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  1. 1. Linking Communication to Culture The term "culture" refers to the complex collection of knowledge, folklore, language, rules, rituals, habits, lifestyles, attitudes, beliefs, and customs that link and give a cofilmon identity to a particular group of people at a specific point in time. All social units develop a culture. Even in two-person relationships, a culture develops over time. In friendship and romantic relationships, for example, partners develop their own history, shared experiences, language patterns, rituals, habits, and customs that give that relationship a special character-a character that differentiates it in various ways from other relationships. Examples might include special dates, places, songs, or events that come to have a unique and important s5'rnbolic meaning for two individuals' Groups also develop cultures, composed of the collection of rules, rituals, customs, and other characteristics that give an identity to the social unit. Where a group traditionally meets, whether meetings begin on time or not, what topics are discussed, how decisions are made, and how the group socializes are all elements of what, over time, become dehning and differentiating elements of its culture. Organizations also have culfures, often apparent in particular patterns of dress, layout of workspaces, meeting styles and functions, ways of thinking about and talking about the nature and directions ofthe organtzation, leadership styles, and so on. The most rich and complex cultures are those that are associated with a society or a nation, and the term "culture" is most commonly used to refer to these characteristics, including language and language-usage patterns, rituals, rules, and customs. A societal or national cuiture also includes such eiements as significant historical events and characters, philosophies of government, social customs, family practices, religion, economic philosophies and practices, belief and value systems, and concepts and systems of law. Thus, any social unit-whether a relationship, group, organization, or society--develops a cutrture over time. While the defining characteristics--or combination of characteristics--of each culture are unique, all cultures share certain common functions. Three such functions that ale particularly important from a communication perspective are (1) iinking individuals to one another, (2) providing the basis tbr a common identity, and (3) creating a context for interaction and negotiation among members. Characteristics of culture Cultures are complex and multifaceted. As is apparent from the above discussions, cultures are complex "structures" that consist of a wide array of characteristics' The cultures of relationships or groups are relatively simple compared to those of organizations and, especially, sooieties. Edward Hall (1959,1979) is one of the most significant contributors to the general understanding of the complexity of culture and the importance of communication to understanding and dealing with cultural differences at the societal level.
  2. 2. cultures are subjectiue' There is a.tendency to assrune that the erements of one,s ow'cultures are logical una *u[" goJ ,"nr.- ti r"'"#irr* if other curtures-whether ofrelationships' gloups' organiza:tions' or societies-root airr.r"nt, those diffbrences are orten considered to be negative, ill'ogical, and ,o*.iiir.. nonsensical. If; to. exampre, an individual happens to be ir u ro*unri" r.iutionrrrrf-t# is character izedbypublic ff :JHJ,l,:f",ffi;,llli",",T.::fr ur,Ltr,r"r";##:laviorsororherpeoprewhohave mightwonderwhv"'e*u;;;;;iliJ;:,.f.Tfi"ff t'J:J#ii*rffi [,ii'm:ffi ";" one anorher in pubric. The individrial might,;;";';;;ted to concrude that the "reserved" relationship lacks depthand iitensirt rii, oi"'l;;;t" a variety ofsituations. peopre who are u*aio-inro"""i,n.J,i*;i" group might think rhat ;n::ffiJ?r?:"" rneeting rules is strange and sti-lted. Emproyees in an organ ization anorganizat'*ffi?ff T, j?#:';:ffi 4;*:f ::H]jJr*J[:x*n;ffi *,permits one man to have ottiy o.r. *ir" *uy nn'Ji;;;i" inappropriate that anotherculture allows one man to have multipre-wiv;;. w,tir"rard to ",,ltur., the tendency formany people is to equate ..different,, *irf, .*ron;:;;; though all cultural elementscome about through essentially ia"ntirut "o*-,fi i"o]rr J' oro.*rr".. cultures change lver tiye.In faci, cultures are ever changing-though the change issometimes r.r" rj,:LT_o *p"".i1ibl" "t*,;;;;;;ft,ence curruial change. Asindicated abov!, cultures are created ilrrouglriom,;;;i.rr,ioo, and it is also throughcornmunication between individuals trrut "itt,rr"Jh*g;"rer time. Each person invorvedin a communication encounter brings rrr" r"--"rrrr;r.";, own experiences from other(past orpresent) culture **-uffi,In one ;"*, Jn, "n.ounter befween individuals innew relationships' groups' otganizaiions' or societies is an.inter-curturar commruricationevent' and these varying cultriral encounters influence the i'civiaual and the cultures overtime' Travel and communication technorogie, g.""rrr;;".lerate the movement ofmessages from one cultural context to unoih.r,La in srnail and rarge ways, culturescome to influence one another through comrnunication. ph.ases such as ..melting pot,,, ;#:Hr"""ffi ffi *o "gt ot u1 uil i;ge " spe ak r" irr" ir*itabi li ty o r int"o,rr t-r*r cultures are largely invisible'Much of what characterizes curtures of relationships,groups' organizations, or societies is invisible til;;;rs, much as the air is invisibreto those who breathe it. Langu"g;,;i;;*se, is visibr",u, L" greeting conventions,special symbols, praces, und ,pui"r. However, tne speciai and defining meanings thatrhese symbors, greetings, places, uno ,fuo, have for inii,riau*, in a curture url a. t"r,visible' For example' one can observe individuars tisring *t "r, they greet, but unless onehas a good deal more cultural knowledge, rf"-Jimi"ii.T J.""ine whar the behaviormeans in the context of the curture;i;";t"hri""d,';;;o , o.rganization, or society.In other words' it is difficurt r" i"ri, rirtut rnore "uttu.a] knowledge, if the kiss is acustomary greetine am:ng casuar acquaintanr";;; if ,rlrr'i gr".tirrg wourd be reservedfor family membeis or loiTers' at ""Jrr*. example, beefsteak is thought of as an exce'entfood in some cultures' Howevtt' iiot"'*re a vegetarian ora member of a curture wherethe cow is sacred' that same steak would have ;il."Iy il'rr"."n, cultural meanins.
  3. 3. Glimpses of Culture For the reasons noted above, opporlunities to "see" culture and the dynamic relationship that exists between culture and communication are few. Two such opporlunities do occur when there are violations of cultural conventions or when there is cross-cultural contact. When someone violates an accepted cultural convention, ritual, or custom-for example, by speaking in a foreign language, standing closer than usual while conversing, or discussing topics that are typicaliy not discussed openly-the other members of the culture become aware that something inappropriate is occurring. When "normal" cultural practices are occurring, rnembers of the culture think little of it, but when violations occur, the members are reminded-if only momentarily----of the pervasive role that culture has on daily life. When visiting other groups, organizations, and, especially, other societies, people are often confronted by-and therefore become aware of-- different customs, rituals, and conventions. These situations often are associated with some awkwardness, as the people strive to understand and sometirnes to adapt to the characteristics of the new culture. In these circumstances, again, one gains a glimpse of "culture" and the processes by which people create and adapt to culture. The Role of Technologv and Media All institutions within society facilitate communication, and in that way, they all contribute to the creation, spread, and evolution of culture. However, colnmunication media such as television, film, radio, newspapers, compact discs, magazines, computers, and the Internet play aparticularly important role. Because media extend human capacities fbr creating, duplicating, transmitting, and storing messages, they also extend and ampli$' culture-building activities. By means of such communication technology, messages are transmitted across time and space, stored, and later retrieved and used. Television programs, films, websites, video games, and compact discs are created tlnough human activit5r-and therefore reflect and further extend the cultural perspectives of their creators. They come to take on a life of their own, quite distinct and separate from their creators, as they are transmitted and shared around the increasingly global community. Issues and Areas of StudY L;nderstanding the nature of culture in relationship to communication is helpful in a number of ways. First, it helps to explain the origin of differences between the practices, beliefs, valuei, and customs of various groups and societies, and it provides a reminder of the cornmunication process by which these differences came into being. This knowledge can and should heighten people's tolerance for cultural differences. Second, it helps to explain the process that individuals go through in adapting to new relationships, groups, organizations, and societies and the cultures of each. Third, it underscores the importance of commulication as a bridge between cultures and as a fbrce behind cultural change.
  4. 4. A number of questions also concefir researchers and policyrnakers in this area. As communication increases between individuals, groups, and countries, does this mean that cultural differences and traditions will inevitably erode altogether? Will the cultures of individuals from groups, organizations, and societies that have great access to and control of communication media ovelpower those in cultures that have fewer resources and less access and control? Can knowledge be used to help individuals more comfortably and effectively adapt to new relationships, groups, organizations, and societies? The importance of these issues makes this area an important one for continued examination by scholars and practitioners. Reference: j:it,p;11si:11*g-itj::rljl,r**.411,[.,1:il;ii.l$]$hs.::"...4i;{in,S4.1,.l,ljt'g|1t*:p-:aifd: .l-,,", i--,;..,; ,,:l
  5. 5. LEAGUE OF NATIONS Background The l-eague ofNations came into being after the end of World War One. The League of Nation's task was simple - to ensure that war never broke out again. After the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty, many looked to the League to bring stability to the world. America entered World War One n 1917. The country as a whole and the president - Woodrow Wilson in particular - was horrified by the slaughter that had taken place in what was meant to be a civilized part of the world. The only way to avoid a repetition of such a disaster was to create an international body whose sole purpose was to maintain world peace and which would sort out intemational disputes as and when they occurred. This would be the task of the League of Nations. After the devastation of the war, support for such a good idea was great (except in America where isolationism was taking root). The organization of the Leagae of Nations The League ofNations was to be based in Geneva, Switzerland. This choice was natural as Switzerland was a neutral country and had not fought in World War One. No one could dispute this choice especially as an intetnational organization such as the Red Cross was already based in Switzerland. If a dispute did occur, the League, under its Covenant, could do three things - these were known as its sanctions: It could call on the states in dispute to sit down and discuss the problem in an orderly and peaceful manner. This would be done in the League's Assembly - which was essentially ih. L.ugu.'s parliament which would listen to disputes and come to a decision on how to proceed. If orie nation was seen to be the offender, the League could introduce verbal ianctions - warning an aggressor nation that she would need to leave another nation's territory or face the consequences' If the states in dispute failed to listen to the Assembly's decision, the League could introduce ".orro*i" sanctions. This would be arranged by the League's Council. The purpose of this sanction was to financially hit the aggressor nation so that she would have io do as the League required. The logic behind it was to push an aggressor nation towards bankruptcy, so that the people in that state would take out their anger on their government forcing them to accept the League's decision. The League could order League members
  6. 6. not to do any trade with an aggressor nation in an effort to bring that aggressor nation to heel. If this failed, the League could introduce physical sanctions. This meant that military force would be used to put into place the League's decision. However, the League did not have a rniiitary force at its disposal and no member of the League had to provide one under the tenns ofjoining - unlike the current United Nations. Therefore, it could not carry out any threats and any country defying its authority r,vould have been very aware of this weakness. The only two countries in the League that could have provided any military might were Britain and France and both had been severely depleted strength- wise in World War One and could not provide the League with the backing it needed. Also both Britain and France were not in a position to use their finances to pay for an expanded anny as both were financially hit very hard by World War One. The I-eague also had other weaknesses: The country, whose president, Woodrow Wilson, had dreamt up the idea of the League - America - refused to join it. As America was the world's most powerful nation, this was a serious blow to the prestige of the League. However, America's refusal to join the League, fitted in with her desire to have an isolationist policy throughout the world. Germany was not allowed to join the League in 1919. As Germany had started the war, according to the Treaty of Versailles, one of her punishments was that she was not considered to be a mernber of the intemational community and, therefore, she was not invited to join. This was a great blow- to Germany but it also mearlt that the League could not use whatever strength Germany had to support its campaign against aggressor nations. Russia was also not allowed to join as in 191"1, she had a communist government that generated fear in westem Europe, and in 1918, the Russian royal family - the Romanovs - was murdered. Such a country could not be allowed to take its place in the League. Therefore, three of the world's most powerful nations (potentially for Russia and Germany) played no part in supporting the League. The two most powerful members were Britain and France - both had suffered financially and militarily during the war - and neither was enthusiastic to get involved in disputes that did not affect Western Europe. Therefore, the League had a fine ideal - to end war for good. However, if an aggressor nation was determined enough to ignore the League's verbal warnings, all the League could do was enforce economic sanctions and hope that these worked as it had no chance or enforcing its decisions using military might.
  7. 7. INTERNATI ONAL ORGA]VIZA TI ONS : D EFINI TION AND BAS IC P ARP OSE A. Definition An international organization is an organization involving many different countries of international scope or character. There are two main types of intemational organizations: international intergovernmental organizations, whose members are sovereign states; and non-govefitmental organizations (NGOs), which are private organizations. An international intergovemmental organization must be established by atteaty providing it with legal recognition for it to be an international organization. International organizations so established are subjects of international law, capable of entering into agreements among themselves or with states. Thus international organizations in a legal sense are distinguished from mere groupings of states, such as the G-8 (France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan,Italy, and Canada) and the G-77 (an intergovernmental organization of 77 developing countries), neither of which have been founded by treaty, though in non-legal contexts these are sometimes referred to as international orgarizations as well. International organizations must also be distinguished from treaties; while ali international organizations are founded on a treaty, many treaties (e.g. NAFTA) do not establish an intemational organization and rely purely on the parties fortheir administration. (iig:.',-,;!:1,i,::iL1.U-;i.!"rr&:-i.r.:-il,.iqj::rgliul1'15!Li*Jier;3a3i|+r, ) Intemational organization is also viewed as an "association of States established by and based upon a treaty, which pursues common aims and which has its own special organs to fulfill particular functions within the organization." (Encyclopedia of Public International Lav,, p.l2S9.) International orgaruzations are necessarily based upon multilateral treaties, and the law of treaties forms parl of the law of international organizations. Ratification of the treaty is required for the entry into force of the constituent treaty of an internationai organization, either by all signatory States, a specified number of States or a majority of States, as designated by the ratification procedure of the interaational organization. B. Purpose of I0 International organizations are established mainly to create a legitimate platform for collaborating among members to foster cooperation and mutual support in advancing socio-cultural, political and economic agenda that are of comrnon interest and concern. For instance, the main purpose of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security, to sat-eguard human rights, to provide a mechanism for international law, and to promote social and economic progress, improve living standards, and fight diseases. It provides the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests when addressing interaational problems. Toward these ends it ratified a Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.
  8. 8. rYPES OF IT,ITERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION 1.lntroduction This section reviews the complete range of international organizations' The conventional categories used are first examined, then various ways of distinguishing between the many kinds of organization "nb Gt"es of "internationality" are considered' The problem of borderline cases is discussed, together with non-organizational substitutes for organizations and possible alternative forms of-organization. Quantitative information on the growth of international institutions and indicative data on regional organizations are also presented' A major difficurg in obtaining some understanding of internationar organizations is the variety "i "rtir'.tirrtionif tormi wniin need to be consideied' Abstract classification schemes' particularly when simp-lineO ior convenience, tend to conceal the existence of well-developed ffi6#;rganlzatio;i with distinct features' The approach employed here has been to use severar different ways of breaking up the i"og" of oiganizations and to cite severar examples of organizations of any particular type' The intent is not to put forward a new systematic classification of international organizations but rathen to facilitate-"n "ppr".irtion o.1 the variety of bodies which could be incorporated into any such scheml.*"nt on the three conventional categories used (intergovernmentat, ;;i;;t"ti;;"1 non-gou"inmental non-profit, and multinational enterprises) is thus a valid point of departure. The second breakdown of international organizations is developed on the Oasis o? the terminology used in the actual title of the body' The intent here is to show the lirnitations of this oOvious, 'Out somewhat superficial' approach' as well as its value in distinguishitg OLt*;". some t<inOs of organization' The scheme developed is based on the relationship ne"tween such bodies and the-nreetings by which they were created' Another categorization used is based on the structural peculiarities of some kinds of organization. goOies are Aistinguished in terms of their hybrid character' dependent character, semi-autonomous ciaracter, relationship to leadership' regional orientation' functional orientatio-n, nutliog"n"ity of membership, structural complexity, or minimal structure" Some international organizations may also be usefully characterized by the special emphasis they give to a particuilr moOe of action' Oin"t" may ne distinguished by the specialized nature of their preoccupation (as contrasted with any more conventional classification by subject). A significant numneiot bodies called "international" can also be usefully distinguisheo in termi of pecutiarities ln greir geographic orientation or distribution of membershiP' ln addition to the above rubrics, there are a number of groups of organizations with other special characteristics such ". .o*t"*oration of individuals' focus on charismatic personalitier, "p"dJ-ffi nage booiet, riu *n i associations' retrog ressive bod ies and hyperProgressive bodies' Eachofthedimensionsmentionedbringsoutdifferentaspectsoftherangeandvarietyof international nooies. several exampres"oi any such group are cited to give a better grasp ot tne tinOs of bodies wfricn exilt' Most of the named bodies are described in this volurne, the number in parenthesis following each name being the reference number of the description. tt rnorro o,i"tressed tnai a pa,ii"urar body could well exemplify several of
  9. 9. the special characteristics discussed, although it may only have been cited because of the apparent dominant nature of a particular characteristic. The term "apparent" is deliberately used because the characteristic in question may not necessarily be of great important in determining the actual functioning of the organization (eg the Howard League for Penal Reform could perhaps just as well be called the International League for Penal Reform). lt should also be stressed that in the main the dimensions and characteristics discussed attempt to draw attention to the many exceptional cases rather than to distinguish between organizations lacking any of the characteristics noted. lt could be argued that there is a central core of international organizations which can only usefully be classified in terms of aims, internal structure, control, activities and membership. Unfortunately, it is these same bodies which tend to be multifunctional and therefore to be difficult to capture adequately and meaningfully in the schemes which have been proposed to date. Given the preponderance of organizations possessing characteristics distinguishing them, to a greater or lesser degree, from a model international organization, it is appropriate to attempt a descriptive review on this basis - in anticipation of a rnore adequate and comprehensive scheme. 2. Conventional categories It is usualto distinguish between three main types of "international organization", namely: inter-governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, and multinational enterprises. 2.1 Inter-governmental organizations (lGOs) The YSji{&!ig&-p.ilghlJ?A#*-Se/-Ci.#€{{aqggc$, which aims to identify and list all intergovernmental organizations, defines such bodies as: . (a) being based on a formal instrument of agreement between the governments of nation states; . (b) including three or more nation states as parties to the agreement; . (c) possessing a permanent secretariat performing ongoing tasks. The view of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations concerning intergovernmental organizations is implicit in its Resolution 288 (X) of 27 February 1950: "Any international organization which is not established by intergovernmental agreement shall be considered as a non-govemmentalorganization forthe purpose of fhese arrangenenfs." The resolution was concerned with the implementation of Article 71 of the United Nations Charter on consultative status of non-governmental organizations, and it was amplified by Resolution 1296 (XLIV) of 25 June 1968:"...including organizationswhich accept members designated by government authoities, provided that such membership does not interfere with the free expression of views of the organizations." In practice therefore, the editors assume that an organization is intergovernmental if it is established by signature of an agreement engendering obligations between governments, whether or not that agreement is eventually published. lf any organization declares itself to be non-governmental, it is accepted as such by the editors. All organizations established by agreements to which three states or more are parties are therefore included. Following the adoption of Resolution 334 (Xl) of 20 July 1950 (see Appendix 14), it was agreed with the UN Secretariat in New York that bodies arising out of bilateral agreements should not be included in the Yearbook (although they may be included in Type G or N).
  10. 10. 2.2 International non-governmental organizations (NGOs) A clear and unambiguous theoretically acceptable definition of international NGOs remains to be formulated. Much research on these bodies is based on those described in the yearboak of Intemational Organizations. The criterion for inclusion in this volume is based on the ECOSOC definition of NGOs (noted in the above) which however fails to define the meaning to be given to "international organization". The editors of the Yearbook have therefore developed a set of seven rules designed to identify an international NGO in terms of aims, members, structure, officers, finance, autonomy, and activities. The intent has been to include only those bodies oriented to three or more countries. The abbreviation "lNGO" tends to be used by the acadernic communi$, whereas "NGO" is favoured by the United Nations system. "NGO" tends to be used by the academic community to refer to national NGOs. The organizations themselves, in those few cases where they use the term (rather than a more specific term such as trade union, voluntary agency, etc), use "NGO" and never "INGO". The two are used interchangeably here' 2.3 Mu ltinatlonal enterPrises As with lGOs and NGOs, there is no clear definition of multinational or transnational corporations. A study by the United Nations Secretariat lists many proposed definitions. (5) Much data is available ibout the several hundred most economically powerful corporations likely to constitute the basis for any list. The editors of the Yearbook of lnternational ArgLnizations have published the results of their survey to determine probable numbers in ter-m of different criteria based on the distribution of subsidiaries between countries (6) and in 1g76 published such information as one section of their experimental Yearbook of Wodd Problems and Human Potential(7)- The controversy, discussed below, over the term to be applied to such bodies goes beyond the issue of whether one or other word is more appropriate for designated entities. Sahlgren notes that ,'Even among those using the terms "transnational corporations" or "multinational enterprises", for instanie, there r's sftl/ a wide margin of disagreement as to which entities are or are not would tike to see paftty or wholly-state owned enterprises exctuded from the scope of the term "transnationat corparations"...ofhers have argued that s,uch enterpnses displa y characteistics and motivations that are essentially identical with those of privately-owned enterprises'" (B) b$sg:msil.asg$: iiiliee$$rs.Eqg*aq$l-U$'$'gucspAMp