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Amanda for Data Backup, or: How to Sleep Better at Night (OSCON 2004)

This was the first talk I gave to a national audience, at OSCON 2004. It covered the open source backup tool Amanda.

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Amanda for Data Backup, or: How to Sleep Better at Night (OSCON 2004)

  1. 1. Amanda for Data Backup, or: How To Sleep Better At Night Fran Fabrizio Senior Systems Administrator Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences University of Alabama at Birmingham fran@cis.uab.edu http://www.cis.uab.edu/fran/ O’Reilly Open Source Convention, July 26–30, 2004
  2. 2. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 2 Talk Overview • Introduction to Amanda – What it is, how it thinks • Amanda In Action – Real world examples • Configuring Amanda – Quick look at the config files • Other Features • Take Home Lessons • For More Info
  3. 3. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 3 Introduction To Amanda What is Amanda? How does it work? What is its philosophy?
  4. 4. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 4 What is Amanda? • Cross-Platform • Scalable • Automated • Flexible • Robust Amanda is the Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver. It has the following features:
  5. 5. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 5 What is Amanda? (Cont) • A set of CLI utilities written in C • Its own protocols on top of TCP and UDP • Client and server components that partner to stream and store data for backup and recovery
  6. 6. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 6 Holding Disk Tape Drive OS X Client Solaris Client Linux Client Windows Client Amanda Amanda Server amandad Samba amandad amandad Sample Topology
  7. 7. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 7 Typical Sequence of Events Amanda Server Amanda Client amdump planner dumper(s) driver taper amandad amandad launches passes schedule spawns writes to disk writes to taper flush to tape requests estimate returns estimate requests backup returns image (many clients serviced in parallel)
  8. 8. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 8 How Does It Work? • gtar and dump • Uses standard backup levels • Manages tapes • Balances resources • Supports compression and encryption • Degrades gracefully
  9. 9. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 9 Some Amanda Terminology • Dump cycle – How often do you want a full backup? • Disklist Entry / DLE / Target – Something (partition, filesystem) you want to backup
  10. 10. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 10 Amanda's Philosophy • “You tell me how often you want a full backup, and I'll worry about everything else” • At least one full backup of each DLE per cycle • You don't get to say when full backups happen • Sounds scary, but usually sufficient – (When it's not, you can hack around it)
  11. 11. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 11 Amanda In Action What are some real-world examples? What does typical usage look like? How do I recover a file or partition? What happens when things go wrong?
  12. 12. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 12 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before....
  13. 13. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 13 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before....
  14. 14. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 14 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before....
  15. 15. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 15 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before....
  16. 16. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 16 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before....
  17. 17. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 17 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before.... (And this isn't even the whole dirty truth)
  18. 18. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 18 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before.... I WORRIED CONSTANTLY AND GOT NO SLEE
  19. 19. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 19 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • Before.... I WORRIED CONSTANTLY AND GOT NO SLEE (I was also exhibiting bizarre behavior...)
  20. 20. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 20 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • So we bought...
  21. 21. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 21 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • So we bought... Great! Only one problem...
  22. 22. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 22 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • This hardware is very expensive
  23. 23. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 23 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • This hardware is very expensive • I work for a public university...
  24. 24. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 24 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • This hardware is very expensive • I work for a public university... • ....in Alabama ;-)
  25. 25. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 25 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • This hardware is very expensive • I work for a public university... • ....in Alabama ;-) • We had no more money
  26. 26. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 26 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • This hardware is very expensive • I work for a public university... • ....in Alabama ;-) • We had no more money • Amanda saved the day
  27. 27. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 27 Real World Examples – CIS @ UAB • This hardware is very expensive • I work for a public university... • ....in Alabama ;-) • We had no more money • Amanda saved the day • Usage at CIS – 43 filesystems/partitions on 14 Linux, Solaris and Windows clients – ~ 60GB of data per night – Fully automated, requiring about 30 minutes of attention in the first half of 2004
  28. 28. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 28 Real World Examples - Others • Other Examples – Much Larger • One user wrote about a 700GB nightly dump – Much Smaller • one client systems – Vtape setups • virtual tapes on disk • periodically burn to DVD
  29. 29. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 29 Typical Amanda Daily Operation • At 2:30pm, am check utility runs via cron job and informs me via email if there are any problems
  30. 30. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 30 Typical Amanda Daily Operation • At 2:30pm, am check utility runs via cron job and informs me via email if there are any problems • At 2:00am, am dum p utility runs to kick off the Amanda backup process
  31. 31. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 31 Typical Amanda Daily Operation • At 2:30pm, am check utility runs via cron job and informs me via email if there are any problems • At 2:00am, am dum p utility runs to kick off the Amanda backup process • Sometime in the morning, an email arrives summarizing last night's activity.
  32. 32. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 32 Sample amdump Email Output These dumps were to tape CIS-004. The next tape Amanda expects to use is: CIS-005. STATISTICS: Total Full Daily -------- -------- -------- Estimate Time (hrs:min) 1:00 Run Time (hrs:min) 2:57 Dump Time (hrs:min) 3:24 2:02 1:22 Output Size (meg) 20957.1 17678.4 3278.8 Original Size (meg) 38473.8 31408.7 7065.1 Avg Compressed Size (%) 54.5 56.3 46.4 (level:#disks ...) Filesystems Dumped 41 11 30 (1:28 3:1 4:1) Avg Dump Rate (k/s) 1753.8 2474.3 682.5 Tape Time (hrs:min) 0:21 0:15 0:05 Tape Size (meg) 20957.2 17678.4 3278.8 Tape Used (%) 4.3 3.6 0.7 (level:#disks ...) Filesystems Taped 41 11 30 (1:28 3:1 4:1) Avg Tp Write Rate (k/s) 17361.9 19931.6 10242.2 USAGE BY TAPE: Label Time Size % Nb CIS-004 0:21 20957.2 4.3 41
  33. 33. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 33 Sample amdump Email Output (Continued)NOTES: planner: Full dump of virginia:/hc promoted from 4 days ahead. planner: Full dump of florida:/var promoted from 4 days ahead. planner: Full dump of alabama:/etc promoted from 4 days ahead. planner: Full dump of florida:/etc promoted from 1 day ahead. planner: Full dump of alabama:/home promoted from 1 day ahead. planner: Full dump of georgia:/home promoted from 4 days ahead. planner: Full dump of illinois:/home promoted from 4 days ahead. planner: Full dump of newyork:/home promoted from 4 days ahead. planner: Full dump of newjersey:/ promoted from 4 days ahead. taper: tape CIS-004 kb 21462176 fm 41 [OK] DUMP SUMMARY: DUMPER STATS TAPER STATS HOSTNAME DISK L ORIG-KB OUT-KB COMP% MMM:SS KB/s MMM:SS KB/s -------------------------- --------------------------------- ------------ missouri.hpcl.c -xport/home 1 24671 13205 53.5 3:42 59.6 0:018848.1 missouri.hpcl.c /export/opt 1 1055 49 4.6 0:44 1.1 0:01 42.8 missouri.hpcl.c /var/mail 1 1538303 828724 53.9 13:171040.4 1:299345.3 nevada.cis.ua / 4 2271760 881675 38.8 5:092850.4 1:0813033.1 ohio.cis.u /home 1 1540 247 16.0 0:01 401.8 0:04 69.7 maine.cis. /home 1 82640 59078 71.5 0:144300.2 0:087671.2 florida.cis.u /etc 0 5200 1613 31.0 0:03 625.5 0:011186.9 florida.cis.u /he 1 8780 614 7.0 0:26 23.4 0:01 512.8 florida.cis.u /hf 1 16440 2066 12.6 2:02 16.9 0:021249.4 etc.... (brought to you by Amanda version 2.4.4p2)
  34. 34. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 34 Amanda's planner In Action planner clientA “Please estimate level 0, level 1 and level 2 backups for /home.” Let's assume that last night Amanda performed a level 1 backup of clientA's /home DLE... clientA returns the info “Will promoting this to a level 0 (full) dump lead to more balance over the dump cycle?” “Will we save a significant amount of tape space by going to a level 2 incremental instead of level 1?” Schedules Level 0 dump Schedules Level 2 dump Schedules level 1 dump Yes Yes No No
  35. 35. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 35 More about planner • Guarantees one full dump per cycle
  36. 36. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 36 More about planner • Guarantees one full dump per cycle • If the tape is too small for the run's data, it will delay some of the dumps in the least disruptive way
  37. 37. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 37 More about planner • Guarantees one full dump per cycle • If the tape is too small for the run's data, it will delay some of the dumps in the least disruptive way • Looks at past dumps to determine optimal balancing behavior
  38. 38. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 38 More about planner • Guarantees one full dump per cycle • If the tape is too small for the run's data, it will delay some of the dumps in the least disruptive way • Looks at past dumps to determine optimal balancing behavior • Tries to stay as close to level 0 as possible to reduce need to use multiple tapes for restore
  39. 39. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 39 Restoring One Or A Few Files Problem: User 'bryant' requests that you restore his INBOX to its state on 2004-06-25. Solution: Use the amrecover utility
  40. 40. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 40 Restoring One Or A Few Files [root@alabam a /tm p]# amrecover -C CIS -s amanda.cis.uab.edu -t amanda.cis.uab.edu -d /dev/nst0 AMRECOVER Version 2.4.4p1.Contacting server on am anda.cis.uab.edu ... 220 keep AMANDA index server (2.4.4p2) ready. 200 Access OK Setting restore date to today (2004-06-28) 200 Working date set to 2004-06-28. Scanning /dum ps/am anda... 20040622:found Am anda directory. 200 Config set to CIS. 200 Dum p host set to alabam a.cis.uab.edu. am recover> setdisk /var/spool/mail 200 Disk set to /var/spool/m ail. am recover> setdate 2004-06-25 200 Working date set to 2004-06-25. Problem: User 'bryant' requests that you restore his INBOX to its state on 2004-06-25. Solution: Use the amrecover utility
  41. 41. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 41 Restoring One Or A Few Files (Con't) am recover> ls [...] 2004-06-25 brockhw 2004-06-25 brownta 2004-06-25 bryant 2004-06-25 byrdv [...] am recover> add bryant Added /bryant am recover> extract Extracting files using tape drive /dev/nst0 on host am anda.cis.uab.edu. The following tapes are needed:CIS-024 Restoring files into directory /tm p Continue [?/Y/n]? Y Extracting files using tape drive /dev/nst0 on host am anda.cis.uab.edu. Load tape CIS-024 now Continue [?/Y/n/s/t]? Y ./bryant am recover> quit 200 Good bye. [root@alabam a /tm p]# ls -l bryant -rw------- 1 bryant disk 14533946 Jun 24 19:10 bryant
  42. 42. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 42 Restoring An Entire Backup Target Problem: The disk holding /etc on a critical server has failed Solution: Use the amrestore utility.
  43. 43. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 43 Restoring An Entire Backup Target Problem: The disk holding /etc on a critical server has failed Solution: Use the amrestore utility. [root@am anda testrestore]# amadmin CIS info alabama.cis.uab.edu '/etc$' Current info for alabam a.cis.uab.edu /etc: Stats:dum p rates (kps),Full: 481.0,320.0,350.0 Increm ental: 19.0, 13.0, 11.0 com pressed size,Full: 20.6%,20.6%,20.6% Increm ental: 5.4%, 5.4%, 5.4% Dum ps:lev datestm p tape file origK com pK secs 0 20040623 CIS-022 23 18690 3849 8 1 20040628 CIS-027 10 700 38 0 [root@am anda testrestore]# su - amanda -bash-2.05b$ am tape CIS labelCIS-022 am tape:scanning for tape with labelCIS-022 am tape:slot 26:date 20040623 labelCIS-022 (exact labelm atch) am tape:labelCIS-022 is now loaded. -bash-2.05b$ exit
  44. 44. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 44 Restoring An Entire Backup Target (Con't) [root@am anda testrestore]# amrestore -p /dev/nst0 alabama.cis.uab.edu /etc > etc.0.tar am restore: 0:skipping start oftape:date 20040623 labelCIS-022 am restore: 1:skipping am anda.cis.uab.edu.__texas_dfs_hom e_undergrad.private.20040623.1 am restore: 2:skipping florida.cis.uab.edu._etc.20040623.1 am restore: 3:skipping alabam a.cis.uab.edu._root.20040623.1 [...] amrestore: 21: skipping missouri.cis.uab.edu._.20040623.0 amrestore: 22: skipping oregon.cis.uab.edu._home.20040623.1 amrestore: 23: restoring alabama.cis.uab.edu._etc.20040623.0 amrestore: 24: reached end of information [root@am anda testrestore]# ls -l total18716 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 19138560 Jun 28 14:40 etc.0.tar
  45. 45. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 45 Other Ways To Restore Files • Amanda not available?
  46. 46. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 46 Other Ways To Restore Files • Amanda not available? root@am anda testrestore]# mt -f /dev/nst0 rewind [root@am anda testrestore]# dd if=/dev/nst0 bs=32k count=1 AMANDA:TAPESTART DATE 20040623 TAPE CIS-022 1+0 records in 1+0 records out [root@am anda testrestore]# mt -f /dev/nst0 fsf 01 [root@am anda testrestore]# dd if=/dev/nst0 bs=32k count=1 AMANDA:FILE 20040623 am anda.cis.uab.edu //texas/dfs/hom e/undergrad.public lev 1 com p .gz program /usr/bin/sm bclient To restore,position tape at start offile and run: dd if=<tape> bs=32k skip=1 |/bin/gzip -dc |usr/bin/sm bclient -f...- 1+0 records in 1+0 records out
  47. 47. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 47 When Things Go Wrong • Data backup is a complex interaction between a lot of players, and things -will- go wrong... – Hosts will be down, or away (laptops) – Tapes will go bad – You'll change a password and then forget to tell Amanda you changed it – Your holding disk might be too small
  48. 48. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 48 When Things Go Wrong • Data backup is a complex interaction between a lot of players, and things -will- go wrong... – Hosts will be down, or away (laptops) – Tapes will go bad – You'll change a password and then forget to tell Amanda you changed it – Your holding disk might be too small • Amanda tries to be proactive by running am check and giving you time to fix problems
  49. 49. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 49 Sample amcheck Problem Report • Host down Amanda Tape Server Host Check ----------------------------- Holding disk /dumps/amanda: 60967688 KB disk space available, that's plenty amcheck-server: slot 5: date 20040520 label CIS-018 (exact label match) NOTE: skipping tape-writable test Tape CIS-018 label ok Server check took 175.627 seconds Amanda Backup Client Hosts Check -------------------------------- WARNING: vermont.cis.uab.edu: selfcheck request timed out. Host down? Client check: 13 hosts checked in 30.210 seconds, 1 problem found (brought to you by Amanda 2.4.4p2)
  50. 50. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 50 More amcheck Sample Messages NOTE: index dir / usr/local/etc/amanda/CIS/index/amanda.cis.uab.edu/__texas_dfs_home_undergr ad.private: does not exist ERROR: georgia.cis.uab.edu: [access as amanda not allowed from amanda@amanda] amandahostsauth failed ERROR: virginia.cis.uab.edu: [dir /etc needs 64KB, only has 5KB WARNING: holding disk /dumps/amanda: only 50254708 KB free (52428800 KB requested) amcheck-server: slot 19: rewinding tape: No medium found amcheck-server: slot 19: date 20040330 label CIS-027 (active tape) amcheck-server: fatal slot 20: slot 20 move failed ERROR: label CIS-016 or new tape not found in rack (expecting tape CIS-016 or a new tape) amcheck-server: could not get changer info: could not read result from "/usr/local/libexec/chg-scsi" WARNING: skipping tape test because amdump or amflush seem to be running WARNING: if they are not, you must run amcleanup
  51. 51. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 51 amcheck Is The Best Thing Since Sliced Bread • Cron this script to email you every day before you leave the office
  52. 52. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 52 amcheck Is The Best Thing Since Sliced Bread • Cron this script to email you every day before you leave the office • Run this script manually any time you touch a config file
  53. 53. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 53 amcheck Is The Best Thing Since Sliced Bread • Cron this script to email you every day before you leave the office • Run this script manually any time you touch a config file • Run this script manually any time you add or change a client
  54. 54. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 54 amcheck Is The Best Thing Since Sliced Bread • Cron this script to email you every day before you leave the office • Run this script manually any time you touch a config file • Run this script manually any time you add or change a client • It will save you hours of troubleshooting
  55. 55. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 55 amcheck Is The Best Thing Since Sliced Bread • Cron this script to email you every day before you leave the office • Run this script manually any time you touch a config file • Run this script manually any time you add or change a client • It will save you hours of troubleshooting • One of the best features of Amanda
  56. 56. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 56 amcheck Can't Do Everything • am check cannot catch problems that arise after it runs • am check doesn't check for everything • Amanda's other utilities are really good at telling you why they could not do their job
  57. 57. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 57 Revisiting The amdump Email Report • Very rarely is the email report as uneventful as was presented earlier. It typically will include something like this: These dumps were to tape CIS-004. The next tape Amanda expects to use is: CIS-005. FAILURE AND STRANGE DUMP SUMMARY: alabama.cis.u /usr lev 1 STRANGE STATISTICS: Total Full Daily -------- -------- -------- Estimate Time (hrs:min) 1:00 Run Time (hrs:min) 2:57 etc....
  58. 58. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 58 Revisiting The amdump Email Report (Con't) • And then later on, it will explain itself.... FAILED AND STRANGE DUMP DETAILS: /-- alabama.cis.u /usr lev 1 STRANGE sendbackup: start [alabama.cis.uab.edu:/usr level 1] sendbackup: info BACKUP=/bin/gtar sendbackup: info RECOVER_CMD=/bin/gzip -dc |/bin/gtar -f... - sendbackup: info COMPRESS_SUFFIX=.gz sendbackup: info end ? gtar: ./local/majordomo-1.94.5/log/mdlog: file changed as we read it | Total bytes written: 207923200 (198MB, 3.1MB/s) sendbackup: size 203050 sendbackup: end -------- Amanda is telling us a file was in use as it tried to grab it. This is usually harmless and constitutes 99% of STRANGE results.
  59. 59. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 59 Revisiting The amdump Email Report (Con't) • Sometimes, there are more serious failures FAILURE AND STRANGE DUMP SUMMARY: amanda.cis.u //texas/dfs/simnetxpcd lev 0 FAILED [disk //texas/dfs/simnetxpcd, all estimate failed] amanda.cis.u //texas/dfs/classfiles lev 0 FAILED [disk //texas/dfs/classfiles, all estimate failed] amanda.cis.u //texas/dfs/officefiles lev 0 FAILED [disk //texas/dfs/officefiles, all estimate failed] amanda.cis.u //texas/dfs/scripts lev 0 FAILED [disk //texas/dfs/scripts, all estimate failed] amanda.cis.u //texas/dfs/home/graduate.private lev 0 FAILED [disk //texas/dfs/home/graduate.private, all estimate failed] amanda.cis.u //texas/dfs/home/graduate.public lev 0 FAILED [disk //texas/dfs/home/graduate.public, all estimate failed] amanda.cis.u //texas/dfs/home/undergrad.private lev 0 FAILED [disk //texas/dfs/home/undergrad.private, all estimate failed] This was because I changed the password to the SAMBA share that Amanda was using to back up a Windows server. The email clued me in and the problem was resolved quickly.
  60. 60. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 60 Handling Tape Failures • Amanda keeps going and stores as much as possible in the holding disk
  61. 61. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 61 Handling Tape Failures • Amanda keeps going and stores as much as possible in the holding disk • You can then use am flush to flush data to tape -bash-2.05b$ amflush CIS Scanning /dum ps/am anda...  20040516:found Am anda directory.  20040517:found Am anda directory. Multiple Am anda directories,please pick one by letter:  A.20040516  B.20040517 Select directories to flush [A..B]:[ALL] Today is:20040517 Flushing dum ps in 20040516,20040517 using tape changer "chg-scsi". Expecting tape CIS-015 or a new tape. (The last dum ps were to tape CIS-014) Are you sure you want to do this [yN]? y Running in background,you can log offnow. You'llget m ailwhen am flush is finished.
  62. 62. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 62 Configuring Amanda What are the prerequisites? How do I configure my server? How do I configure my clients?
  63. 63. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 63 Prerequisites • A server that is mostly idle during the times that you want to do your backups • Enough disk space for a suitable holding disk • GNU tar • Samba (for Windows clients) • A large capacity tape drive (typically) • GNUplot
  64. 64. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 64 Configuration Roadmap • Set up server – Create amanda user and assign to group with permission to use the tape and changer devices (e.g. 'disk' on Linux) – Gather info on tape and changer devices - mt and mtx are handy scripts to have here – Open ports (10080,10082,10083) and set up services (amanda, amandaidx, amidxtape) – Configure amanda.conf & changer (e.g. chg-scsi.conf) • Set up clients – Create amanda user – Config ports, services, files, directories – Allow access (typically .amandahosts)
  65. 65. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 65 Things To Think About Before Proceeding • What should my cycle be? – Once per night? Every three nights?
  66. 66. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 66 Things To Think About Before Proceeding • What should my cycle be? – Once per night? Every three nights? • If your cycle seems convoluted, try using two: – One for daily backups, once per night, one week cycle – One for archives, always full dumps, run manually when you need it
  67. 67. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 67 Things To Think About Before Proceeding • What should my cycle be? – Once per night? Every three nights? • If your cycle seems convoluted, try using two: – One for daily backups, once per night, one week cycle – One for archives, always full dumps, run manually when you need it • Find the right balance for the cycle length – Short cycles eat up lots of resources doing full dumps – Long cycles can be a pain to restore from, you might need 4 tapes for example
  68. 68. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 68 Things To Think About Before Proceeding • What should my cycle be? – Once per night? Every three nights? • If your cycle seems convoluted, try using two: – One for daily backups, once per night, one week cycle – One for archives, always full dumps, run manually when you need it • Find the right balance for the cycle length – Short cycles eat up lots of resources doing full dumps – Long cycles can be a pain to restore from, you might need 4 tapes for example • How many tapes to use? – How far back into the past do you want to go?
  69. 69. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 69 amanda.conf • Amanda's main configuration file • Many options • Well documented • Cannot begin to cover everything here, definitely read the documentation first! • This is where you define your cycle's parameters (length, number of runs, number of tapes, etc...)
  70. 70. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 70 amanda.conf - dumptypes • Different rules for each DLE define dum ptype root-tar { global program "GNUTAR" com m ent "root partitions dum ped with tar" com press none index yes exclude list "/usr/local/lib/am anda/exclude.gtar" priority low } define dum ptype com p-high { global com m ent "very im portant partitions on fast m achines" com press client best priority high }
  71. 71. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 71 disklist • Defining your DLEs / targets # File form at is: # # hostnam e diskdev dum ptype [spindle [interface]] # the tape server itself am anda.cis.uab.edu / com p-root-tar-exclude-holdingdisk # the directory server newjersey.cis.uab.edu / com p-root-tar # the file server virginia.cis.uab.edu /m z com p-user-tar virginia.cis.uab.edu /root com p-root-tar virginia.cis.uab.edu /usr com p-user-tar virginia.cis.uab.edu /hc com p-root-tar
  72. 72. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 72 Configuring Tape Changers • Amanda has a generic interface to tape changers • Tape changer configuration is stored in chg- scsi.conf • chg-scsi.conf is one of many changer scripts that come with Amanda • This is where you tell Amanda how many drives you have, which tapes go to which drives, barcode support, etc...
  73. 73. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 73 Tape Drive Configuration Heads-Up • There are many choices of changer configuration scripts (chg-scsi, chg-multi, chg-mtx, chg-manual, chg-disk, etc...) • You may have to use one even if you don't have an actual changer (chg-manual, chg-disk) • Many options, many chances for confusion • Please read docs/TAPE.CHANGERS and other sources of information (listed at end of talk)
  74. 74. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 74 Configuring Your Tape Collection • Use amlabel to label new tapes – am labelCIS CIS-000 slot 0 • Then use amtape to build the tapelist – am tape CIS update am tape:scanning all30 slots in tape-changer rack: slot 26:date 20040623 labelCIS-022 etc...
  75. 75. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 75 Special Case Configurations • Windows Clients – Use Samba to backup Windows clients – Configure the Amanda server or other Unix client with Samba shares – Then in the disklist point to that server and share •am anda.cis.uab.edu //texas/dfs/officefiles com p-user-tar
  76. 76. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 76 Special Case Configurations • Windows Clients – Use Samba to backup Windows clients – Configure the Amanda server or other Unix client with Samba shares – Then in the disklist point to that server and share •am anda.cis.uab.edu //texas/dfs/officefiles com p-user-tar • Firewalls – --with-tcpportrange=40000,40030 ( something > 1024) – --with-udpportrange=920,940 (something < 1024) – or, iptables has amanda support you can enable
  77. 77. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 77 Other Features Reports Fine Tuning More Goodies
  78. 78. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 78 amplot • Parses amdump logs • Generates postscript graphs of dumper activity, holding disk usage, tape usage and bandwidth activity.
  79. 79. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 79 amplot
  80. 80. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 80 amstatus - Amanda status reports • Parses logs and reports on dumper efficiency network free kps: 12120 holding space : 52428800k (100.00%) dum per0 busy : 0:53:11 ( 49.14%) dum per1 busy : 0:21:26 ( 19.80%) dum per2 busy : 1:36:31 ( 89.17%) dum per3 busy : 0:35:44 ( 33.03%) taper busy : 0:26:08 ( 24.15%) 0 dum pers busy : 0:07:54 ( 7.31%) not-idle: 0:07:54 (100.00%) 1 dum per busy : 0:47:01 ( 43.44%) not-idle: 0:46:48 ( 99.55%) no-bandwidth: 0:00:12 ( 0.45%) 2 dum pers busy : 0:18:51 ( 17.42%) not-idle: 0:15:08 ( 80.29%) no-bandwidth: 0:03:35 ( 19.09%) start-wait: 0:00:06 ( 0.62%) 3 dum pers busy : 0:15:38 ( 14.45%) no-bandwidth: 0:15:08 ( 96.86%) client-constrained: 0:00:18 ( 1.95%) start-wait: 0:00:08 ( 0.89%) not-idle: 0:00:02 ( 0.30%) 4 dum pers busy : 0:18:48 ( 17.38%) no-dum pers: 0:16:36 ( 88.26%) not-idle: 0:02:12 ( 11.74%) This tells me that maybe I ought to increase the allowable bandwidth for Amanda.
  81. 81. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 81 Other Goodies • Amanda is a set of over 20 utilities. Some I haven't even mentioned yet (amoverview, amverify, amtoc, etc...) • We've only scratched the surface of the others. Most have many options, consult the man pages and other documentation.
  82. 82. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 82 Take Home Lessons What to tell your boss when you get back to work...
  83. 83. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 83 If You Only Remember One Thing... • Amanda is very robust, highly scalable, almost infinitely configurable, and can very likely handle your data backup situation
  84. 84. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 84 If You Only Remember Two Things... • Amanda is very robust, highly scalable, almost infinitely configurable, and can very likely handle your data backup situation • When something is wrong, run amcheck first
  85. 85. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 85 If You Only Remember Three Things... • Amanda is very robust, highly scalable, almost infinitely configurable, and can very likely handle your data backup situation • When something is wrong, run amcheck first • Once you get Amanda configured, you can trust it, and move on with your life. It just works.
  86. 86. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 86 For More Information • http://www.amanda.org/ • Consult the following docs: – README – INSTALL – docs/* (esp. FAQ and TAPE.CHANGERS) – example/* – The AMANDA section in O'Reilly's “Unix Backup and Recovery” – man pages • The user community is wonderful – Sign up for amanda-users@amanda.org at http://www.amanda.org/support/mailinglists.php
  87. 87. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 87 My Information • My email is fran@cis.uab.edu • This presentation is available at http://www.cis.uab.edu/fran/ • Much more Amanda information can be found at the above URL, including: – A document detailing every step of my configuration – A complete sample amanda.conf and chg-scsi.conf – Notes on configuring Samba to backup Windows shares
  88. 88. Amanda for Data Backup (OSCON 2004), Slide 88 My Information • My email is fran@cis.uab.edu • This presentation is available at http://www.cis.uab.edu/fran/ • Much more Amanda information can be found at the above URL, including: – A document detailing every step of my configuration – A complete sample amanda.conf and chg-scsi.conf – Notes on configuring Samba to backup Windows shares The End - Thank You!

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