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Definitions for labels

  1. 1. Pragmatics: The rules that govern and describe how language is used in different contexts and environments. For example, the words and tone of voice will be more formal when talking with the principal Accent – features of pronunciation that Acronym – a word nade up out of the and may be very casual and include slang signal regional or social identity initial letters of a phrase when talking with other children. Social rules are very subtle. Some children have difficulty figuring these rules out and applying them appropriately. As a result, they may be identified as having inappropriate or poor behaviour. Adjective – A type of word identifying an attribute of a noun, in many languages showing a degree of contrasts Adjacency pair – A single sequence ofstimulus utterance, response utterance by Ambiguity – words or phrases that have NEW CARD PLEASE two different speakers e.g question and more than one meaning answer Adverb – A word whose main function is to specify the kind of action expressed by a verb (he spoke angrily) it also acts as an intensifier (very big) and as a sentence connector (moreover, they laughed) Anaphoric reference – a feature of Anthropomorphism – a view that anAmelioration – the process by which a grammatical structure which refers back object or animal has the feelings andword acquires a more positive meaning to something already expressed eg When thoughts of a human being, a form of over time, eg “lord” or “master” Mary saw George, she waved personification 1
  2. 2. Bound morpheme – A morpheme that Cataphoric reference – A feature ofAssonance – the repeated use of vowels cannot occur on its own as a word ( Eg grammatical structure that refers forward to achieve a special effect de-, -tion) to another unit (eg John said this,) Subordinate or dependent clause – a Clause – A structural unit which is clause which is dependent upon the main Closing – a way of finishing a speech act,smaller than a sentence but larger than a clause in order to make full sentence, a eg goodbye phrase clause which adds detail to the main clauseCohesion – The formal linkage betweenthe elements of a discourse or text (the Conjunction – a word that connects words Connotation – The personal associations pronoun is cohesive eg The man left. or other constructions (cat and dog) aroused by a word He…) 2
  3. 3. Co-operative principle – A tacit Deictic references – Features of language Consonant – A speech sound which agreement between two or more speakers which refer directly to the personal, functions at the margins of syllables to follow the same set of principles when temporal, or locational characteristics of a speaking situation (deictic forms) (you, now, here) Derivational morpheme – morphemes Dialect – a language variety in which the Denotation – the direct relationship such as “ship” or “dom”, which can form use of grammar and vocabulary identifiesbetween a word and the reality to which it specific grammatical categories – in these the regional or social background of the refers cases nouns such as “friendship” and user “kingdom” Ellipsis – Omission of part of a structure.Diphthong – A vowel inw which there is Discourse –a continuous stretch of “She went to the party and danced alla perceptiable change in quality during a language larger than a sentence night” (she is ellipted from the verb syllable (time, road, house) ‘dance’) 3
  4. 4. Finite verb – A finite verb or verb phrase can occur on its own in a clause or Foregrounding – a phrase or verb which sentence and is normally marked for tense is highlighted by its unusual placement or Filler –Non-verbal noises which buy a and mood. A non-finite verb does not by being repeated, or punctuated in an speaker time, eg “er…ah…” include information about tense or person. unusual fashion Eg “the woman is – Eg “Completing his work, he looked up”, elsewhere – “ “Completing” is non-finite, “looked” is finite • Formality -- a requirement of etiquette or custom; "a mere formality" Generic -- A generic term is one which • a manner that strictly observes all picks out a class of individuals or texts, or Fricative -- a narrowing of the vocal tract the prototype of the individual, rather forms and ceremonies; "the that causes a fricative noise as air passes than the individual itself. For example, in formality of his voice made the through: eg the beginnings of "fat", the sentence ``The wolf has disappeared others pay him close attention" "think", "zoo" and "shoe." from northern Europe, we are referring • compliance with formal rules; to the genus rather than to a particular "courtroom formality" wolf. Hedges -- Hedges are words or phrases Homophone -- Two or more words which Genre -- The category a story, script or which soften or weaken the force with are pronounced the same but havetext falls into - such as: thriller, romantic which something is said, eg “kind of”, different spelling and meaning eg saw comedy, action, screwball comedy “sort of”, “by any chance”, “as it were”, (to cut) and sore (hurting). Many puns “admittedly” are based on homophones. 4
  5. 5. Hyponym -- In linguistics, a hyponym is a Iconic -- The iconic is defined by theHyperbole -- A figure of speech in which word or phrase whose semantic range is dominant signs that signify a particular deliberate exaggeration is used for included within that of another word. For person or object. Eg. Chaplin would beemphasis. Many everyday expressions are example, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, and defined by a bowler hat, a moustache, a examples of hyperbole: tons of money ... crimson are all hyponyms of red (their cane and some old boots. hypernym). • Idiom -- parlance: a manner of speaking that is natural to native Initialism -- Acronyms, initialisms, and speakers of a language alphabetisms are abbreviations that are • dialect: the usage or vocabulary • Informality -- a manner that does formed using the initial components in a that is characteristic of a specific not take forms and ceremonies phrase or name. These components may group of people; "the immigrants seriously be individual letters (as in CEO), and/or spoke an odd dialect of English"; parts of words (as in Benelux). There is • ease: freedom from constraint or "he has a strong German accent"; no universal agreement on the precise embarrassment; "I am never at ease "it has been said that a language is definition of the various terms (see with strangers" a dialect with an army and navy" Nomenclature), nor on written usage (see • artistic style: the style of a Orthographic styling). While popular in particular artist or school or recent English, such abbreviations have movement; "an imaginative historical use in English, as well as other orchestral idiom" languages. • an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the Intertextuality -- Most simply, any Intransitive verb -- An intransitive verb is Intonation -- the distinctive patterns of relationship between two texts such that a verb that has only one argument, that is, pitch that contribute to the meanings ofthe meaning of one text is enriched by, or a verb with valency equal to one. In more spoken phrases and sentences, as betweenis even dependent upon, its relationship to familiar terms, an intransitive verb has a commands and questions such as "Go the other text. A simple example is subject but does not have an object. For now!" and "Go now?"; intonation pattern. quotation, in which one text explicitly example, in English, the verbs sleep, die, See also pitch. repeats part of another. ... and swim, are intransitive. 5
  6. 6. • Irony -- sarcasm: witty language used to convey insults or scorn; "he used sarcasm to upset his Loan words -- A loanword (or loan opponent"; "irony is wasted on the Lexeme -- A lexeme word) is a word directly taken into one stupid"; "Satire is a ... (pronunciation (help·info)) is an abstract language from another with little or no • incongruity between what might be unit of morphological analysis in translation. By contrast, a calque or loan linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a translation is a related concept whereby it expected and what actually occurs; set of forms taken by a single word. For is the meaning or idiom that is borrowed "the irony of Irelands copying the example, in the English language, run, rather than the lexical item itself. The nation she most hated" runs, ran and running are forms of the word loanword is itself a calque of the • a trope that involves incongruity same lexeme, conventionally written as German Lehnwort[1] or the Dutch between what is expected and what RUN.[1] leenwoord. Loanwords can also be called occurs "borrowings".Other words for labels:MetaphorMetaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, "a transfer", in rhetoric "transference of a word to a new sense", from μεταφέρω -metaphero, "to carry over, to transfer") is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects. In the simplest case, this takes theform: "The [first subject] is a [second subject]." More generally, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope that describes a first subject as being orequal to a second subject in some way. Thus, the first subject can be economically described because implicit and explicit attributes from thesecond subject are used to enhance the description of the first. This device is known for usage in literature, especially in poetry, where withfew words, emotions and associations from one context are associated with objects and entities in a different context.Modal verbVerbs which express the mood of another verb: will/would; shall/should; may/might; can/could; must, ought, need, dare, used to.ModifierModifier – A word or group of words that limits or describes another word or words. "Shira thought her party should be voted the eventleast likely to succeed." A dangling modifier is a modifier left without something to modify. In the sentence, "Having listened to Jake, herproblems were solved," "having listened to Jake" does not modify "her problems" or even "were solved"; in that sense, it dangles. Amisplaced modifier is a modifier in the wrong position in the sentence. In the sentence, "Telling a lie sometimes gets you into trouble," it’snot clear whether "sometimes" modifies "telling a lie" or "gets you into trouble."Monosyllabic 6
  7. 7. having or characterized by or consisting of one syllableMorphemeThe smallest meaningful unit of a word. The word dog is one morpheme. The word dogs is two morphemes: dog + the plural marker s. Manyideographic are based on morphemes.MorphologyThe study of meaningful units of language and how they are combined to form words.Narrative structureNarrative structure is generally described as the structural framework that underlies the order and manner in which a narrative is presentedto a reader, listener, or viewer.Theorists describing a texts narrative structure might refer to structural elements such as an introduction, in which the storys foundingcharacters and circumstances are described; a chorus, which uses the voice of an onlooker to describe the events or indicate the properemotional response to what has just happened; or a coda, which falls at the end of a narrative and makes concluding remarks. First describedby such ancient Greek philosophers as Aristotle and Plato, the notion of narrative structure saw renewed popularity as a critical concept inthe mid- to late-twentieth century, when structuralist literary theorists including Roland Barthes, Vladimir Propp, Joseph Campbell andNorthrop Frye attempted to argue that all human narratives have certain universal, deep structural elements in common. This argument fellout of fashion when advocates of poststructuralism such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida asserted that such universally shared deepstructures were logically impossible.Narratorsomeone who tells a storyNasal • nasal consonant: a consonant produced through the nose with the mouth closed • rhinal: of or in or relating to the nose; "nasal passages" • an elongated rectangular bone that forms the bridge of the nose • adenoidal: sounding as if the nose were pinched; "a whining nasal voice"Negative face 7
  8. 8. Speakers try and avoid negative face by not allowing themselves to be imposed upon “I’d rather not but just for you” or “Well, I’m a bit busythis weekend but….” Are typical phrases which avoid too much negative face.Non-finite verbA verb whose form does not change based upon any noun in the sentence and thus cannot function as the main verb in the predicate of asentence.For example "A sower went forth to sow" or "...looking upon them, Jesus said to them...".NounA verb whose form does not change based upon any noun in the sentence and thus cannot function as the main verb in the predicate of asentence.For example "A sower went forth to sow" or "...looking upon them, Jesus said to them...".Noun phrasenoun phrase (NP) a complete construction headed by a noun. It can be substituted by, or act as antecedent for, a pronoun of the appropriatesort: The man who I saw yesterday has just knocked at the door. Can you let him in?OnomatopoeiaOnomatopoeia. The use of words which in their pronunciation suggest their meaning. "Hiss," for example, when spoken is intendedresemble the sound of steam or of a snake. Other examples include these: slam, buzz, screech, whirr, crush, sizzle, crunch, wring, wrench,gouge, grind, mangle, bang, blam, pow, zap, fizz, urp, roar, growl, blip, click, whimper, and, of course, snap, crackle, and pop. Note that theconnection between sound and pronunciation is sometimes rather a product of imagination ("slam" and "wring" are not very goodimitations). And note also that written language retains an aural quality, so that even unspoken your writing has a sound to it. Compare thesesentences, for instance:Participlethe term covers both a word derived from a verb and used as an adjective, as in a singing woman, and the -ing and -en non-finite forms of theverb, as in was singing (present participle), has given (past participle).Pejorationis a form of semantic change which occurs as a word develops negative connotations or loses positive ones. The opposite of pejoration isamelioration. See Semantic change.PhonemeIn linguistics, a set of closely related speech sounds (phones) regarded as a single sound. For example, the sound of "r" in red, bring, or roundis a phoneme. In linguistics, a set of closely related speech sounds (phones) regarded as a single sound. For example, the sound of "r" in red,bring, or round is a phoneme.Plosive(also called a stop): a sound made by complete closure in the vocal tract eg the beginnings of "pot", "born", "tea", "dark", "cup", "gate". 8
  9. 9. Politeness principleThe politeness principleLeechs maxims | Face and politeness strategies | Examples from Brown and Levinson | Phatic tokensThe politeness principle is a series of maxims, which Geoff Leech has proposed as a way of explaining how politeness operates inconversational exchanges. Leech defines politeness as forms of behaviour that establish and maintain comity. That is the ability ofparticipants in a social interaction to engage in interaction in an atmosphere of relative harmony. In stating his maxims Leech uses his ownterms for two kinds of illocutionary acts. He calls representatives “assertives”, and calls directives “impositives”. • Each maxim is accompanied by a sub-maxim (between square brackets), which is of less importance. These support the idea that negative politeness (avoidance of discord) is more important than positive politeness (seeking concord). • Not all of the maxims are equally important. For instance, tact influences what we say more powerfully than does generosity, while approbation is more important than modesty. • Note also that speakers may adhere to more than one maxim of politeness at the same time. Often one maxim is on the forefront of the utterance, with a second maxim being invoked by implication. • If politeness is not communicated, we can assume that the politeness attitude is absent.Positive faceSpeakers try to presereve the positive face of the people they are talking with by not, for example, seeming to impose upon them. Phrasessuch as “Do you mind if…” or “I know this is inconvenient but…” help to preserve positive face.Pre-closingWords that are used to indicate that the conversation is about to finish “I must be going…”Prepositionpart of speech that shows relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word, as in: The word for is a preposition that originallymeant on account of, instead of, or because of.Progressiveprogressive: a tense of verbs used in describing action that is on-goingPronounA word like I, me, you, he, him, it etc. A pronoun replaces a noun.RP (received pronunciation)Received Pronunciation (RP) is a form of pronunciation of the English language (specifically British English) which has been longperceived as uniquely prestigious amongst British accents. About two percent of Britons speak with an RP accent in its pure form.[1]References 9
  10. 10. In general, a reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates by linking to another object. Such relations as these mayoccur in a variety of domains, including logic, computer science, art and scholarship. Although the objects which the term reference appliesmay be of a varying character ranging from concrete examples such as reference work which includes pointers or symbols. The nature ofreference as a role in language and thought has been around since the 19th Century. During this time, applying itself as an important topic ofdiscussion. An object which is referred to as a reference (where the reference leads) is called a referent.Semantic changeA number of classification schemes have been suggested for semantic change. The most widely accepted scheme in the English-speakingacademic world is from Leonard Bloomfield (1933):  Narrowing: Change from superordinate level to subordinate level, e.g., meat "food" → "flesh of an animal"  Widening: Change from subordinate level to superordinate level, e.g., bird "nestling, young bird" → "bird"  Metaphor: Change based on similarity of thing, e.g., bitter "biting" → "not sweet"  Metonymy: Change based on nearness in space or time, e.g., jaw "cheek" → "jaw"  Synecdoche: Change based on whole-part relation, e.g., town "fence" → "city"  Hyperbole: Change from stronger to weaker meaning, e.g., astound "strike with thunder" → "surprise strongly"  Litotes: Change from weaker to stronger meaning, e.g., kill "torment" → "kill"  Degeneration: e.g., knave "boy" → "servant"  Elevation: e.g., knight "boy" → "knight"Semantic fieldThe semantic field of a word is the set of sememes (distinct meanings) expressed by the word. For example, the semantic field of "dog"includes "canine" and "to trail persistently" (also, to hound).Speech eventSemioticSemiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis), or signification and communication, signs and symbols,both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood.SentenceIn linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. For example, "The quickbrown fox jumps over the lazy dog."Signifier 10
  11. 11. Signifier & What a thing is (signified, often the product) and how it communicatesSignified (signifiers, often the brand) - the link between the two is ‘arbitrary’. Brands whose sign systems appear confused can be made ‘tighter’ by bringing the two parts closer together. An often overlooked equity of a brand is its name (signifier) which can have spontaneous properties.Speech act A speech act is an act that a speaker performs when making an utterance, including the following: • A general act (illocutionary act) that a speaker performs, analyzable as including o the uttering of words (utterance acts) o making reference and predicating (propositional acts), and o a particular intention in making the utterance (illocutionary force) • An act involved in the illocutionary act, including utterance acts and propositional acts • The production of a particular effect in the addressee (perlocutionary act)Standard EnglishStandard English is the variety of English used in public communication, particularly in writing. It is the form taught in schools and used byeducated speakers. It is not limited to a particular region and can be spoken with any accent.SubjectThe subject of a sentence is one of the two main constituents of a sentence, the other being the predicate. In English, subjects governagreement on the verb or auxiliary verb that carries the main tense of the sentence, as exemplified by the difference in verb forms between heeats and they eat.Subordinate clausea clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective oradverbSynonymOne of two or more words in a languge which have the same or very nearly the same meaning. In the context of sensemaking, it is importantto note that whether two words are synonyms depends on context. For example, in many contexts the terms man and woman are not 11
  12. 12. synonyms since they refer to opposite genders. On the other hand, in a gender-neutral context, both terms can be synonyms with each otherand with person.Tensea property of verbs relating primarily to the time at which the action or event denoted by the verb takes place. For example, past tense verbs,as in Sam left, describe events in the past.ThemeIn linguistics, the topic (or theme) is informally what is being talked about talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is beingsaid about the topic. Although this general nature of topic-comment dichotomy is generally accepted, anything beyond that is a matter ofgreat controversy.Verb • a word that serves as the predicate of a sentence • a content word that denotes an action or a stateActive voiceIn the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action (eg They killed the President). See also Passive Voice.Passive voiceused to say what was done (eg The motor was switched on." is an agentless passive and "the motor was turned on by our TA." is an agentivepassive.); can be indifferent tenses (eg will be assessed [future passive], is assessed [present passive], and was assessed [past passive]); seeActive voice.VowelIn phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! /ɑː/ or oh! /oʊ/, pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there isno build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! /ʃː/, where there is a constrictionor closure at some point along the vocal tract. A vowel is also understood to be syllabic: an equivalent open but non-syllabic sound is called asemivowel. 12