Weighted Slotted RuleML for Similarity Matching in ...

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Weighted Slotted RuleML for Similarity Matching in ...

  1. 1. Weighted Slotted RuleML for Similarity Matching in AgentMatcher Information Agents Harold Boley , NRC IIT e-Business Virendra Bhavsar , UNB, Faculty of Computer Science 2 November 2002 Revised: 26 February 2005
  2. 2. Slotted RuleML Via the Name-Giving Metarole slot (I) <ul><li>Here is a self-explaining 'metarole' ( slot ) representation of the slotted, RDF-like Jess fact </li></ul><ul><li>(automobile ( make Ford) ( model Explorer) ( year 1999)) </li></ul><ul><li>in Object-Oriented (OO) RuleML – part of RuleML 0.88 – with user slots named via the first subelement: </li></ul><ul><li><Atom> </li></ul><ul><li><opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Atom> </li></ul>
  3. 3. Slotted RuleML Via the Name-Giving Metarole slot (II) <ul><li>This 'Slotted RuleML' notation corresponds to the </li></ul><ul><li>'positionalized' ruleml-datalog notation </li></ul><ul><li><Atom> </li></ul><ul><li><opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr> </li></ul><ul><li><Ind>Ford</Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Ind>Explorer</Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Ind>1999</Ind> </li></ul><ul><li></Atom> </li></ul><ul><li>if the 'roles' of the make , model , and year positions </li></ul><ul><li>are remembered somewhere else (signature declaration) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Slotted RuleML Via the Name-Giving Metarole slot (III) <ul><li>Note that a mix of an ordered sequence of args and role-unordered args will thus be possible in facts as well: </li></ul><ul><li><Atom> </li></ul><ul><li><opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr> </li></ul><ul><li><Ind>Ford</Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Ind>Explorer</Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Ind>1999</Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> mileage </Ind><Ind>65000</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> color </Ind><Ind>white</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Atom> </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Ind elements can be replaced by (typed) Var elements in all of the positional, slotted and mixed notations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Extending Slotted RuleML for Weighted AgentMatcher Keyphrases <ul><li>AgentMatcher ’s weighted keyphrases as Jess-like role-weighted fact: </li></ul><ul><li>(automobile ( make 0.7 Ford) ( model 0.1 Explorer) ( year 0.2 1999)) </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted Object-Oriented (WOO) RuleML – part of RuleML 0.88 – extends user slots by an XML attribute for such weight s: </li></ul><ul><li><Atom> </li></ul><ul><li><opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.7 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Atom> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Role-Weighted Slotted RuleML Queries for AgentMatcher Similarity Matching <ul><li>AgentMatcher agent can then use a Jess-like role-weighted query: </li></ul><ul><li>(automobile ( make 0.5 Ford) ( model 0.1 Explorer) ( year 0.4 Y)) </li></ul><ul><li>RuleML 0.88 can use a corresponding query, and similarity matching with the above fact succeeds, binding Y = 1999: </li></ul><ul><li><Atom> </li></ul><ul><li><opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.5 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.4 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Var>Y</Var></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Atom> </li></ul>
  7. 7. Flat Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML <ul><li>The minimal 'metarole' (slot) representation of the slotted, RDF-like (untyped) feature term, similar to F-logic term, </li></ul><ul><li>auto[ make -> Ford; model -> Explorer; year -> 1999] </li></ul><ul><li>in RuleML 0.88 with user slots named via the first subelement: </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc>< Ctor> auto</ Ctor> </opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be used as an argument in facts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nested Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML <ul><li>The representation of the nested (untyped) feature term </li></ul><ul><li>vehicle[ winter -> auto[ make -> Ford; model -> Explorer; year -> 1999] </li></ul><ul><li>summer -> cycle[ make -> Honda; model -> Magna; year -> 2002]] </li></ul><ul><li>in RuleML 0.88 with user slots named via the first subelement: </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc>< Ctor> vehicle</ Ctor> </opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> winter </Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc>< Ctor> auto</ Ctor> </opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> summer </Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc>< Ctor> cycle</ Ctor> </opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind> Honda </Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind> Magna </Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind> 2002 </Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flat Weighted Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML for AgentMatcher Keyphrases <ul><li>Representation of AgentMatcher ’s weights in an extended feature term: </li></ul><ul><li>auto[ make - 0.7 -> Ford; model - 0.1 -> Explorer; year - 0.2 -> 1999] </li></ul><ul><li>RuleML 0.88 user slots can again be extended by an XML attribute for capturing weight s: </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc><C tor >auto</C tor ></opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.7 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be used as an argument in facts </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nested Weighted Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML for AgentMatcher Trees <ul><li>Representation of AgentMatcher’s weights in a nested feature term: </li></ul><ul><li>vehicle[ winter - 0.6 -> auto[ make - 0.7 -> Ford; model - 0.1 -> Explorer; year - 0.2 -> 1999] </li></ul><ul><li>summer - 0.4 -> cycle[ make - 0.5 -> Honda; model - 0.2 -> Magna; year - 0.3 -> 2002]] </li></ul><ul><li>RuleML 0.88 with the XML attribute for capturing weight s: </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc>< Ctor >vehicle</ Ctor ></opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.6 &quot;><Ind> winter </Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc>< Ctor >auto</ Ctor ></opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.7 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.4 &quot;><Ind> summer </Ind> </li></ul><ul><li><Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li><opc>< Ctor >cycle</ Ctor ></opc> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.5 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind> Honda </Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind> Magna </Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li><slot weight=&quot; 0.3 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind> 2002 </Ind></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul><ul><li></slot> </li></ul><ul><li></Cterm> </li></ul>

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