Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Loopstra festival socialscience_8nov16_toshare

765 views

Published on

Slides accompanying Dr. Rachel Loopstra's presentation on the case for measurement household food insecurity. Palace of Westminster, 8th November 2016

  • Be the first to comment

Loopstra festival socialscience_8nov16_toshare

  1. 1. Measuring food insecurity in the UK: ! what, why, methods, limitations" Rachel Loopstra! rachel.loopstra@sociology.ox.ac.uk! Department of Sociology, University of Oxford! Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London! ! http://nutritionalsciences.lamp.utoronto.ca/
  2. 2. Early 1980s, lines for food banks in North America: what is hunger in high-income countries?
  3. 3. Sound familiar? “There are no hard data available to esDmate the extent of hunger directly. Those who argue that hunger is widespread and growing rely on indirect measures…. We regret our inability to document the degree of hunger… for such lack of definiDve, quanDtaDve proof contributes to a climate in which policy discussions become unhelpfully heated and unsubstanDated asserDons are then subsDtuted for hard informaDon.” (The President’s Task Force on Food Assistance in United States, 1984)
  4. 4. Narra0ves of hunger: Uncertain access to food “When I see my cupboard becoming empty, I wonder how am I going to fill it again and I get panicky” “You always have a soluDon for yourself: to do without, but if you don’t have enough for the kids, what do you do? This is where stress starts to build and then you pedal to find a soluDon to be able to eat unDl the end of the month”
  5. 5. Narra0ves of hunger: Shortage of Food “From the second week of each month, there is so liWle food leX in the fridge and in the cupboard that it is hard to make up a dish” “For sure we are not starving to death, but we cannot eat so we can fill up” “I have to watch and tell my children “you ate enough, save some for tomorrow…”
  6. 6. Narra0ves of hunger: Unsuitability of food and monotony of diet “We are limited to items on sale (or to what we are given)”. “We want to follow Canada's Food Guide but it is impossible.” “I am not able to offer enough fresh fruit, vegetables, cheese, quality foods for my kids” “The same stuff always… noodles with soya sauce, shepherd's pie, pancakes…”
  7. 7. Narra0ves of hunger: Reduced food quan0ty and quality “In the hardest Dmes, I cut the number of meals and when I eat, I don’t eat what I want to eat: I don’t have enough to make a meal so I eat junk food…” “My stomach oXen hurts when I go to bed at night, I endure the situaDon because I want my daughter to grow normally.”
  8. 8. Core components of household food insecurity iden0fied in qualita0ve in-depth interviews with low income families. Quan%ty Quality Psychological Social Household Level Food DepleDon Unsuitable food Food Anxiety Unacceptable means of food acquisiDon Individual Level Insufficient intake Inadequate diet Feeling deprived, lack of choice Disrupted eaDng Radimer et al. 1992; Hamelin et al. 2002. !Range in severity !MulD-dimensional ! Not equally experienced
  9. 9. Defini0ons of food insecurity (synonymous with food poverty?) “The inability to acquire or consume an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways or the uncertainty that one will be able to do so.” (Radimer et al., J of Nutrition, 1992) “Food insecurity exists whenever the availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or the ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways is limited or uncertain” (Anderson, J of Nutrition. 1990)
  10. 10. Development of USDA Household Food Security Survey Module •  USDA tesDng in Current PopulaDon Survey – over 40 items in original scale •  Series of 18 quesDons describing increasingly severe household food circumstances •  QuesDons specify financial resource constraint, specify Dme period of past 12 months, and differenDate experiences of adults and children • Opera%onal defini%on: inadequate or insecure access to adequate food due to financial constraint.
  11. 11. These next quesDons are about the food eaten in your household in the last 12 months, since (current month) of last year and whether you were able to afford the food you need. In the last 12 months, can you tell me if these statements were true for you? 1 “We worried whether our food would run out before we got money to buy more.” OXen true SomeDmes true Never true 2 “The food that we bought just didn’t last, and we didn’t have money to get more.” OXen true SomeDmes true Never true 3 “We couldn’t afford to eat balanced meals.” OXen true SomeDmes true Never true Adult: Stage 1 If at least one ques-on affirmed, on to Stage 2.
  12. 12. Adult: Stage 2 In the last 12 months… 4a Did (you/you or other adults in your household) ever cut the size of your meals or skip meals because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No 4b If yes: How often did this happen—almost every month, some months but not every month, or in only 1 or 2 months? Almost every month Some months but not every month Only 1 or 2 months 5 Did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No 6 Were you every hungry but didn't eat because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No 7 Did you lose weight because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No If at least one ques-on affirmed, on to Stage 3.
  13. 13. Adult: Stage 3 In the last 12 months… 8a Did (you/you or other adults in your household) ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No 8b If yes: How often did this happen—almost every month, some months but not every month, or in only 1 or 2 months? Almost every month Some months but not every month Only 1 or 2 months
  14. 14. Child: Stage 1 Now I'm going to read you several statements that people have made about the food situation of their children. In the last 12 months, were these statements… 1 “We relied on only a few kinds of low-cost food to feed our children because we were running out of money to buy food.” Often true Sometimes true Never true 2 “We couldn’t feed our children a balanced meal, because we couldn’t afford that.” Often true Sometimes true Never true 3 “The children were not eating enough because we just couldn't afford enough food." Often true Sometimes true Never true If at least one ques-on affirmed, on to Stage 2.
  15. 15. Child: Stage 2 In the past 12 months… 4 Did you ever cut the size of any of the children’s meals because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No 5a Did any of the children ever skip meals because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No 5b How often did this happen? Almost every month Some months but not every month Only 1 or 2 months If at least one ques-on affirmed, on to Stage 3.
  16. 16. Child: Stage 3 In the past 12 months… 6a Were the children ever hungry but you just couldn't afford more food? Yes No 6b Did any of the children ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn't enough money for food? Yes No
  17. 17. Now I would like to ask you some questions about food. During the last 12 MONTHS, was there a time when... : 1 ... you were worried you would not have enough food to eat because of a lack of money or other resources? 2 ... you were unable to eat healthy and nutritious food because of a lack of money or other resources? 3 ... you ate only a few kinds of foods because of a lack of money or other resources? 4 ... you had to skip a meal because there was not enough money or other resources to get food? 5 ... you ate less than you thought you should because of a lack of money or other re- sources? 6 ... your household ran out of food because of a lack of money or other resources? 7 ... you were hungry but did not eat because there was not enough money or other resources for food? 8 ... you went without eating for a whole day because of a lack of money or other re- sources? FAO Food Insecurity Experience Scale
  18. 18. 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 EsDmated number in households fed by Trussell Trust (2014) EsDmated number in food insecure households (2014) Number fed by foodbanks vs. number of food insecure 17X EsDmated magnitude of “hidden hunger” in UK * Food insecurity esDmate from Gallup World Poll sample in UK. Validated measure of food insecurity.
  19. 19. USDA Household Food Security Monitor Food Insecurity Experience Scale Able to compare with numerous other studies (over 259 used this scale over 1999 to 2014) New, but expect take-up across countries; recommendaDon by ONS for monitoring of SDG. Chronicity contributes to rank of severity Less complicated response paWern More detailed, less risk of underesDmaDng food insecurity Simple, easy to use Includes child scale opDon– important indicator of severity; moDvates acDon – yet likely underesDmates child hunger. No quesDons ask specifically about child circumstances
  20. 20. Ashby et al. Measurement of the dimensions of food insecurity in developed countries: a systema0c literature review. Public Health Nutri0on. Nov 2016. Household food security scales Hager two- item screen ESCLA Community Childhood Hunger IdenDficaDon Project (CCHIP) tool Cornell Child Food Security Measure Girard four- point tool Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) Townsend Food Behaviour Checklist
  21. 21. Domains of food security Economic and physical ACCESS to food Focus of household food insecurity measurement scales. Physical AVAILABILITY of food Food availability addresses the “supply side” of food security. Food UTILIZATION Feeding pracDces, food preparaDon, diversity and adequacy of the diet and intra-household distribuDon of food. STABILITY of the other three dimensions over Dme Even if your food intake is adequate today, you are sDll considered to be food insecure if you have inadequate access to food on a periodic basis. Source: FAO. Ashby et al. Measurement of the dimensions of food insecurity in developed countries: a systemaDc literature review. Public Health NutriDon. Nov 2016.
  22. 22. What do household food insecurity scales NOT measure? •  Availability of food •  Chronicity/temporality (except USDA – within year) •  Dietary intake, dietary quality, nutriDonal status, malnutriDon •  Social exclusion from social ways of eaDng, cultural food pracDces •  Acceptability: sources of food & feelings about sources of food; ability to follow preferred diet
  23. 23. Why measure & monitor household food insecurity using an available measure? •  Secure access to basic, sufficient food a human right. •  Food insecurity is one dimension of poverty that has disDnct consequences for health and well-being. •  Tools validated, well-accepted measures of problem of insecure food access. •  To understand magnitude & vulnerability in populaDon (move beyond reliance on food bank usage data). •  To understand consequences. •  To understand policy-drivers and tailor intervenDons. •  UDlity for advocacy
  24. 24. Next up: Now – 19:30 Moving forward towards a quan%ta%ve measure of household food insecurity arising from resource contraint 19:30 – 20:00 Food insecurity/poverty more broadly defined– what else is being done to capture food insecurity in the UK? Response from policymakers? Food availability Learning from other fields (e.g. child poverty indicators, fuel poverty measurement) Experiences of using “socially unacceptable” ways of obtaining food Exclusion from social ways of eaDng Measuring quality of diets among low-income groups QualitaDve studies of food insecurity (children, adults)
  25. 25. Building momentum •  Fill in the template, include a web link and/or contact details How are you involved in studying food insecurity in the UK? •  Take it to the ‘building momentum’ table •  AcDviDes will be grouped •  An electronic version will be circulated following the event

×