Teaching and leaning in the


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Teaching and leaning in the

  1. 1. The Learning Community <ul><li>We believe that it takes a community to learn. Teacher s and learner s all working together using well-founded explicit principles of instruction and learning will ensure mastery of the content, skills, and strategies necessary for the 21 st century. </li></ul><ul><li>In a learning community, everyone expects to help everyone else, including the teacher, become a more effective learner. </li></ul><ul><li>We hope you will become a member of this learning community. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Teaching and Learning in the S.P.O.K.E.S. approach The following slides explain 4 Principles of Instruction for Teachers: SEAL and 4 Principles of Learning for Students: MMMM Good!
  3. 3. <ul><li>Systematic : Instruction follows a progression from where the student is now to generalization (or transfer of targeted knowledge, tasks/skills, strategies) to classroom situations and beyond. </li></ul><ul><li>Working in small steps, student moves from appropriately scaffolded instruction through guided practice to independent use. </li></ul><ul><li>This is consistent with the DPC instructional approach: Defining, Practicing, Contextualizing </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Explicit: Initially, the student is told explicitly what the goals or purposes of instruction are, why the goals are important, how the goals may be achieved, and how progress will be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>The student is given informative feedback that allows him/her to change his/her ways of responding so as to more effectively and efficiently achieve the goal(s). </li></ul><ul><li>WE might refer to these as the 5 W’s: Who, Why, What, Where, and When </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Authentic : The teacher needs to make it clear from the beginning of a unit/class that the purpose of learning is for both “now” and “later.” Instruction utilizes tasks and materials as close to real world tasks and materials as possible. While initially tasks and materials may be simpler or more highly structured, the goal is to work toward tasks and materials that students will actually use in their everyday school lives. What they learn can be generalized to real situations. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Lively : Students are expected and encouraged to take an active , collaborative role in determining the what, how and why of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>They are expected to become increasingly aware of, responsible for, and in control of their own learning: that is, to become metacognitive, independent, life-long learners. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Principles of Leaning: <ul><li>Meaningful: I want/need to learn this. </li></ul><ul><li>Manageable: I am capable of doing this. </li></ul><ul><li>Memorable: I can remember this. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive: I know how to succeed. </li></ul>MMMM...good!
  8. 8. I want or need to learn this. <ul><li>We sometimes learn incidentally: that is, without intending to. But for the most part, we learn best when we have or see a purpose for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about why you might need or want to learn something: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will be more knowledgeable about a subject of interest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will be able to use the knowledge or skills in many real world situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will pass a test or a course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will be prepared for what comes next in my life. </li></ul></ul>Meaningful
  9. 9. I am capable of doing this. <ul><li>We are more willing to stick with learning that challenges us when we have a balance between Value and Expectancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Value refers to the meaningfulness of what is to be learned. Expectancy refers to our own expectations of being successful at the learning. </li></ul><ul><li>We can increase the expectations of success if we know how to D.E.A.L. with getting L.O.S.T. in the process of learning. </li></ul>Manageable
  10. 10. D.E.A.L. with being L.O.S.T. <ul><li>It isn’t always easy to learn—even for experts. Sometimes we get confused, frustrated, discouraged, and tired. We might call this getting L.O.S.T. So, what can a learner do? </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze why you are LOST. </li></ul><ul><li>^ Is the problem with you as the Learner? </li></ul><ul><li>^ Is the problem with the Operation you are trying to carry out? </li></ul><ul><li>^ Is the problem with the learning Situation? </li></ul><ul><li>^ Is the problem with the Text (print, visual, multimedia) you are using? </li></ul>
  11. 11. You as the Learner: What’s the D.E.A.L. <ul><li>Is the task too difficult for you? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the task require more effort than you are giving it? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have the ability to do the task? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this just not your lucky day? </li></ul>
  12. 12. What can you do about the D.E.A.L.? Which factors do you have control over. <ul><li>Is the task too difficult ? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help. Learning is a team sport. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the problem effort ? </li></ul><ul><li>Exert more effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the problem ability ? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help from someone who knows more than you. </li></ul><ul><li>If the problem is luck , you are out of luck…. </li></ul><ul><li>unless you can change the task or the timing or </li></ul><ul><li>your teacher’s evaluation criteria. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What about O.S.T.? <ul><li>*Operations . Some operations are harder than others. Ask your teacher for help: (explain, demonstrate, give examples, scaffold) </li></ul><ul><li>*Situation. Is the situation conducive to learning (noise, pace, clarity of directions, getting help or feedback, resource materials)? If not, identify the problem and ask for help in solving it. </li></ul><ul><li>*Text. Some sources of information/ideas whether print, video/movie, live performance, audio, or multimedia are not as conducive to learning as others. Find other sources through your own efforts or ask for help from the teacher or classmates. </li></ul>
  14. 14. I can remember this. <ul><li>We haven’t really learned something if we can’t remember it…while we are working as well as when the task is over. Suggestions for Remembering. </li></ul><ul><li>^ For remembering while you are working: </li></ul><ul><li>*Focus on what you are doing. Block out everything else. </li></ul><ul><li>*Write down the information you need. Chunk it into categories. </li></ul><ul><li>*Get information you need for the task from LTM before you start the task. </li></ul><ul><li>^For long-term storage and retrieval : Remember M.O.R.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is more memorable when it is M eaningful, O rganized, R epresented for a generalized purpose, and E laborated. </li></ul>Memorable
  15. 15. I know how to be successful. <ul><li>Approaching learning in a conscious way is critical to being a successful learner. </li></ul><ul><li>You will need to employ your brain’s Executive Functions - -planning, monitoring, and evaluating—to become an independent learner. </li></ul><ul><li>You use Executive Functions when you choose or find or create task specific strategies to complete a task and then keep them if they are working and change them if they are not working for you. </li></ul>Metacognitive