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Impact of Persuasion


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Impact of Persuasion

  1. 1. The Impact of Persuasion Four benefits of studying persuasion
  2. 2. The pervasiveness of persuasion <ul><li>More than $260 billion per year is spent on advertising in the U.S. (Kardes, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>The average person is exposed to 300-400 persuasive messages per day from the media alone (Rosseli, Skelly, & Mackie, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>The average person watches 1,000 commercials per week (Berger, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>An average of $800 per person is spent on advertising in the U.S. each year (Berger, 2004) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Obvious forms of persuasion <ul><li>A 30 second spot for Super7Bowl XLIII costs $3 million for a 30 second spot. </li></ul><ul><li>Product placements in movies and TV amounted to $2.5 billion in 2005 (PQ Media). </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan (2005) “between 15-30 products are inserted in every half hour of television programming”. </li></ul>Product placement on American Idol
  4. 4. Product Placement <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>17 Again, Featured Brands: Apple , Audi , Barq's , Bose , Canon , Cap'n Crunch , Coca-Cola , Doritos , Ford , Jansport , Lamborghini , M&M's , Motorola , Pringles , Ray-Ban , Samsung , Spalding , Sprite , Welch's </li></ul><ul><li>Mall Cop, Featured brands: Aéropostale , ALDO , Au Bon Pain , Bath and Body Works , Bose , Brookstone , Budweiser , Caché , Champs Sports , Coca-Cola , Crabtree & Evelyn , Dasani , Dunkin' Donuts , EA Sports , F.Y.E. , Fender , Ford , Ford Mustang , Hello Kitty , Kay Jewelers , Lacoste , L'Occitane , Lord & Taylor , Macy's , McDonald's , Motorola , Mystic Tan , New Jersey Devils , Orange Julius , , Pixy Stix , Rainforest Cafe , Rock Band , Segway , Sephora , Snickers , Sony , Sony PlayStation , Sony VAIO , Sunglass Hut , Talbots , The Limited , The Sharper Image , The Sims , Uno , Verizon , Victoria's Secret , Williams-Sonoma , Zale </li></ul>
  5. 5. Less obvious forms of influence <ul><li>“ buzz” marketing or “stealth” marketing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on word of mouth endorsements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two-thirds of all consumer goods sales are now directly influenced by word-of-mouth (Middleton, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsements are disguised as personal, spontaneous encounters with a product’s users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on “product seeders” or trendsetters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ford gave trendsetters free cars and asked them to be seen in trendy places with them </li></ul>
  6. 6. Viral marketing in action <ul><li>YouTube’s staggering popularity was not driven by commercial advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers are scrambling to get onto and </li></ul><ul><li>Live Strong bracelets became an overnight fashion sensation </li></ul>
  7. 7. New media and persuasion <ul><li>Texting, IM </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Myspace </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>Digg </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul>
  8. 8. Not so obvious contexts for persuasion <ul><li>science </li></ul><ul><li>art </li></ul><ul><li>architecture and environmental design </li></ul><ul><li>traffic engineering </li></ul>Picasso’s Guernica (art as persuasion)
  9. 9. Weird persuasion <ul><li>The town of Clarke, Texas renamed itself Dish, Texas in exchange for 10 years of free satellite TV </li></ul><ul><li> paid $25,000 for William Shatner’s kidney stone and $28,000 for a grilled cheese sandwich with an image of the Virgin Mary. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pervasiveness of persuasion <ul><li>Anti-war persuasion: Getting naked for peace </li></ul><ul><li>Billboards </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrity endorsers </li></ul><ul><li>Infomercials </li></ul><ul><li>Logos, insignia </li></ul><ul><li>TV commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Merchandising </li></ul><ul><li>Print ads </li></ul><ul><li>Product placement </li></ul><ul><li>Spam, pop-up ads </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Telemarketing </li></ul><ul><li>Social media </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1. the instrumental function <ul><ul><li>Learning about persuasion assists one in becoming a more effective persuader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to persuade is one important dimension of communication competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication competence involves acting in ways that are perceived as effective and appropriate (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the fact that you’ve been engaging in persuasion your whole life doesn’t mean you’ve been doing it as well as you can. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 2. the knowledge function <ul><ul><li>Enquiring minds want to know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning about persuasion increases one’s understanding of how persuasion works, or “what makes it tick.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming habitual persuasion : Individuals are often unaware of their own habitual, reflexive patterns of persuasion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>underlying social forces and rhetorical exigencies that give rise to persuasion </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 3. the defensive function <ul><ul><li>Learning about persuasion makes one a more savvy, discerning consumer of persuasive messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One is less likely to succumb to telemarketers, infomercials, mail-order scams, and high pressure sales tactics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>study of persuasion can expose strategies, tactics, unethical approaches </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 4. the debunking function <ul><li>Learning about persuasion helps to dispel folk-wisdom, false stereotypes, and outmoded concepts of how persuasion functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: gaze avoidance and deception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persuasion research has yielded a host of non-obvious, counter-intuitive findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: logical-emotional dichotomy </li></ul></ul>