lozan Standage, T. (2009). An Edible History of Humanity. New York: Walker & Company.