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An introduction to hazardous materials


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An introduction to hazardous materials

  1. 1. An Introduction to Hazardous Materials The Brentwood Fire Department’s Citizen Fire Academy Class of 2004
  2. 2. Your Instructor LT Scott Ellis Hazardous Materials Technician
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>The Hazardous Materials Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Brentwood’s Response to Hazardous Materials </li></ul><ul><li>The Hazardous Materials Response Process </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Hazardous Materials Problem <ul><li>Approximately 50% of all hazardous materials that are released are hydrocarbon based fuels – gasoline, diesel, natural gas, propane, et cetera </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 25% of all hazardous materials that are released are commonly encountered chemicals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common Chemicals <ul><li>Explosives </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable Solids </li></ul><ul><li>Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Bases </li></ul><ul><li>Poisons </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining 25% are truly exotic of which we have little experience. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are HazMat’s? <ul><li>U.S. DoT categorizes HM’s into 9 different categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1 – Explosives </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Flammable gases </li></ul><ul><li>3 – Flammable and combustible liquids </li></ul><ul><li>4 – Flammable solids </li></ul><ul><li>5 – Oxidizers </li></ul><ul><li>6 – Poisons </li></ul><ul><li>7 – Radioactive </li></ul><ul><li>8 – Corrosives </li></ul><ul><li>9 – “Other Regulated Materials” or ORM’s </li></ul>
  7. 7. Explosives
  8. 8. Flammable Gases
  9. 9. Flammable and Combustible Liquids
  10. 10. Flammable Solids
  11. 11. Oxidizers
  12. 12. Poisons
  13. 13. Radioactive
  14. 14. Corrosives
  15. 15. ORM’s
  16. 16. Unique Situations in Brentwood <ul><li>Very little industrial </li></ul><ul><li>I-65 </li></ul><ul><li>Three railroads - CSX </li></ul><ul><li>Approach for Nashville International - FedEx shipments </li></ul><ul><li>Household hazmats </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Aid – County HM Group </li></ul>
  17. 17. Household HazMat’s <ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Ammunition </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning products </li></ul><ul><li>Pool chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Fuels (gasoline, alcohols, propane) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Brentwood’s Response to Hazardous Materials <ul><li>Three components – talent, tools, and techniques… </li></ul><ul><li>Talent - Departmental Hazardous Materials Response Team </li></ul><ul><li>Tools - Departmental Hazardous Materials Equipment and Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Technique – Departmental Hazardous Materials Operational Guidelines </li></ul>
  19. 19. BFD’s HazMat Response Team <ul><li>Sixteen members </li></ul><ul><li>All members are HazMat Technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Some are TEMA certified – remainder are OSHA certified by U.S. EPA </li></ul><ul><li>All have basic WMD training </li></ul><ul><li>Some have specialized WMD training, to include chemical and biological weapons, explosives, and EMS response to WMD </li></ul>
  20. 20. Williamson County HazMat Response Group <ul><li>Co-lead by Deputy Chief Todd Horton, Franklin Fire Department and Lieutenant Russell Peterson, Brentwood Fire Department </li></ul><ul><li>Six person Management Team includes Operations Officer, Safety Officer, and Medical Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Ten person Technical Support Team includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives Specialists, Decon Specialist, Medical Specialist, and other technical specialists </li></ul>
  21. 21. Williamson County HazMat Response Group <ul><li>Response Teams will include members from the Brentwood Fire Department, the Franklin Fire Department, the Williamson County Emergency Medical Services, and the Williamson County Emergency Management Agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Will be a regional response team – able to respond wherever needed </li></ul>
  22. 22. Brentwood HazMat Equipment and Assets <ul><li>Rescue 1 is primary HM response vehicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries PPE and decontamination equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also carries HazCat kit and sampling equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Engine carries air monitoring equipment and foam </li></ul><ul><li>Car 2 carries air monitoring, radiological monitoring, and information resources </li></ul>
  23. 23. Training Requirements <ul><li>OSHA training levels include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Awareness (no minimum hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Operations (minimum 8 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Technician (minimum 24 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Specialist (minimum 24 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OSHA-only certification/Not NFPA level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Incident Commander </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Training Requirements <ul><li>TEMA training levels include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Operations (32 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Technician (additional 96 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Specialist (additional 192 hours) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Certifications <ul><li>OSHA v. NFPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 472 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29 CFR 1910.120 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TEMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USEPA </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. HM Awareness <ul><li>May come upon spill or leak during duty times (PD & Public Works) </li></ul><ul><li>Protect nearby public and property by isolation and evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive mode only </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot contain or confine </li></ul>
  27. 27. HM Operations <ul><li>Respond to releases as the initial response (firefighters; some EMT’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Protect nearby public and property by isolation and evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive mode only </li></ul><ul><li>Can contain but cannot confine </li></ul>
  28. 28. HM Technician <ul><li>Respond for the purpose of stopping the spill or leak (HM team members) </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive role; confine the spill/leak </li></ul><ul><li>Training requirements include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Team Operations (TEMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiological Monitor (TEMA) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. HM Specialist <ul><li>Provide support to HM Technicians (HM team leaders) </li></ul><ul><li>More specific knowledge of detection and tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Training requirements include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry of HM (NFA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HM Operating Site Practices (NFA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiological Response Team (TEMA) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. HM Incident Manager <ul><li>Specialized management of the HM incident (HM team officers) </li></ul><ul><li>Most are higher trained than HM - Operations level </li></ul><ul><li>24 additional hours of training in HM incident management </li></ul>
  31. 31. Incident Management Model <ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Notification </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Spill and Leak Control </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Control </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery and Termination </li></ul>
  32. 32. Isolation is Scene Control!!!
  33. 33. Initial Isolation Distances … are found in the North American Emergency Response Guidebook
  34. 34. Rule of Thumb Initial Isolation Distance is at least 150 feet…
  35. 35. THE NAERG A practical exercise…
  36. 36. Scene Control <ul><li>Scene control is accomplished by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scene security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>isolation via PD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hot, warm, and cold zones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>safe response practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental health and safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medical control and surveillance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Control Zones <ul><li>Hot Zone = Exclusion zone </li></ul><ul><li>Warm Zone = Contamination Reduction Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Zone = Support Zone </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hot Zone <ul><li>determined by air monitoring, meteorological conditions, geography, and HM product characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>One way in - one way out </li></ul><ul><li>Work area only in required PPE </li></ul><ul><li>No eating, drinking, chewing, or “carrying on” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Get in then get out!” </li></ul>
  39. 39. Warm Zone <ul><ul><li>decontamination occurs here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPE is required here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPE level is generally one level below level required in the Hot Zone </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Cold Zone <ul><li>The Command Post, the Incident Manager, support staff, and media are here </li></ul><ul><li>No PPE is required! </li></ul><ul><li>If it is, MOVE!!! </li></ul>
  41. 41. Notification Who you gonna call?
  42. 42. Notification Contacts <ul><li>Williamson County Emergency Management Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>your “one stop shop!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they will notify TEMA and others, if needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responders can call the shipper, carrier, or CHEMTREC if they need to!!! </li></ul>
  43. 43. Identification What is that stuff?
  44. 44. On Scene Indicators <ul><ul><li>Occupancy/location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Container shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markings/colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placards/labels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senses </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Occupancy/Location
  46. 46. Container Shape
  47. 47. Markings/Colors
  48. 48. Placards/Labels
  49. 49. Shipping Papers
  50. 50. Senses <ul><li>Sight – vapor clouds, fire, heat waves </li></ul><ul><li>Sound – cracking, popping, creaking </li></ul><ul><li>Smell – garlic, almonds, bleach </li></ul><ul><li>Touch – hot, cold, stinging </li></ul><ul><li>Taste – one word – “Don’t!” </li></ul><ul><li>The most important sense is “Common”… </li></ul>
  51. 51. Instruments <ul><li>Air Monitoring Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Colorimetric tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Radiological Detection Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry – HazCat Kit </li></ul>
  52. 52. Protection “ Time, distance, and shielding…”
  53. 53. Protection <ul><li>Safety is increased by using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the incident management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an accountability system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Two In-Two Out” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>standardized procedures and techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effective decontamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medical support and surveillance </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Personal Protective Equipment “ Asta lasagna, don’t get any onya”
  55. 55. Four Levels of PPE <ul><li>Level A - fully encapsulated </li></ul><ul><li>Level B - non-encapsulated </li></ul><ul><li>Level C - APR </li></ul><ul><li>Level D - work clothing </li></ul>
  56. 56. Level A PPE <ul><li>Used in acidic and poisonous gaseous </li></ul><ul><li>Used in unknown environments </li></ul><ul><li>Maximal level of protection </li></ul>
  57. 57. Level B Uses <ul><li>Initial site entry </li></ul><ul><li>Decontamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decontamination of Level A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mass decontamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patient care </li></ul>
  58. 58. Level C
  59. 59. Level D
  60. 60. Accountability
  61. 61. Decontamination
  62. 62. Medical Surveillance and Monitoring
  63. 63. Spill and Leak Control “ Damming and Diking…”
  64. 64. Containment
  65. 65. Confinement
  66. 66. Fire Control “ Hot stuff…”
  67. 67. Recovery
  68. 68. Termination “ All good things must come to an end…”