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A Great Opportunity for Fiscal Transparency

Francis "Kapi" Capistrano
Francis "Kapi" Capistrano
Francis "Kapi" CapistranoHead of Experimentation at UNDP Accelerator Lab PH

One of my last presentations when I was still with DBM (March 2016), on recent fiscal transparency reforms that, apart from improving the Philippines' score in the Open Budget Index, sought to empower citizens in the budget process.

A Great Opportunity for Fiscal Transparency

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Francis Y. Capistrano
Acting Director IV
Department of Budget and Management
A Great Opportunity
for Fiscal Transparency
1
GIFT High Level Principles (Select)
• Everyone has the right to seek, receive and impart
information on fiscal policies.
• The presentation of fiscal information should be an
obligation of government, meet international standards,
and be consistent across different reports.
• Governments should communicate the objectives and
outputs with the resources entrusted to them.
• Citizens should have the right to have effective
opportunities to participate directly in discussion over
the design and implementation of fiscal policies.
2
The Past:
Limited Budget Transparency
2
Pre-Budget Statement
Not Published / Kept Internal
Proposed Budget
Published (NEP, BESF, Etc)
BUT with fundamental gaps
Enacted Budget
Published: GAA
BUT frequently late/re-enacted
In-Year Reports
Published
Citizen’s Budget
Not Published
Mid-Year Review
Not Published
Year-End Report
Published BUT with fundamental gaps
and not produced by DBM / DBCC
Audit Report
Published
4
The Past:
Not All Budget Documents Published
5
The Past:
Fundamental PFM Issues
5
Budget Not Results-Based
Lack of Budget Credibility
Too Many Lump Sum Funds
Fragmented PFM Process
Poor Reporting & Oversight
Limited Space for Citizen Participation
P
P
“Change can only
come from our
determination
to stamp out
extravagance and
profligacy.”
-President Benigno S Aquino III
1st
State of the Nation Address (2010)
6

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A Great Opportunity for Fiscal Transparency

  • 1. Francis Y. Capistrano Acting Director IV Department of Budget and Management A Great Opportunity for Fiscal Transparency 1
  • 2. GIFT High Level Principles (Select) • Everyone has the right to seek, receive and impart information on fiscal policies. • The presentation of fiscal information should be an obligation of government, meet international standards, and be consistent across different reports. • Governments should communicate the objectives and outputs with the resources entrusted to them. • Citizens should have the right to have effective opportunities to participate directly in discussion over the design and implementation of fiscal policies. 2
  • 3. The Past: Limited Budget Transparency 2
  • 4. Pre-Budget Statement Not Published / Kept Internal Proposed Budget Published (NEP, BESF, Etc) BUT with fundamental gaps Enacted Budget Published: GAA BUT frequently late/re-enacted In-Year Reports Published Citizen’s Budget Not Published Mid-Year Review Not Published Year-End Report Published BUT with fundamental gaps and not produced by DBM / DBCC Audit Report Published 4 The Past: Not All Budget Documents Published
  • 5. 5 The Past: Fundamental PFM Issues 5 Budget Not Results-Based Lack of Budget Credibility Too Many Lump Sum Funds Fragmented PFM Process Poor Reporting & Oversight Limited Space for Citizen Participation P P
  • 6. “Change can only come from our determination to stamp out extravagance and profligacy.” -President Benigno S Aquino III 1st State of the Nation Address (2010) 6
  • 7. Aquino Budget Reform Agenda Spending within our means Investing in the right priorities Delivering measurable results Empowering citizens through fiscal transparency, participation, and accountability 7
  • 8. Zero-Based Budgeting 8 Starting Points PFM Reform Roadmap Constructive Engagement w/ Civil Society Global Partnerships 8
  • 9. 9 Early Reforms: Disclosure of Pork Barrel Releases
  • 10. • Agency mandates, officials, and contact information • Accountability reports • Approved budgets & targets • Major programs & projects • Program/project beneficiaries • Implementation status • Procurement & contracts All Agencies must disclose the ff. in their websites: Early Reforms: Transparency Seal 10
  • 11. • Budget preparation: evidence- based analysis & inputs to agency budget proposals • Budget execution: monitoring & evaluation of agency programs & projects • Transparency: agency commitment to provide agreed-upon information Early Reforms: Budget Partnership Agreements Formal Mechanism for CSO Engagement 11
  • 12. Early Reforms: People’s Budget Making budget information understandable to citizens 12
  • 13. Remains in the majority group of countries with limited transparency: • 4/8 budget documents not published (CB,YER, MYR, PBS) • Proposed Budget suffered a decline due to late Book of Outputs 13 Setbacks & Gains: Decrease in OBI Score
  • 14. 14 Setbacks & Gains: 2012 OBS: PH Ranks 8th in Budget Participation
  • 15. Pre-Budget Statement Budget Priorities Framework Proposed Budget Improve Comprehensiveness Enacted Budget General Appropriations Act In-Year Reports Various by DBM, DoF, BTr Citizen’s Budget Publish People’s Budget on Time & Expand to Other Stages Mid-Year Review New DBCC Publication Year-End Report New DBCC Publication Audit Report CoA Financial & Audit Reports 15 Actions Taken: Publish All 8 Budget Documents
  • 16. • Early Budget Preparation & Enactment • Medium-Term Economic & Fiscal Estimates • Performance Informed Budgeting • Budget-as-Release Document • Unified Accounts Code Structure • Narrative Discussions • Fiscal Risks Statement Actions Taken: Improve Comprehensiveness of the Budget via Fundamental PFM Reforms 16
  • 19. • Give communities & local CSOs a greater voice & stake in the Budget • Incentivize LGU adoption of good PFM & participation • Bring NG closer to people by reflecting their needs in Budget Actions Taken: Bottom-Up Budgeting Also: Citizen’s Participatory Audit of COA (SAI) 19
  • 20. 20 20
  • 21. 21 Open Budget Survey 2015: Philippines at Top 5 in the World
  • 22. 22 Assessment: Advanced 7 Good 16 Basic 8 Not Rated 1 Not Met 4 # of Principles 36 IMF Fiscal Transparency Evaluation: “Broadly Favorable”
  • 23. • Legal & Structural Issues, e.g. • Lack of Freedom of Information Act • Integrity (Budget & reports comparable & credible) • Structure of appropriations, special purpose funds, • Power of the President & heads of Congress, Judiciary & constitutional bodies to use savings (i.e. virement of funds) • Highly Technical Information • E.g. contingent liabilities, debt sustainability, tax expenditures, medium-term forecasts of expenditures per program • Institutional & Civil Society Capacity • Capacity of agencies to produce info & engage CSOs • Capacity of CSOs to analyze reports & engage the process • “Weak” Congressional Oversight 23 Moving Forward: Address Barriers to Fiscal Openness 23
  • 24. Data & Accounts Substantive Basic Narrative Reports People’s Budget Access to Info Technical/ Supply Side Citizen Need/ Demand Side •Timely & Regular? •Comprehensive? •Substantive? •Publicly Available? •Integrity? •Timely & Regular? •Historic/Time Series? •Open & Manipulable? •Reflects Citizen Needs? •Accessible Language? •Creative? •Widely Disseminated? •Responsive? •Clear Process? •Comprehensive? •Institution Prepared? 24 Moving Forward: Key Actions for Fiscal Transparency
  • 25. OpenBUB.gov.ph Reporting Portal LGU Implementation of BUB Projects Integration with Community-Driven Development Program Integration with Local Dev’t Process Barangay BUB 25 Moving Forward Deepening Bottom-Up Budgeting 25
  • 26. Proposed Public Financial Accountability Act 26 Institutionalizing Greater Fiscal Openness Towards an Integrated Financial Mgt Info System Institutional Strengthening Efforts Consolidating Reform Stakeholders 26
  • 27. Francis Y. Capistrano Acting Director IV Department of Budget and Management A Great Opportunity for Fiscal Transparency 27
  • 29. Transparency: Key to Empowerment (IAP2 Spectrum of Participation) 29
  • 30. Irreversibility of Reform Deeply install reform measures in public institutions Reforms must lead to tangible benefits to people Leverage Technology Strong constituency to support & demand for reforms 30
  • 31. 31 • Operating expenditures contained through hard budget ceilings • Agencies’ absorptive capacity considered in the setting of budget ceilings • Aligned w/ Budget Priorities Framework • Implementation-ready proposals prioritized • Agencies can absorb additional funds 31 Spending Within Our Means Two-Tier Budgeting Approach TIER 1: OPERATING EXPENDITURES + ONGOING PROGRAMS TIER 2: NEW/EXPANDED PROGRAMS 2016 Fiscal Space = P582.7 billion
  • 33. 33
  • 34. Unified Account Codes Structure Example: 34 *Actual UACS code for this PAP under the 2015 GAA
  • 35. 35 Special Purpose Funds 2015 2016 National Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Fund (NDRRMF) P14.0 B P38.9 B NDRRM Program (Calamity Fund Proper P13.0 B P19.0 B Yolanda Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Program P18.9 B People’s Survival Fund P1.0 B P1.0 B Allocations to LGUs P31.28 B P36.37 B Of which: Barangay Officials Death Benefits Fund P0.05 P0.05 Special Share in the Proceeds of Fire Code Fees P0.2 P0.2 Special Share in the Proceeds of National Taxes P27.90 B P35.92 B Local Government Support Fund P3.13 B P0.2 Contingent Fund P2.0 B P4.0 B Only 3 Lump Sum Funds in 2016 Budget
  • 36. What we did for 2016 2015 2016 Miscellaneous Personnel Benefits Fund Reduced by P21 billion (18%); Significant part is now lodged under recipient agencies P117 B P96.5 B Pension and Gratuity Fund Reduced by P17.5 billion (14%); Significant part is now lodged under recipient agencies P127 B P109 B International Commitments Fund Allocations now completely lodged under the DFA P10.7 B None E-government Fund Allocations now completely lodged under agency budgets P1 B None Other Special Purpose Funds (1) 36
  • 37. What we did for 2016 2015 2016 Budgetary Support to GOCCs Subsidies already disaggregated per GOCC; with performance targets; support given for priority programs & projects P62.5 B P125 B ALGU-MMDA Functions as a government agency; budget is disaggregated per program/project and with performance targets P2.2 B P2.0 B ALGU-Internal Revenue Allotment Increased because of larger revenue collections in 2013; disaggregated per LGU in the BESF; direct release via Treasury P390 B P429 B Debt Service- Interest Payments Decreasing year-on-year as a share of the National Budget (from 20.7% in 2010 to 14.3% in 2015 and 13.09% in 2016) P373 B P393 B Other Special Purpose Funds (2) 37