Environmental Theory
The Nature of Victimization <ul><li>Since 1993 the number of victimizations are declining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCVS Data ...
Environmental Criminology <ul><li>Examines the location of a specific crime and the context in which it occurred in order ...
Rational Choice Perspective Clark & Cornish <ul><li>Rational Choice perspective developed by Ronald Clarke and Derek Corni...
<ul><li>Rational choice implies a limited sense of rationality, that is, an offender does not know all the details of a si...
<ul><li>A variety of factors or characteristics come into play when an offender decides to commit a crime.  These factors ...
Decision to commit burglary Selected (Middle Class Area) Easily accessible few police patrols low security housing larger ...
Routine-Activity Approach Cohen & Felson <ul><li>A crime can occur only if there is someone who intends to commit a crime ...
Components of a Criminal Event
<ul><li>Routine patterns of work, play, and leisure time affect the convergence in time and place of motivated offenders w...
Routine-Activity Approach <ul><li>Certain technological changes and alterations in the workforce create new crime opportun...
Theories of Victimization Lifestyle Theories <ul><li>Proposition: </li></ul><ul><li>The probability of suffering a persona...
Lifestyle Theories  Continued <ul><li>An individual’s chances of personal victimization are dependent upon the extent to w...
Lifestyle Theories  Continued <ul><li>Variations in lifestyle are associated with variations in the ability of individuals...
Burglars and Burglary <ul><li>Before committing their offenses, burglars take into account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiari...
Burglars and Burglary <ul><li>Planning – professional burglars plan more than do amateurs </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic sel...
Victim-Offender Interaction Marvin Wolfgang <ul><li>Coined the term victim precipitation to refer to situations where vict...
Theories of Victimization  Continued <ul><li>Repeat victimization  </li></ul><ul><li>Hotspots of crime </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Repeat victimization <ul><li>Dispel the myth that crime is uniformly distributed.  A small number of people and places acc...
Hot Spots <ul><li>Studies show that certain types of crime are concentrated in what police refers to as “hot spots” </li><...
Geography of Crime <ul><li>Researchers have found that more crime occurs around high schools and blocks with bars, liquor ...
The Social Ecology of Victimization <ul><li>Violent crimes are slightly more likely to occur in a public area during dayti...
<ul><li>The risk of murder is highest in disorganized inner-city areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas have significantly lo...
The Victim’s Household <ul><li>In the U.S. certain homes are more vulnerable to crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger homes ...
Important Victim Characteristics <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Social status </li></ul><ul><li>Ma...
<ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males are more likely to be the victims of violent crimes (robbery/assault) </li></ul...
<ul><li>Social Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The poorest Americans are the most likely victims of violent and property crim...
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design <ul><li>Originated by C. Ray Jeffery  </li></ul><ul><li>CPTED posits that en...
Situational Crime Prevention <ul><li>The phantom crime prevention at Disney World </li></ul><ul><li>Situational prevention...
Top 25 Most Commonly Stolen Vehicles in 2001
1995 Honda Civic 1991 Honda Accord 1989 Toyota Camry 1997 Ford F150 Series 1994 Chevrolet C/K 1500 Pickup 1994 Acura Integ...
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Environmental Theory The Nature of Victimization

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Environmental Theory The Nature of Victimization

  1. 1. Environmental Theory
  2. 2. The Nature of Victimization <ul><li>Since 1993 the number of victimizations are declining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCVS Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patterns of victimization are stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victimization is not random </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming a crime victim has a lot to do with personal and ecological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is this useful? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers can make judgments about the nature of victimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts can be made to reduce the victimization rate </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Environmental Criminology <ul><li>Examines the location of a specific crime and the context in which it occurred in order to understand and explain crime patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Where and when did the crime occur? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the physical and social characteristics of the crime site? </li></ul><ul><li>What movements bring offender and target together at the crime site? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rational Choice Perspective Clark & Cornish <ul><li>Rational Choice perspective developed by Ronald Clarke and Derek Cornish and based on two theoretical approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Based on utilitarianism, assumes that people make decisions with the goal of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on traditional economic choice theory, which argues that people will evaluate the options and choose what they believe will satisfy their needs. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Rational choice implies a limited sense of rationality, that is, an offender does not know all the details of a situation; rather he or she relies on cues in the environment or characteristics of targets </li></ul><ul><li>Most crime is ordinary and committed by reasoning individuals who decide that the chances of getting caught are low and the possibilities for a relatively good pay off is high. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>A variety of factors or characteristics come into play when an offender decides to commit a crime. These factors are called “choice structuring-properties” </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics fall into two distinct sets: those of the offender and those of the offence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Decision to commit burglary Selected (Middle Class Area) Easily accessible few police patrols low security housing larger gardens Rejected (Middle Class Area) Unfamiliar; distant neighborhood watch no public transport Burgled Home no one at home: Especially affluent, detached, patio doors bushes and other cover corner site Not Burgled Home Nosy neighbors, burglar alarm nor rear access, visible from street window locks; dog
  8. 8. Routine-Activity Approach Cohen & Felson <ul><li>A crime can occur only if there is someone who intends to commit a crime (likely offender). </li></ul><ul><li>Something or someone to be victimized (a suitable target). </li></ul><ul><li>No other person present to prevent or observe the crime (the absence of a capable guardian). </li></ul><ul><li>No person to control the activities of the offender (personal handler). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Components of a Criminal Event
  10. 10. <ul><li>Routine patterns of work, play, and leisure time affect the convergence in time and place of motivated offenders who are not handled, suitable targets, and the absence of guardians </li></ul><ul><li>If one component is missing, crime is not likely to be committed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Routine-Activity Approach <ul><li>Certain technological changes and alterations in the workforce create new crime opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in female participation in the labor force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out-of-town travel, automobile usage, and technological advances that account for higher risks of predatory victimization. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Theories of Victimization Lifestyle Theories <ul><li>Proposition: </li></ul><ul><li>The probability of suffering a personal victimization is directly related to the amount of time that a person spends in public places. </li></ul><ul><li>The probability of being in public places varies as a function of lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Social contacts and interactions occur disproportionately among individuals who share similar lifestyles. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lifestyle Theories Continued <ul><li>An individual’s chances of personal victimization are dependent upon the extent to which the individual shares demographic characteristics with offenders. </li></ul><ul><li>The proportion of time that an individual spends among non-family members varies as a function of lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>The probability of personal victimization increases as a function of the proportion of the time that an individual spends among non-family members. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lifestyle Theories Continued <ul><li>Variations in lifestyle are associated with variations in the ability of individuals to isolate themselves from persons with offender characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in lifestyle are associated with variations in the convenience, the desirability, and visibility of the person as a target for a personal victimization. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Burglars and Burglary <ul><li>Before committing their offenses, burglars take into account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarity with the area, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern over standing out as somebody who does not belong </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Burglars and Burglary <ul><li>Planning – professional burglars plan more than do amateurs </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic selection of a home - some burglars examine clues such as burglar alarm, watchdog, mail piled up in mailbox, accumulated newspapers. Closed windows with A/C turned off </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Cues – some burglars routinely choose a corner property for it offers avenues of escape, fewer adjoining properties low visibility. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Victim-Offender Interaction Marvin Wolfgang <ul><li>Coined the term victim precipitation to refer to situations where victims initiate the confrontations that lead to their death. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfgang estimated that as many as one quarter to one half of intentional homicides are victim precipitated. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Theories of Victimization Continued <ul><li>Repeat victimization </li></ul><ul><li>Hotspots of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Geography of crime </li></ul>
  19. 19. Repeat victimization <ul><li>Dispel the myth that crime is uniformly distributed. A small number of people and places account for a large amount of the crimes committed. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of repeat burglary are highest immediately after a previous burglary </li></ul><ul><li>Offenders choose targets based on the knowledge they gained in the previous victimization about the risks and rewards of a particular offence. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hot Spots <ul><li>Studies show that certain types of crime are concentrated in what police refers to as “hot spots” </li></ul><ul><li>The researchers surmise that attempts to prevent victimization should be focused not on victims but on the places themselves by making them less vulnerable to crime. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Geography of Crime <ul><li>Researchers have found that more crime occurs around high schools and blocks with bars, liquor stores, the city center and abandoned buildings . </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Social Ecology of Victimization <ul><li>Violent crimes are slightly more likely to occur in a public area during daytime or early evening hours </li></ul><ul><li>More serious violent crimes typically occur after 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape and aggravated assault </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less serious violent crimes more likely occur in the day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purse snatching and unarmed robberies </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The risk of murder is highest in disorganized inner-city areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas have significantly lower victimization rates than urban areas (half as much) </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are also the location of many victimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers are decreasing </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Victim’s Household <ul><li>In the U.S. certain homes are more vulnerable to crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger homes (family size) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western and urban homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rural white homes in the Northeast are least likely to contain crime victims </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Important Victim Characteristics <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Social status </li></ul><ul><li>Marital status </li></ul><ul><li>Race and Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat victimization </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males are more likely to be the victims of violent crimes (robbery/assault) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except for rape or sexual assault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two thirds of women are victimized by someone they know or live with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half of male victims are attacked by someone they know </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the increase in gender equality, women’s victimization rates are as well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young people have a much higher victimization rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim risk rapidly diminishes after age 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By age 65 chances of being victimized greatly decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1% of violent victimizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With increases in reports of elder abuse, victimization rates for the elderly will increase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be victims of crimes such as </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frauds and scams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purse snatching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Social Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The poorest Americans are the most likely victims of violent and property crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless of age, gender, and race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wealthy are more likely the targets of personal theft crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marital Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never-married men and women have higher victimization rates than married people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widows and widowers have the lowest victimization rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationship between marital status and victimization is probably influenced by gender, age, and lifestyle </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design <ul><li>Originated by C. Ray Jeffery </li></ul><ul><li>CPTED posits that environments can be altered, often at little expense, to decrease victimization. </li></ul><ul><li>Defensible Space by Oscar Newman refers to improved architectural designs, particularly of public housing, in order to provide increased security. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Situational Crime Prevention <ul><li>The phantom crime prevention at Disney World </li></ul><ul><li>Situational prevention of auto theft </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience stores </li></ul><ul><li>Parking facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul>
  30. 30. Top 25 Most Commonly Stolen Vehicles in 2001
  31. 31. 1995 Honda Civic 1991 Honda Accord 1989 Toyota Camry 1997 Ford F150 Series 1994 Chevrolet C/K 1500 Pickup 1994 Acura Integra 2004 Dodge Ram Pickup 1994 Nissan Sentra 1988 Toyota Pickup 2007 Toyota Corolla Source: Intellichoice.com 2008

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