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Foundations of Forgetting and Remembering (WP2 - ForgetIT 1st year review)

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Conceptual foundations of human and organizational remembering and forgetting in order to identify aspects of human memory and forgetting that might be helpful in the design of a digital preservation and managed forgetting system.

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Foundations of Forgetting and Remembering (WP2 - ForgetIT 1st year review)

  1. 1. Concise Preservation by combining Managed Forgetting and Contextualized Remembering
  2. 2. Professor Robert H Logie University of Edinburgh WP 2 Presentation Foundations of Forgetting and Remembering ForgetIT 1st Review Meeting, April 29-30, 2014 Kaiserslautern, Germany
  3. 3. ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014 Role in ForgetIT Interdisciplinary role – use conceptual foundations of human memory to inspire design of digital managed preservation and forgetting.
  4. 4. WP Objectives • Conceptual foundations of remembering and forgetting: individuals and organizations • User expectations • User evaluation Focus of Year 1 • Human memory to inspire design of managed forgetting. • Initial review of conceptual foundations • Develop methods for user model, user expectations and evaluation ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014 Objectives of WP and Year 1 Focus
  5. 5. PUBLIC EVENTS PERSONAL EVENTS Working Memory
  6. 6. Overloading Memory Getting information off the internet is like taking a drink from a fire hydrant
  7. 7. Information overload and accidental deletion ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014 We might also accidentally delete emails that we need
  8. 8. If the balloon popped, the sound would not carry since everything would be far away. A closed window would prevent the sound from carrying. Since the whole operation depends on the flow of electricity, a break in the wire would also cause problems. The fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. A string could break on the instrument, then there would be no accompaniment to the message. The best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. Reducing memory load with context
  9. 9. Reducing memory load with context
  10. 10. Preservation and Forgetting Information no longer needed A B C Forgetting irrelevant detail Forgetting without context ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  11. 11. Preservation and Forgetting Information no longer needed Digital Storage Fire Hydrant Problem A B C Forgetting irrelevant detail Forgetting without context ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  12. 12. Preservation and Forgetting Information no longer needed Digital Storage Fire Hydrant Problem A B C Forgetting irrelevant detail Preservation with context support ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  13. 13. ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  14. 14. Preservation and Forgetting Information no longer needed Digital Storage Fire Hydrant Problem A B C Forgetting irrelevant detail Managed digital preservation and forgetting Archive or Delete ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  15. 15. Preservation and Forgetting A B C Preservation with Relearning ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014 Relearn Relearn Relearn
  16. 16. Porco=Pig Porco? Oca=Goose Oca? Porco? Oca? Giorno=Day Giorno? Porco? Oca? Sedia=Chair Sedia? Giorno? Oca? Porco? Sedia? Try this rapid re-learning technique for Italian
  17. 17. Porco=Pig Porco? Oca=Goose Oca? Porco? Oca? Giorno=Day Giorno? Porco? Oca? Sedia=Chair Sedia? Giorno? Oca? Porco? Sedia? Quickly re-learn before you forget Learning is easier
  18. 18. WorkingMemory KnowledgeBase PERCEPTION Episodic Memory Semantic Memory (Events) (Knowledge) Perception Currently activated episodic and semantic memory Working Memory A conceptual model of human memory Rapid and substantial forgetting Preservation for context Updated <1 sec Knowledge Base Episodic Memory Semantic Memory
  19. 19. Role in Preserve-or-Forget architecture ForgetIT Architecture WorkingMemory KnowledgeBase PERCEPTION Episodic Memory Semantic Memory (Events) (Knowledge) Currently activated episodic and semantic memory Working Memory Human Memory ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014 Semantic Desktop TYPO 3 Middleware Archive Knowledge Base Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Perception
  20. 20. WP 2 Highlights from year 1 Use case – Digital photographs • Surveys of digital photo use and user expectations • Behavioural study of keep/delete photo decisions • Link photos with recall of details
  21. 21. Aim of Surveys Get data from large number of people on How they categorize and manage photos How they store and preserve/delete photos Expectations for a ForgetIT system Inform user requirements (WP9 and WP10) Feature extraction and contextualisation (WP4 and WP6) Build online and offline user pool for further evaluation ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  22. 22. Surveys Pilot Survey Wide range of questions, getting qualitative data to help frame questions Test for shorter version during Photograph Study Online Main Survey Launched Dec 2013: English, German, Swedish, Italian, Turkish, Greek, Czech and Chinese in preparation http://tinyurl.com/forgetit-personal-preservation ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  23. 23. Overview of Main Survey Taking Photos: how often, with what, of what Searching and Managing Photos: common solutions, common problems Storing and Preserving Photos: importance of preservation; how people store photos; which precautions do they take Free Comment: about survey and ideas for preservation About Yourself: includes native language and country because we expect diversity Keeping in Touch: The Recruitment Vehicle ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  24. 24. Highlight 2- Survey of photo use and organisation Online Pilot Survey (D9.1): long; qualitative data that shaped later multiple choice questions Paper and Pen During Festival Study: pilot of shorter version, Observation of particpants Final Survey (D2.2): ~ 10 minutes, multiple languages N=146 N=74 N=386 and counting
  25. 25. Main Findings from Pilot Survey Worry about losing digital photos, regardless of age Most respondents ‘tech-savvy‘ - early adopters? Care a great deal about privacy Most use file managers to manage photos. User has to remember: where to put what what has been put where Particular problem with retrieving older photographs Expectation of digital help with preservation ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  26. 26. Keeping and Deleting Photos: The Edinburgh Festival Photograph Use Case ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  27. 27. Keeping and Deleting Photos in the Festival Study DELETE Aesthetics/ Random DELETE Not Typical DELETE Surplus KEEP Typical, Subject Matter, Personal KEEP Reaction, Personal, Aesthetics KEEP Aesthetics, Sharing ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  28. 28.         
  29. 29. OVERALL FOLDER CATEGORY USE: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 PERFORMANCE BUILDINGS & DETAILS VIEWS AND SCENES FRINGE CONTEXT LOCATION CONTEXT RANDOM/PERSONAL OTHER TIME 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 TIME 2 TOTAL NUMBER OF TIMES CATEGORY USED AS FOLDER LABEL
  30. 30. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 T1 KEEP T2 KEEP MEANPROPORTIONOFUSEABLEPHOTOSKEPT PROPORTION OF USEABLE PHOTOS 'KEPT', BY GROUP DAY WEEK MONTH Proportion of useable photos kept by group
  31. 31. People consistent when deciding what to keep, even a month later. On average, participants deleted one additional photo at time 2. Why do People Keep Photos? ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  32. 32. Analysing Human Recall – To Link with Photos Time 1 (after 1 hour) “ Erm…I can remember…the er…somebody who I gather was a guy in kinda a warrior’s costume / he had his helmet taken off / and just sitting down / having a smoke / which was pretty good. / Erm. And then a real building. / Erm, just up from…just kinda between the… Castle and where we started off. / Which I’d never actually seen before, / even though it’s obviously been there 500 years, / it was pretty cool. / Umm, I saw a motorbike / I really liked. / Er, and there was whisky shops / and um…there was also…there was some girl with / a massive/ sign / saying “The End is Nigh”. / Which was pretty good. / Um. Yeah. A lot of that kind of stuff, / just a lot of street performers / I got a lot of leaflets as well. /” Time 2 (after 1 week) “There was…I remember one guy who was like dressed up as some sort of monster, / sitting down / just having a smoke / which was kinda cool. ….. / and then there was erm… / there were some people half doing a show, / I don’t exactly know what it was / but it was girl with / a big / placard on… / And it said “The end is nigh”. / Which was pretty funny. / Erm…I remember…that…and then… / so that and then, / I kind of wandered around / and looked in a few whisky shops. / I saw a motorbike / I quite liked.…. / ”
  33. 33. Edinburgh Festival Study- 72 volunteers taking photographs. Keep- delete decisions and interaction with human memory (D2.1). Internet surveys of photograph use and user expectations. Pilot (D9.1) and final version (launch Dec 2013) in multiple languages. http://tinyurl.com/forgetit-personal-preservation Literature review on personal and organizational memory and forgetting (D2.2). Identified key features for digital preservation. Identified cognitive perspective, behavioural perspective, social perspective of organizational memory Common threads: dynamic and reconstructive nature of personal and organizational memory to reflect in the conceptual models. Highlights in Year 1 ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  34. 34. January 2014: Robert Logie: Invited keynote " Working Memory: Theory, Application and Technology" Taiwan Society for Cognitive Neuroscience. February 2014: Robert Logie: Invited keynote “Working memory, cognitive training and managed digital forgetting”. Invited keynote for Kyoto Programme on Psychology and Education Maria Wolters, Elaine Niven and Robert Logie (2014): The Art of Deleting Snapshots. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 2014, Toronto. ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014 Publications
  35. 35. Thank you for your attention
  36. 36. A Message to ForgetIT from Sherlock Holmes “I consider that a person’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all of the lumber of every sort, so that knowledge which might be useful gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things. Now the skillful person is very careful as to what is taken into the brain-attic. There will be nothing but the tools which may help to do work, but of these there is a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order…… It is of the highest importance not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.” Arthur Conan Doyle (1887) – Sherlock Holmes in ‘A Study in Scarlet’ ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014
  37. 37. Develop personal conceptual framework - T2.2 Photograph use and user expectations, multiple countries - T2.2 Analysis and follow up of personal recollections - T2.4 Evaluate PIMO in real life settings – T2.4 – conference and Edinburgh Festival Use-Case studies – Spielwarenmesse and AKO Holding – T2.2 Operationalize, evaluate and fine-tune organizational conceptual framework... - T2.5 ...utilizing three case settings (Oxford, British Library, Centropa NGO) ForgetIT Project GA600826, 1st Review Meeting, Kaiserslautern, April 2014 WP 2 Plans for year 2

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