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  1. 1. Crash recorders – opening up the box <ul><li>Anders Kullgren </li></ul><ul><li>Head of road traffic safety research at Folksam </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why crash recorders? </li></ul><ul><li>Potential applications </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of recorders / running crash recorder projects </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of results </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>Crash recorders - content
  3. 3. Benefits of using crash recorders <ul><li>Increased quality of accident data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased accuracy of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility to use information previously not possible to obtain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better evaluation of new safety technology </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of injury thresholds for the design of a crashworthy road transport system </li></ul><ul><li>Better understanding of injury causes and injury mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on accident involvement risk? </li></ul><ul><li>Useful from legal aspects (insurance) </li></ul><ul><li>Information used for ”e-Call”systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Some applications <ul><li>Pre-crash data to investigate collision causation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of active safety systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crash data to investigate crashworthiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of interior safety systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate injury risk versus impact severity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accident reconstruction </li></ul>minor injuries AIS1+ (n=278) moderate injuries AIS2+ (n=72) serious injuries AIS3+ (n=18) 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Risk Mean acceleration (g) N=452
  5. 5. Furhter applications <ul><li>Linking laboratory to real-life crashes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of occupant kinematics using advanced occupant simulation codes with real-life data, such as crash pulse and car characteristics, as input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate injury risk functions and injury tolerance levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation of injury criteria </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of crash recorders <ul><li>Purpose of the recorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal aspects and accident involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre crash, crash and post crash data </li></ul><ul><li>Type of parameters recorded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of the car </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crash severity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver behaviour </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of running “large fleet” projects <ul><li>Since 1990s - GM and Ford cars (more advanced in late 90s) </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1995 - Volvo DARR in Volvo cars – approx 500.000 cars fitted </li></ul><ul><li>Other manufacturers, Saab etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1992 - Folksam CPR project - 220.000 cars fitted with Crash Pulse Recorders </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1995 - UDS in Austria, Switzerland and Germany… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Storage and availability of data <ul><li>Important that such data can be available for research purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Important for designers of both road infra-structure and cars </li></ul><ul><li>Who will have access to the data? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Some examples of results from the Folksam crash recorder database <ul><li>Example of crash </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure data </li></ul><ul><li>Injury risk </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of safety technology (airbag) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Toyota Yaris – Saab 900 (old) Minor injuries (clav. fracture) Driver + front seat pass. fatally injured
  11. 11. Number of crashes and injured - Delta-V
  12. 12. Injury risk - Delta-V
  13. 13. Influence of airbags on risk of whiplash injury in frontal impacts (1999 figures)
  14. 14. Summary <ul><li>Crash recorders are important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for evaluation of new safety technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to get knowledge of injury thresholds for the design of a crashworthy road transport system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important to encourage initiatives where data can be available for research institutes and governmental bodies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Wider use <ul><li>A wider use of crash recorders or event data recorders is desirable. A mandatory fitment of such devices would help but is not necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to ensure that data from recorders will be collected and stored in such a way that it is available to designers of both cars and road-side objects, and especially to the responsible bodies for the road transport system. </li></ul>