History 317-3 Powerpoint Presentation

451 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
451
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

History 317-3 Powerpoint Presentation

  1. 1. The Road to Prohibition <ul><li>Temperance movement: 1825 to 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Late 19 th century, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>five states had full prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many other states had local options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scandinavia had prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England regulated pub hours   </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Who Backed Prohibition <ul><li>Evangelical Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1792 to 1832: yearly alcohol per person 2 to 7 gallons.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Power Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Employers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of workplace unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle class Reformers </li></ul><ul><li>Feminists </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prohibition Forces <ul><li>Woman’s Christian Temperance Union </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Saloon League, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1915, every state had local option laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saloons illegal in ¾ of the area of the nation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lever Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress adopts 18 th amendment, December 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>36 th state ratified June 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>The Volstead Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½ of 1-pecent alcohol was allowed  </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Enforcement Issues <ul><li>The Federal Prohibition Bureau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desperately underfunded, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/12 th of its staff dismissed for corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>state enforcement officials reluctant to help the Feds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The police chief of Levansworth Kansas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senator Jim Reed of Kansas   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unprotected Canadian Border </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only 5% of the alcohol smuggled ever confiscated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Catching the Bootleggers <ul><li>1921 and 1922: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,500 civil cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65,000 criminal cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1925: 172,000 stills were smashed. </li></ul><ul><li>Izzy Einstein and Moe Smith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 arrests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seized more than $15 million dollars worth of alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Repealing the Law <ul><li>Wikersham Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Repeal amendment submitted early 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>March 1933, Volstead amended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2% alcohol allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>December 1933: last State ratifies repeal amendment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prohibition Legacy <ul><li>Prohibition and an animosity towards the law </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition and civil liberties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1925: Supreme Court case regarding automobile searches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organized Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnny Torrio and Alphonse Capone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1920-1924: 200 gang killings in Chicago </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dion O’Bannion Gang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Valentines Day Massacre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torrio and Capone annual earnings: $70-mil </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nativism <ul><li>1920 census: 105 million people in the US. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½ descended from 1790 census families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ had imigrated after 1790 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Immigrants  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South, Central and Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics and Jews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less educated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More impoverished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Immigration <ul><li>Immigration by Nation: 1900-1910 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million Italians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million Slavic peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>almost 2-million from Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of 105 million Americans, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 million foreign born </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 million from Eastern and Southern and Central Europe.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular fear that the “melting pot” was no longer melting </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Intellectuals hawking pseudo-scientific racial hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Madison Grant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Passing of the Great race (1916) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear of Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of Jews </li></ul>
  11. 11. Congress Restricts Immigration <ul><li>  Congress and the Literacy Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes in 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1921: Emergency Quota Act </li></ul><ul><li>1924: National Origins Acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressman Albert Johnson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coolidge: “America must be kept American.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian and Mexican Immigration unaffected: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1920s: 1-mil Canadians and 1/2 –mil Mexicans enter the US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigration 1924 to 1947: 2,718,000 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sacco and Vanzetti <ul><li>April 1920: Robbery and Murder in South Braintree, Mass. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nicola Sacco, a shoemaker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bartolomeo Vanzetti, a fish peddler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge Webster Thayer’s outward dislike of radicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Felix Frankfurter and The Atlantic Monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor’s Comission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacco and Vanetti executed August 23, 1927 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Scopes Trial <ul><li>Rise of Fudamentalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billy Sunday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aimee Semple McPherson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Dawin: Origin of Species (1859) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tennessee State Law on teaching evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACLU says they will defend violators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Scopes arrested in Dayton, TN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Jennings Bryan v Clarence Darrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H. L. Mencken of The American Mercury and The Baltimore Sun </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Rise and Fall of the KKK <ul><li>1915: William J. Simmons and the revival of the Ku Klux Klan, Stone Mountain, GA. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1925, Klan claims 4 million members </li></ul><ul><li>Targets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks, Catholics, Jews, Bootleggers, adulterers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The KKK’s modern organization </li></ul><ul><li>KKK Political Control </li></ul><ul><li>D. C. Stephenson and the Fall of the KKK </li></ul>
  15. 15. Racial Reaction <ul><li>Marcus Garvey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black pride and black unity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a strong independent economic base in America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harlem, 1917: Universal Negro Improvement Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negro Factories Corporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>operated a chain of grocery stores, a laundry, a publishing house and a restaurant. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Negro World </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Black Star Line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1920, Garvey had 2 million UNIA members in 800 chapters on 4 continents. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Opposition to Garvey <ul><li>NAACP and W. E. B. DuBois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Garvey Must Go”   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>J. Edgar Hoover and the Justice Department </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltrated the UNIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convicted of Mail Fraud in 1923 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given the maximum fine and sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deported after release from prison </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Equal Rights <ul><li>Alice Paul and the NWP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1923: An Equal Rights Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition from Jane Addams and Florence Kelly </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Modern Culture <ul><li>Film </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charlie Chaplin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talkies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Film Scandals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Rappe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will Hays and the Hays Commission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven-foot kisses </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Auto Industry <ul><li>Henry Ford and the Model T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1909: 1,708 produced / sold for $950. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1911: 4,000 workers making 35,000 cars a year, now selling now for $700. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1914: Model T made every 93 seconds, selling for less than $500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1921: Ford made 1,250,000 cars, one every minute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1926: Ford earned $264,000 per day. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Car Culture <ul><li>The car became indispensable </li></ul><ul><li>Auto style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Sloan and General Motors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  1925 Chevy K Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Ford Market Share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>54% in 1925 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45% in 1926 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ford’s Model A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debuted in 1927 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 mil ad campaign </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Buy it On Time <ul><li>By later 1920s, 15% of purchases were made “on time.” </li></ul><ul><li>This represent $6-billion in sales </li></ul>
  22. 22. Captains of Consciousness <ul><li>Old models stigmatized </li></ul><ul><li>Spending </li></ul><ul><li>Commodities enhanced one’s status:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post cereal improved your complexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listerine fought bad breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conover electric dishwashers saved hands. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Consumer Education over Academic Education <ul><li>For every 70 cents spent on academic education, $1.00 spent on consumer education. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising in 1927: 1.5 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising designed to “transcend tribalism” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Bruce Barton <ul><li>Founder of Barton, Batton, Durstein and Osborne (BBDO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lucky Strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1926: The Man Nobody Knew </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joins piety with consumerism </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. An Empire of the Air <ul><li>Radio Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarnoff and the Titanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KDKA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1924: 500 radio stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Sales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1922: $60,000,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1929: $842,548,000 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Amos ‘n’ Andy <ul><li>Henry Selinger of WGN </li></ul><ul><li>Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January 1926: Sam ‘n’ Henry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “Chainless Chain” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1927: Amos ‘n’ Andy </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Prosperity <ul><li>Electricity replaces gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1925: 80% of homes with electricty had electric irons, 37% had vacuum cleaners, and 25% had washing machines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Per capita income: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1921: 641 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1929: 847 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial output grew 1/3 between 1919 and 1928 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Flight of the Lone Eagle <ul><li>Aviation Legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1925: The Kelly Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1926: The Air Commerce Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aviation Firsts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1925: Carl Rogers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1926: Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New York to Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Raymond Orteig Prize   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 20-21: 33 hours and 29 minutes </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Lost Generation <ul><li>Gertrude Stein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disillusionment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alienation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Amory Blaine, This Side of Paradise </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ezra Pound on War <ul><li>Excerpt from “Hugh Selwyn Mauberly” </li></ul><ul><li>Daring as never before, wastage as </li></ul><ul><li>never before </li></ul><ul><li>Young blood and high blood </li></ul><ul><li>fair cheeks and fine bodies; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>fortitude as never before </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>frankness as never before, </li></ul><ul><li>disillusions as never told in the old days, </li></ul><ul><li>hysterias, trench confessions, </li></ul><ul><li>laughter out of dead bellies. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  31. 31. e. e. cummings <ul><li>Buffalo Bill’s </li></ul><ul><li>defunct </li></ul><ul><li>who used to </li></ul><ul><li>ride a watersmooth-silver </li></ul><ul><li>stallion </li></ul><ul><li>and break onetwothreefourfive pigeonsjustlikethat </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>he was a handsome man </li></ul>
  32. 32. More Lost Generation <ul><li>Ernest Hemingway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sun also Rises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F. Scott Fitzgerald </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Gatsby </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Sage of Baltimore <ul><li>Henry Louis Mencken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columnist: The Baltimore Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editor: The American Mercury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>HLM on Puritanism: “The haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be having a good time.” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>HLM on Conscience: “The inner voice which ans us that someone may be watching.” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Middletown <ul><li>Robert and Helen Lynd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muncie, IN </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Harlem Renaissance <ul><li>James Weldon Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negro America: What Now   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Claude McKay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Liberator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harlem Shadows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to Harlem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Langston Hughes </li></ul>
  36. 36. So… <ul><li>What Were the 1920s? </li></ul>

×