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Pedagogic and Didactic Manual for Teaching Prosociality in Primary School

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Pedagogic and Didactic Manual for Teaching Prosociality in Primary School

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Pedagogic and Didactic Manual for Teaching Prosociality in Primary School

  1. 1. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union
  2. 2. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 1 PEDAGOGIC AND DIDACTIC MANUAL FOR TEACHING PROSOCIALITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
  3. 3. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 2 Table of Contents 1 Prosociality against violence ................................................................................................ 4 1.1 Defining prosociality ..................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Prosociality in the changing scenario of education ...................................................... 6 1.3 Pedagogic relevance of prosociality................................................................................... 9 1.3.1 How educators can be active in promoting prosociality ................................................ 9 1.4 Preventing violence through building a prosocial environment ..................................... 11 2 The Prosocial Peace Code................................................................................................... 14 2.1 The Code ..................................................................................................................... 14 2.2 The importance of the reference values..................................................................... 16 2.2.1 Values in the world .............................................................................................. 16 2.2.2 Our common values............................................................................................. 20 2.3 Highlights..................................................................................................................... 22 2.4 Values vs Educational Axes ......................................................................................... 25 2.5 Prosocial applying keystones ...................................................................................... 27 2.6 How to use the Code as an educational tool .............................................................. 31 3 The Educators Caring Communities (ECC).......................................................................... 32 3.1 What are the ECC and what is their role in the perspective of prosociality............... 32 3.2 The meaning of the re-construction of the educational community ......................... 33 3.3 How to rebuild the Educating Community ................................................................. 35 3.4 Main strategies for the ECC implementation ............................................................. 38 4 Teaching Prosociality: from pedagogic literacy to didactic methodology ......................... 39 4.1 How and where to teach Prosociality......................................................................... 39 4.2 The role of the school staff motivation....................................................................... 41 4.3 Three propaedeutic activities ..................................................................................... 42 4.4 The operational didactic protocol............................................................................... 43 4.5 Welcoming spaces and activities ................................................................................ 44 4.6 The Listening Points .................................................................................................... 46 4.7 The setting of the classroom....................................................................................... 47 5 The Prosocial Educative Tools ............................................................................................ 51
  4. 4. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 3 5.1 What are the Prosocial Educative Tools ..................................................................... 51 5.2 Methodologies and activities...................................................................................... 53 5.3 Some Tools for each prosocial area/keystone............................................................ 56 6 Assessment instruments of prosociality and group dynamics........................................... 98 6.1 The Moreno Sociogram............................................................................................... 98 6.2 The drawing of the class............................................................................................ 101
  5. 5. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 4 1 Prosociality against violence 1.1 Defining prosociality The term Prosociality is the specular definition of what in psychology is defined as prosocial behaviour meant as the set of actions that benefit other people or society as a community or a group of people characterized by the act of helping in which the helper does not benefit from the result of his/her actions. As a consequence, the “Prosocial behaviour” can be defined as voluntary actions intended to help or benefit another individual or group of individuals without any expectation of a benefit return. While these actions benefit the recipient, they can also be costly to the giver. One is thus faced with the decision to help others at the expense of oneself. When considering prosocial behaviour, the external, explicit actions are emphasized; as opposed to the internal, implicit motivations for those prosocial actions. Prosocial behaviour entails both the physical and mental amelioration of others. Along this idea of pro-social behaviour resides the concept of prosociality. The scientific basis are well defined by the so called “game theory” that can be considered one of the greatest contributions of experimental economics. This theory is the development of experimental protocols (“games”) that measure human preferences in a standardized fashion. These games can be used to measure differences between individuals, contexts and cultures at behavioural level, providing a valuable complement to self- report surveys. Instead of merely asking someone about the importance of helping others, for example, an experimental game reveals whether they actually do help others in situations that involve real financial loss and gain. In practical terms, when an individual has to face an economic challenge, he/she is naturally pushed towards equilibrium. This equilibrium is reached when the challengers are next to be satisfied by their own positions. The characteristic of the cooperation is the term that can be defined as social capital to be referred to the benefits that can be obtained from social relationships, similar to financial capital, physical capital (e.g., a dwelling) and individual capital (e.g., an education). Those tangible substances namely good will, fellowship, sympathy, and social intercourse among the individuals and families who make up a social unit....The individual is helpless socially, if left to himself.... If he/she comes into contact with his/her neighbour, and with other neighbours, there will be an
  6. 6. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 5 accumulation of social capital, which may immediately satisfy his/her social needs and which may bear a social potentiality sufficient to the substantial improvement of living conditions in the whole community. The community as a whole will benefit by the cooperation of all its parts, while the individual will find in his/her associations the advantages of the help, the sympathy, and the fellowship of the neighbours. An act is prosocial when it is addressed not to a personal interest but it is done in order to guarantee a general interest and with this act the individuals are aware to be in an area where rules are respected (even if they are not written), commonly accepted and which guarantee the well-being of the social group or community the individuals feel to be part of. The prosocial acts can be defined as:  physical and psychological help  sharing the emotions of others (empathy)  meta- verbal approach towards the problems of others addressed to increase a sense of safeness  defending the others against threats  taking into account and appreciate differences and the points of view of others and In this approach the prosocial acts have to be referred to a specific Community which can be defined as an Educating Community. The social area related to this community is given by the assumption that all the social actors share the same educational goals. Therefore, the “educational conflicts” are overcome or managed.
  7. 7. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 6 The world is quickly changing: We are going in “Liquid Modernity” (Z. Bauman) The social composition and relationships changes The need for education increases (“Learning: the Treasure Within "J. Delors) The educational needs are changing Education and Training 2020 (ET 2020) A strategy for an intelligent, sustainable and inclusive growth 3. Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship; 1.2 Prosociality in the changing scenario of education We live in an age of great changes which require new educational policies and strategies. The EU is tackling this problem through the ET 20201 . The present age is characterized by “time compression”, followed by an acceleration process and by the “reduction of physical distances” due to an efficient transport system and, mainly, to the International web net. Communication and information technologies are transforming the economic dynamics (especially the Internet), social rules, as well as the culture itself which is becoming “dynamic and global” (P. Levy). The “global village” theorized by Mc. Luan in the ‘60s is now reality. We shifted from 20th century modernity, characterized by the adjectives “hard” and “heavy” and by “quantity” as a way of doing things, to 21th century post-modernity, represented by “soft” and “light” ideas, pursuing the aim of “quality”. A.Giddens described it as the age of “extreme modernity”, whereas Z. Bauman spoke about a “liquid modernity”, where it is possible to see the dismantling of institutions (shell institutions A. Giddens) and “weak ties” both in social and personal context. In order to understand the new emerging dynamics and educational needs important to define the new role of the School as institution, it might be useful to stress the great contradictions of our present time. 1st contradiction: Wealth and Poverty. Wealth and Poverty, characterizing respectively the Northern and the Southern parts of the world, are the basic socio-economic problem; but when referring to the school system and the teaching world in particular, even the joint richness of information is opposed to the individual poverty of knowledge. The scientific research makes knowledge obsolescent within three/four years, so that, consequently, a person feels unfit to the society of Knowledge. The easy-to-use technology and 1 Decision of the Council, from May 12th 2009, regarding strategies about the European cooperation in the fields of teaching and education (ET 2020) [Gazzetta ufficiale C 119 del 28.5.2009].
  8. 8. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 7 the iconic language are conquering more and more space in our everyday life and causing a cultural impoverishment (the poor language used in TV programs is a typical example). In such a structured context it is easy to understand how little use has a conservative- communicative school. Although the picture doesn’t appear good, the emerging of a series of new needs is setting the school in a new central position. Today, the need of learning to learn is evident right from the beginning of one’s education, in order to acquire the right skills to “learn” all lifelong (LLP UE). Therefore, the priority seems to be the creation of a new teaching-learning environment. However, the shortening of physical distances against the increase of cultural distances is one of the main key points in this innovation: fast global contact given by Internet clashes with the great migratory streams, therefore there doesn’t seem to be enough time left for mediation. This forced living-together often drives to cultural opposition, more than to inter-culture. In this context, on one hand we have social tensions (rising fundamentalism), and on the other the need of an inclusion-educating program based on the great value of universal brotherhood. Standardization and loneliness, typical of the world of global communication and hi-tech mass media, are the main contradictions of our society and cause tensions in sharing the “main values of a common civil life”. Overcoming these contradictions means uniting our “I” and our “WE”, in order to gain autonomy through liberty and creativity, to realise how building ties with other people is a matter of responsibility and acknowledge the sustainability of our actions in the environment. Therefore, our society needs a new type of school which works on both educating and creativity and teaches responsible relationships with one another.
  9. 9. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 8 When we talk about interpersonal boundaries we refer to an ever changing “liquid society”, where old certainties such as State-Nation, family and job are no longer part of it and long term plans are less appealing. The “carpe diem” strategy is the easiest answer to a world with no values and finding one’s identity is getting more and more difficult and at the same time necessary. The definition of who we are is described by the tension between the presumed adherence to virtual communities, where telephone books are turning into friend-circles, and the solidarity of the individual reduced to a simple consumer and object of consumption (Z. Bauman). Since the school environment is the main socializing player it bears the responsibility to promote socially-integrated behaviour models functional to social and personal wellness, through an International systematic action: the so desired “Emotional Literacy”. Berne says that “Individual behaviours depend mainly on the representation we have of ourselves and other people and on the way we are seen by other persons” and Buber (1957) argues that: “…members of human society shape their qualities and personal skills according to different scales of values; a society is as human as its members confirm their qualities to each other”. Therefore, the guiding criterion is the approach to a civil life-in-common as an educational process, aimed to sharpen mentality and accept both oneself and the other along the relational axes. All educational processes shouldn’t be isolated from the ordinary learning process but be included in every moment of school life. The key-issue, starting from a constructivist point of view, is to propose an interactive process so that people can learn from each other. J. Bruner states that: “it is typical of Man’s nature to start a community where learning is the fruit of a mutual Exchange”. This brings a change in the relationship teacher-student and within the student group itself; it is evident how a new method based on action, examples and identification is becoming very important. In this context, techniques have to be active, dynamic and convivial. In the field of peace and democratic life-in-common, play is doubtless the most important strategy. By playing, life experiences can be gradually converted into true knowledge useful to establish contacts with R. Plutchik's Map of the emotion
  10. 10. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 9 other individuals and interact in the community, to gain self-confidence and mould one’s identity, to learn to think it over and plan possible future projects. In Winnicott’s work “Playing and reality” Playing is an ever creative experience ... an essential way of life…while playing both child and adult can be free in using the whole personality and only by being creative the human being can discover himself; playing is the basis of cultural experience. M. Montessori, Bruner and Piaget had already underlined the importance of playing in the psyco- physical development of children for living experiences which gradually become authentic skills. To create a positive relationship habitat it is therefore essential to re-discover ourselves in a person-structured community: teachers, students, school staff, parents who agree in carrying out a common educational project, according to shared values, based on a productive pedagogical agreement (co-responsibility agreement) involving also the territory. The scheduled activities follow the threading line widely recognized by psychologists and pedagogues (Rogers, Maslow, Piaget, Bruner, Montessori, Winnicott …) for building a peaceful behaviour useful for both individuals and the society. The above mentioned macro-social picture highlights the need of re-building the “educating community”, a need felt also by our territory as “micro-social dynamics”. 1.3 Pedagogic relevance of prosociality Many educators are seriously concerned about bullying and aggression. It is equally important to nurture positive alternatives—children’s prosocial feelings and behaviour toward others - to the “invasive” images of violence and aggression proposed by the media. The answer to this general attitude can be promoting Prosocial behaviours which can also include cooperation, including others in play, giving a compliment, and comforting a child who is upset. These behaviours have to be characterized by voluntary will. If children are forced to “be nice and to share” or told to “say you’re sorry,” then their behaviour is not voluntary and cannot be considered prosocial. The prosocial approach entails and highlights that a child’s prosocial development can be actively promoted without being forced. 1.3.1 How educators can be active in promoting prosociality Educators can promote prosocial development by building secure relationships, creating classroom community, modelling prosocial behaviour, establishing prosocial expectations and supporting families.
  11. 11. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 10 The pedagogic areas of relevance are: a -The Classroom is a place where it is easy to be happy When teachers intentionally create secure relationships, making the children feel safe in their classroom, they can contribute positively to their well-being. Children who are brought up in a prosocial family usually are more caring with their peers. There is good evidence that young children who have warm relationships and secure attachments to their parents and teachers are more likely to be empathic and prosocial (Kestenbaum, Farber, & Sroufe 1989; Zhou et al. 2002; Campbell & von Stauffenberg 2008), probably because children are more likely to notice and copy the behaviour of adults to whom they feel a close connection. Regarding the experience and the role of the teachers, whether or not a child’s parental attachment has been secure, when teachers have warm, secure relationships with the children, those children show more empathy and behave more positively toward others in the classroom. (Pianta & Stuhlman 2004; Spinrad & Eisenberg 2009). Teachers can develop positive and prosocial relationships using different “small” pedagogic strategies (mostly intuitive): responding sensitively to children’s everyday needs, interacting in emotionally supportive ways, listening and conversing with sincere attention. b – The origins of the Community are in the classroom (from the classroom to the educating Village) The first step towards rebuilding the “village” - meant as a system of caring relationships - is to create a caring community of learners. Just as warm educative relationships produce children’s prosocial skills, being a member of a close-knit learning community can also favour children’s prosocial development. Humans are social creatures, and even subtle changes in children’s social environments can make them more aware of their connection to the group. “There is some evidence that children who spend time with very prosocial classmates are likely to become more prosocial themselves; over time, they come to adopt the more helpful, caring norms of their peers” (Eisenberg, Fabes, & Spinrad 2006). However, it is usual to observe the situation in which the less-prosocial children tend to spend their time with one another, thus having fewer opportunities to learn from more-prosocial classmates. It can be suggested to the teachers to intentionally counteract the separation of less prosocial children from the more prosocial by pairing and mixing up children for various activities (Bodrova
  12. 12. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 11 & Leong 2007), creating more ways for children to experience prosocial and empathic behaviour of others. c - Learning prosocial behaviour form the adults: examples If an adult is prosocial and responsive, children are especially likely to notice and imitate aspects of their behaviour. Thus, teachers who have those characteristics have a good chance of prompting children’s empathic, helpful, caring, generous behaviour by demonstrating that behaviour themselves. Opportunities present themselves every day: helping a child put on a new jacket that buttons-up differently; expressing loving concern when a child’s parent has been ill; and offering some materials that will help a child finish a project. To highlight this modelling, teachers can comment on what they are doing and why (“Do you have a problem with that. How about if I help you? It makes me happy to help children out when they need it.”). Teachers can also promote these skills by modelling kindness and consideration in their interactions with colleagues and families. d - Be clear with children (in our community prosociality is expected to be our way to interact with others) Children are more likely to develop empathy and prosocial skills if adults make it clear that they expect (but do not force) them to do so. Polite requests for children to be helpful and generous are effective and often necessary prompts for prosocial behaviour (Eisenberg, Fabes, & Spinrad 2006). Sometimes adults may think that they should articulate more their requests, but children— especially toddlers—may need clear prompts or cues. In many cultures, including most non-Western ones, children are often expected to do real work that helps the family, care for brothers and sisters, even share their toys with brothers and sisters, and generally be more cooperative members of the community. Teachers may notice differences between the behaviours that emerge from families’ culturally influenced prosocial expectations and may see these behaviours reflected in children’s pretend play and interactions with peers. When a class includes children who are growing up within such cultures, other children may have a chance to learn more cooperative and caring ways of relating to their peers. 1.4 Preventing violence through building a prosocial environment Our society more and more shows alarming signs about aggressiveness and violence.
  13. 13. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 12 Violence is the most primitive and irrational answer to the inability in running and canalizing one’s own reactions, provoked by emotions such as rage, dissatisfaction, repression, frustration, resentment, etc. It is synonymous with the inability in communicating in a civilized way, it means that instinct prevails over reason. Violence depends on the values and lifestyle changes in today’s society. However, from a genetic point of view, people can’t be changed in only one generation. Their education has changed. It is the personal growth process induced by the present society that makes us less and less competent in emotions and relations. Often in schools the problem of violence is approached from a repressive point of view. Services and activities are organized to “remove” aggressiveness from bullies. The problem is that these teenagers are lacking in emotional and relational competences. For example they can’t practice empathy: “to walk in someone else’s shoes”. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent and not to treat. Interventions are difficult. Our experience says that the “gym of emotions” is necessary since nursery school and that the emotional and relational competences will grow in people who are willing to get to know each other. (J. Delor). Emotional switches will be functional and effective for those teenagers who have these competences structured in themselves. From our experience and research (Salfi, Monteduro 2004) it emerges that interaction between two people can take place following a series of dynamics:
  14. 14. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 13 STYLE MEANING EFFECTS ON SENDER EFFECTS ON RECEIVER AGGRESSIVENESS Behaviour to get a personal object that does somebody harm. Satisfaction Self esteem Self-uncontrolled expression Scorn of other people Sense of fault Humiliation Offence Frustration Mistrust Fear Counterattack Removal Refusal COMPETITIVENESS Two people pursue the same aim. Satisfaction Self esteem Self-acceptance Dissatisfaction Sense of inferiority Frustration Rage Avoid the competitiveness ASSERTIVENESS Pursuing a personal object in the respect of the other person. Self-satisfaction Self esteem Right self-expression Self-acceptance Self-satisfaction Self esteem Self-acceptance Opening Right self-expression PASSIVENESS Behaviour of renunciation or submission to somebody’s will. Humiliation Anxiety Inhibition Self-refusal Self-disesteem Disesteem with the other person Sense of fault-rage Self-affirmation that does somebody harm Disease Removal PROSOCIALITY Behaviours that, without external recompenses, favour other people and increase the possibility in generating a positive reciprocity and solid relations, defending the identity, the creativity and implicated individuals’ initiative. (Roche) Self-satisfaction and with others Self esteem Right self-expression Self-acceptance Self-satisfaction Self esteem Self-acceptance Opening Approach Right self-expression Positive feelings with oneself and others Prosocial behaviour is different from other styles listed in the above table since it is the only one to bring positive effects both on the sender and on the receiver. Moreover, it distinguishes from solid and altruistic acts because it refers to actions directed to help or profit individuals or groups, without waiting for external rewards. Pro-social actions allow experimenting the benefits of these behaviours and the author feels his/her own competence and effectiveness, to the advantage of self-esteem. For this reason, the ultimate end of a pro-social behaviour is not generating “good Samaritans” or heroes, but helping the other to enter upon and maintain positive interactions in a
  15. 15. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 14 continuous way. The aim is creating a social cooperation where to own and needs of others are given the same importance. 2 The Prosocial Peace Code 2.1 The Code Prosocial behaviour means positive actions that benefit others, prompted by empathy, moral values, and a sense of personal responsibility rather than a desire for personal gain. The school's role in building students' prosocial skills is fundamental, but also the involvement of the community and of who, aware or not, can have a lasting influence on the students' social growth (sport trainer or coach, neighbours, members of religious organizations….). In order to teach and model social skills, the Prosocial Peace Code represents a list of rules and behaviours generally accepted by the members of the community and contained in a specific agreement, created in order to prevent social disorders and violence. These plans are addressed to all the social groups that are involved (directly or indirectly) in the education of the children. The Code defines the fundamental principles that can drive pro-social actions addressed to students, teachers and all the “communities of educators” and underlines what is positive of the other and what can enhance mutual comprehension. In the age of an “educational emergency” the Code can be a valid tool for the creation of a path towards the reconstruction of an “Educational Community”, in order to realize that it is possible to find a “Treasure within Learning” (J. Delors). The code embeds the emotional and relational skills which are fundamental tools for preventing violent behaviours and for helping our children to become active and responsible European Citizens. The process towards the creation of the code can be summarized as follows:
  16. 16. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 15 The definition of the Prosocial Peace-code (PPC) stems from the definition of the reference values- frame, which defines the belonging to a community in an ever quickly changing world. To have an effective educational action the PPC will be then structured and communicated according to some educational axes shaped on the characteristics of in-learning subjects. The Values - - - Peace Democracy Unity Solidarity Tolerance Inclusion Environmental Sustainability The“Pro-social Peace code (PPC)” 2 Listen to us 3 Let’s make the peace way 5 I am you – you are me 6 Everybody’s got a special talent 7 Don’t worry, say sorry’ 8 Get@cclimatized Preventing violence Develops inclusive growth The values … The Educational Community generate the“Pro-social Peace Code” The Shares Frame the community generate the“PPC” generate the“PPC” Equality Brotherhood Freedom Hyman Dignity 1 Greeting is great! 4 The word is a sound, the example is a thunder Define a new concept of (intercultural) dynamic community : Shared ​​ and practiced values define the community (Who is “us” / who is the “other from us”) Rebuild the educational community: • To answer to the emergency education (emergenza educativa) • To build social inclusion Common framework Analysis and comparison of social change in the contexts of the various partners: •Share the analysis method •Do analysis •Share results (integrated in WORKSTREAM 1) “To educate a child it takes a village”: (African proverb) The “Peace code” as an educational tool: • ... doesn't make it static • … but makes it as an active tool for accelerating the belonging dynamics dinamiche di appartenenza (Australian experience) Preventing violence Develop inclusive growth The world is quickly changing: … educational strategies
  17. 17. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 16 2.2 The importance of the reference values Is it possible to educate without a value picture of reference? Our experience brings us to the statement that in the global, cosmopolitan society (A. Giddens) we are building, the community cannot be defined by religion, neither by skin colour or physical characteristics, but it is the sharing of values that shapes us all. Moreover, being the community the educating subject, the shared values, which determine it, are the starting point to plan the educational process. We could imagine education as a trip, undertaken by the in-learning subject, using the tools of “assimilation and accommodation (Piaget), on his own nature and culture (J. Bruner). The traveller will surely go faster if:  he/she is guided/ supported by the educating community which proposes a destination (the goal , in this case, is represented by the cosmopolitan global society (A. Giddens);  the way is marked by pole stars, found in the moral values of the “community” (Z. Bauman) we long to reach. In a liquid society (Z. Bauman) with such weak boundaries, as the present one, to recognize and share the value picture is essential in order to catalyse the educational process. Without any (or few) reference values we find ourselves in n “educational emergency” and just wonder around without a destination. Values are emotions’ children (D. Goleman). For example, it is possible that those who are very empathic in the in-learning age, will have great values in solidarity and brotherhood. Is it possible to define a number of shared values to orient the educational process? The school or other educational institutions, which operate in the National, European or International context, and which consider values as ideas, principles of their mission, can refer to some basic Right texts. 2.2.1 Values in the world “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. ” (Universal declaration of Human Rights, Preamble) The first value is surely the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the United Nation General Assembly in Paris on 10th December 1948. The Universal Declaration was
  18. 18. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 17 the result of the UN Charter itself (San Francisco, June 26th 1945, 51 states) . In this document the member states expressed their commitment in preserving International peace and safety, developing friendly and cooperating partnerships with each other, encouraging the respect towards men’s rights and basic liberties without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Adopting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN provides an equal standard for every country. States engage in assuring all persons, rich or poor, strong or weak, men or women the same treatment. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person; everyone has the liberty of expression; no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals; all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law, everyone has the right of movement, to have a nationality, to get married and build up a family, to have equal wages for the same work. Although the declaration is not a binding act, it has a great moral importance since it has been adopted by many countries. The UN adopted also numerous international treaties, among which the most important are the two International Treaties: The first one refers to economic, social and cultural values; the second one deals with political and civil rights. The Declaration, the Treaties and optional Protocols build up the so called International Charter of Human Rights. (cfr. http://www.un.org/fr/rights/overview/index.shtml ) We should consider here that in recent years, according to several authors among which Antonio Cassese, the Universal Declaration does not consider the plurality of the original aspects of a culture. For example, the African communities, or those from Asia. We should find the courage to live and to educate towards mutual sharing which is the basic paradigm of openness and giving to the other; this would be a revolution both in interpersonal dynamics and in the establishment. (Ricoeur, 1997)
  19. 19. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 18 In Paris, in September 19, 1981, the UNESCO declared the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights followed by the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (1980). Both documents reflect the understanding of Islamic people and community. The first article of Cairo’s declaration states: (a) All human beings form one family whose members are united by submission to God and descent from Adam. All men are equal in terms of basic human dignity and basic obligations and responsibilities, without any discrimination on the grounds of race, color, language, sex, religious belief, political affiliation, social status or other considerations. True faith is the guarantee for enhancing such dignity along the path to human perfection. (b)All human beings are God's subjects, and the most loved by Him are those who are most useful to the rest of His subjects, and no one has superiority over another except on the basis of piety and good deeds. On March 8, 1999, the General Assembly adopted the “Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms” (Resolution 53/144). This document is important since it reasserts the importance of international cooperation and its main aim is to bring to the global attention the issues of rights and the responsibility of individuals, group and official bodies in promoting and protecting freedom and universal human rights. Article 15 says: The State has the responsibility to promote and facilitate the teaching of human rights and fundamental freedoms at all levels of education and to ensure that all those responsible for training lawyers, law enforcement officers, the personnel of the armed forces and public officials include appropriate elements of human rights teaching in their training programme. And article 16 says: Individuals, non-governmental organizations and relevant institutions have an important role to play in contributing to making the public more aware of questions relating to all human rights and fundamental freedoms through activities such as education, training and research in these areas to strengthen further, inter alia, understanding, tolerance, peace and friendly relations among nations and among all racial and religious groups, bearing in mind the various backgrounds of the societies and communities in which they carry out their activities. How then do teachers, educators and whoever is responsible for education in general act as defenders and institutional promoters of human rights, in particular those of children since they are both students and persons?
  20. 20. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 19 The Declaration of the Rights of the Child (November 20, 1959) proclaims that human kind has the duty to offer children the best it can; since a child is physically and intellectually immature it needs special care and protection both before and after birth. This entails deep changes at educational level and above all the quest for more coherence between moral principles and practical actions. (ManIntyre, 1988) Since there are many children throughout the world who live in precarious conditions it is therefore necessary to pay them special attention taking at the same time into consideration their traditions and cultural values. Therefore, The UN General Assembly adopted in 1989 the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention was ratified by 151 countries – except the U.S. and Somalia. Italy formally ratified the Convention with law no. 176 – May 27, 1991 committing to adapt its legislation to the values and principles of the Convention. Children then become a value for all the International Community. Article 3 says: The best interests of children must be the primary concern in making decisions that may affect them. All adults should do what is best for children. When adults make decisions, they should think about how their decisions will affect children. This particularly applies to budget, policy and law makers. According to article 28 States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular make primary education compulsory and available free to all. Article 29 proclaims that States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to: (a) The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential; (b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;
  21. 21. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 20 (c) The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own; (d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin; (e) The development of respect for the natural environment. And article 30: In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practice his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language. January 25, 1996, in Strasbourg, the European parliament organizes the UN European Convention on the rights of children. In 1978 (October 15) the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights was proclaimed in Paris. Also nature and animals have rights; animals should be understood, respected and loved right from birth. Article 1: All animals are born equal and they have the same rights to existence. Article 2 a) Every animal has the right to be respected. b) Man, like the animal species, cannot assume the right to exterminate other animals or to exploit them, thereby violating this right. He should use his conscience for the service of the animals. c) Every animal has the right to consideration, good treatment and the protection of man. (Source,http://www.un.org/fr/documents/udhr/; http://www.un.org/fr/events/humanrightsday , http://www.unicri.it/ ) 2.2.2 Our common values The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation. It was founded on May 5, 1949 with the Treaty of London and has 47 member states.
  22. 22. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 21 The headquarters of the Council of Europe are in Strasbourg, France. The aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress. Its actions are not binding and have to be ratified by all the Member States. Among its aims are the safeguarding of human rights, parliamentary democracy and guaranteeing rule of law, developing a European identity based on shared values which transcend cultural diversity, concluding European agreements in order to harmonise social and legal practices of the Member States. The Council of Europe has nothing to do with either the Council of the European Union or the European Council, which are both EU bodies. The world is the space in which we express our identity. (Tonino Bello) The European Union is founded on values regarding the respect of human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, rule of law and the respect of human rights – also those parts of an ethnic minority. These values, proclaimed in articles 1 and 2, are common to all Member States. Moreover, society of each Member State is characterized by pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, solidarity and equal opportunities for women and men. These values are especially important since they are the preliminary requirement for joining the EU (as stated in article I-58) and because their breaching could entail the suspension of the right of being part of the EU (article I-59). The Treaty which adopts the UN Constitution signed in Rome on October 29, 2004 includes the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and a set of new values such as human dignity, equality, rights of ethnic minorities. Article I-1 Establishment of the Union. 1. Reflecting the will of the citizens and States of Europe to build a common future, this Constitution establishes the European Union, on which the Member States confer competences to attain objectives they have in common. The Union shall coordinate the policies by which the Member States aim to achieve these objectives, and shall exercise on a Community basis the competences they confer on it. Reflecting the will of the citizens and States of Europe to build a common future, this Constitution establishes the European Union, on which the Member States confer competences to attain objectives they have in common. The Union shall
  23. 23. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 22 coordinate the policies by which the Member States aim to achieve these objectives, and shall exercise on a Community basis the competences they confer on it. Article I-2 The Union's values The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. These values are common to the Member States in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail. 2.3 Highlights The spiritual and cultural heritage of Europe is based on a combination of Greek philosophy, Roman law, Christianity, humanism and the Enlightenment. Spiritually, The European common set of values and thinking are based on a unique mutual exchange and influence of three approaches: the Franco Rationalistic, the Anglo-Empiric, and the German-Idealistic. Freedom, human dignity and responsibility and solidarity are the central values that the democratic institutions seek to protect and strengthen. All those elements are part of the common spiritual and cultural heritage. The European Union is based on values - such as the respect for human dignity; fundamental rights, including the rights of communities and families; freedom, democracy, equality, and the rule of law. The member states' societies - in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity, responsibility and gender equality prevail - share these values. The European integration process has to overcome the artificial concept of nation-statehood by putting the principle of subsidiary into political practice. Europe also needs to strengthen its naturally and historically developed communities in which find their roots and to which they feel they belong. By doing so, the principle of subsidiarity can lead us to the realization of Europe as a "community of communities". Let’s shapes the values: Freedom
  24. 24. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 23 It is said that freedom involves three aspects: a person must be able to make a choice, must not be prevented and must be able to act. More specifically we can refer to freedom of movement, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of opinion and expression. Democracy In a truly democratic society the majority of the population plays an active rather than a passive role. Democracy is also a social arrangement in which the rights and obligations of individuals are understood and respected. The term 'democracy' is often equated with political liberalism, thus making it synonymous with fundamental rights, such as freedom of religion, of speech, of association, and equality before the law. Human dignity and respect of human rights All human beings have the right to be respected and treated fairly, regardless of their race, gender, origins, social status, language, religion, political opinions, age, and health. The European Union respects fundamental principles for the safeguard of human rights as well as fundamental freedoms as guaranteed by the European Convention, (which was signed in Rome on November 4 1950)and also as foreseen by common Member State constitutional traditions, such rights being the founding principles of the communitarian law. The European Constitution explicitly supports the rights of persons belonging to minorities. The Constitutional State (Rule of Law) The rule of law implies that a government may only exercise authority in accordance with the nation’s laws. Solidarity The European Union promotes solidarity inside its borders, providing support to disadvantaged people and areas, and outside its frontiers contributing to the fight against poverty in the weaker countries. Tolerance What is tolerance? It is the consequence of humanity. We are all formed of frailty and error; let us pardon reciprocally each other's folly – that is the first law of nature. This is what Voltaire writes
  25. 25. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 24 about tolerance in his 'Philosophical Dictionary. Human beings have different genetic inheritances, environment conditions and cultural identities. Although some differences are positive, others might not be to our liking. We need to understand that social life obliges us to tolerate even things we do not like, and that this is to our advantage. The only way to live in peace with others is to learn to accept differences. But what is the limit of tolerance? If someone comes in the room and starts smoking, should you be tolerant? And if you go to another country do you have to accept the local customs? What if they are against your principles? In a democracy, the majority decides. So how do minorities ensure that their views and values are respected? Equality “In the state of nature...all men are born equal, but they cannot continue in this equality. Society makes them lose it, and they recover it only by the protection of the law." (Charles de Montesquieu, political philosopher) The principle of equality was established during the Enlightenment. Today, it forms part of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 1 reads "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights".While in principle we are all equal, in reality we can see so much inequality around us. Peace Philosopher Immanuel Kant already taught us that peace should not be confused with a mere "temporary absence of war" more than two centuries ago. Real peace is "the impossibility of war" and it may be achieved through the complete removal of war threat. But this goal will be reached only when conflicts will no longer be resolved through the use of force but on the basis of law. All this would become possible only if world nations created an international organisation (the UN - United Nations - may be considered a first step in this direction) and if they decide to give it the power to settle disputes, making of it a venue for justice for all nations, a place like the court for citizens within a single country. The Italian Constitution (article 11) repudiates war and accepts limitations of sovereignty in order to be part of international organisms which promote peace and justice among Nations. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi is Burma's pro-democracy leader and a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize. She said: "It is now widely seen that peace should be more than the mere absence of war: it should be a positive force that counters violence as a means of resolving the problems of human society. Justice should not only aim at controlling the negative traits in human nature, it should work to promote a sense of fairness, compassion and universal brotherhood". The European
  26. 26. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 25 Union pursues the goal of peace promotion through its foreign and security policy and through the placement of its military forces at the disposal of peace keeping and peace enforcement operations. A mission in the Republic of the Congo has just been accomplished with the support of the EU army while EU soldiers are currently present in Bosnia Herzegovina on an on-going mission. Source: http://www.centroineuropa.it/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=122, http://futurum2005.eun.org/ww/it/pub/futurum2005/values/values.htm 2.4 Values vs. Educational Axes For the realization of the Peace Code, each value can be shaped into educational axes. The educational axes are learning/educative vehicles in order to experience, actualize and practised the values. Among the four pillars of education stated in the report “Learning: the Treasure Within”, of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, chaired by Jacques Delors we have: - learning to know, that is acquiring the instruments of understanding; - learning to do, so as to be able to act creatively in one’s environment; - learning to live together, so as to participate in and co-operate with other people in all human activities; - learning to be, so as to better develop one’s personality and to act with ever greater autonomy, judgement and personal responsibility The Commission has put greater emphasis on the one that it proposes and describes as the foundation of education: learning to live together. The educational axes are practical and real educative elements that can enable children to acquire the skills essential for - creating awareness about the importance of living in harmony with each other and with the environment; - developing the skills of interpersonal communication in order to promote understanding, acceptance and tolerance;
  27. 27. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 26 - enabling children to give and receive; - creating awareness of solidarity and human relationships. The educative axes are based on a variety of approaches, techniques and resources to ensure that they are taught in the most meaningful and effective way. In the following table the Values are shaped into educative axes: Reference Values Educational Axes (oneself and the other) Human dignity: -Liberty -Unity - Equality -Respect -Diversity Welcome & Recognition of the other Development of one’s personal and social identity (relational) To experiment Freedom through self-consciousness Human dignity: -Liberty -Unity - Equality -Respect -Diversity Education for a civil and democratic life in common. Unity Solidarity Inclusion To develop: -Loyalty -Responsibility - Empathy Human dignity: Uniqueness of the person Diversity as a richness To accept one’s mistakes and those of others. To take advantage of problems in order to become a better person. (defeat management) Respect for other persons and things. (own and of the others) Environmental care Develop the sense of common good Willingness to share and care
  28. 28. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 27 2.5 Prosocial applying keystones The Educational Axes become the basic element of the Peace Code. Therefore, the process for the realization of the Code translates the values into a “conduct code” which implies ideas, principles and actions through which the values can be embedded in the educational process. The code indications are then converted in applying keystones, easily understandable by the children in a very empathic and emotional way. The following table shows the process through which the educational axes become keystones.
  29. 29. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 28 Reference Values Educational Axes (oneself and the other) Code Applying Keystones Human dignity: -Liberty -Unity - Equality -Respect -Diversity Welcome & Recognition of the other Development of one’s personal and social identity (relational). To experiment Freedom through self- consciousness To enhance people’s behaviour To recognize the other To listen actively to ourselves and the others To enhance our own identity To enhance identity of others 1 Greeting is great 2 Listen to us Human dignity: -Liberty -Unity - Equality -Respect -Diversity Education for a civil and democratic life in common. To practice civil and democratic life in common To give others and the situation the right time To reflect the thoughts of others 4 Let’s make the peace way 3 The word is a sound, the example is a thunder Unity Solidarity Inclusion To develop: -Loyalty -Responsibility - Empathy To develop Loyalty , Responsibility, Empathy to prevent violent behaviours, accepting difficulties and the happiness of the others 5 I am you – you are me Human dignity: Uniqueness of the person Diversity as a richness To accept one’s mistakes and those of others. To take advantage of problems in order to become a better person. (defeat management) To accept one’s mistakes and those of others. To take advantage of problems in order to become a better person. 6 Everybody’s got a special talent 7 Don’t worry, say sorry! Respect of other persons and things. (own and of the others) To practice environmentalist behaviours aimed at the respect of everyday life objects, and also of the animals 8 Get acclimatized
  30. 30. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 29 The applying keystones are: GREETING IS GREET Greeting is a healthy, simple foregone sign and therefore it is sometimes forgotten. It is a sign that makes who gives and who receives feel good. Our cities, more and more “anonymous and liquid”, are populated by people who do not know each other; even just a greeting sign is enough to establish a link, a reciprocity. <Be kind with people that you meet going up, because you will meet them going down> (W. Miener) LISTEN TO US Listening is an exchange: listening to other people could seem useful only for them, but when you become a good listener, you are also helping yourself. Listening benefits are various: you show respect, you build relations, you can generate new ideas, you found confidence between parties. “When you listen, stop every other activity. Give the other all your attention and stare at him while he is speaking”. LET’S MAKE THE PEACE WAY Perhaps it is impossible to love everybody, but you can be kind with everybody and express, with a sign, a thought, an action, your attention. Good manners are at the heart of intelligence, the scent of civilization. They weren’t invented by chance, but to live together with others, without striking each other (E. Loewthal). THE WORD IS A SOUND, THE EXAMPLE IS A THUNDER The writer D. Lawnolte wrote, “ Children learn what they live”. Our society is lacking in positive influential reference models. School shouldn’t just teach, but it must also offer a good education. I AM YOU - YOU ARE ME Empathy is the ability to recognize emotions and feelings. It means perceiving somebody else’s inner world as if it would be ours, with the awareness of its uniqueness, compared to our points of view. “Empathy is the main inhibiter of human cruelty” (Goleman). EVERYBODY HAS A SPECIAL TALENT
  31. 31. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 30 Everybody has positive qualities. It is important to help children and adults… to discover, cultivate and develop them. Feeling esteemed helps to achieve trust in oneself, avoiding aggressiveness in order to make one’s way in the world. DON’T WORRY, SAY SORRY “Practice makes perfect”, the saying goes: these words are often forgotten. We must consider mistakes as learning moments, as a step towards the object. The possibility in making mistakes and mending them, without a negative feeling, strengthens self-esteem and trust in one’s own abilities. Present society aims at denying the possibility in making mistakes thus causing frustration. GET @CCLIMATIZED The virtual and electronic world reminds us that “We are the earth, people, plants and animals, rains and oceans, the breathing of forests and sea flux” ( Earth Charter EARTH SUMMIT , ONU ,1992). Earth is the mother environment we should understand, love, respect and preserve, since it is the home of 7 billion people. These inhabitants bring economic and social problems and they should learn to share the planet’s wealth and difficulties. Helping a child to respect the environment he/she lives in is the first step to educate in taking care of our planet.
  32. 32. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 31 2.6 How to use the Code as an educational tool 'Education is an important element in the struggle to help our children and people rediscover their identity and thereby increase self-respect. Education is our passport to the future.’ Malcolm X Values are intrinsic to all learning and education, whether at school, at home or in any other place children live. Values must be experienced and the keystones can be a values-based virtual box for this exploration. For these reasons a values-based atmosphere has to be created. That means making some preparatory actions such as the creation of welcoming spaces and activities, the setting of the classrooms in a prosocial way, the work on techniques such as active listening, methodical work on greetings, on respecting roles, on positive evaluation of the others. The educative approach has to be experiential, participatory and flexible, allowing and encouraging the practice of the values. The pro-social educative approach must also be used systematically. For the description of a series of prosocial educative tools please see chapter 5. The tools contain practical values activities, prosocial games and a range of methods for teachers, educators, facilitators, parents and caregivers to help children to explore and develop the eight keystones of the Peace Code with their related values. Through these tools children can see the values “at work” and they become the actors of the Peace Code in action. Children can also practice the value in a very empathic and emotional way.
  33. 33. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 32 3 The Educators Caring Communities (ECC) 3.1 What are the ECC and what is their role in the perspective of prosociality The term “educating” placed before the term Community relates to a group of social organizations (both formal and informal) involved in an educational path. Generally, members of this social context are adults who are educators, their role formally recognised by the institutions (the teachers) or playing this role without having any specific institutional or legal recognition. The target of this educational activity are young members of the community or children. The Educating caring Community has its core in the system of social relationships in which the young interact and from which they acquire their (also spontaneous) code of behaviour. The relationships which develop inside an ECC are circular: all individuals exchange their experiences with one another and in this way carry out the various tasks needed for the management of a community. However, this system is complex but at the same time one of its positive characteristics is that each individual is aware of the environment he/she is in. In turn, this awareness avoids educational conflicts: those who belong to this community know their place in the system (e.g. sport trainers) since if their messages are not on the same wavelength as those of other teachers educational conflicts may arise. The ECC is therefore a sort of village in which bridges and roads represent social relations which have a direct effect on a child’s education and protect him/her from the kind of violence that could arise in this context. Just as the tradition of the European local communities, in the educating village adults are educators and teach young members the sets of values of their own community, exercising a permanent educative “pressure”. This shows the ECC to be an open system: internally it shows the dynamics of conflict and enrichment in a relational-linguistic context; externally it involves the cooperation of traditional learning, families and the territory. Being part of a ‘community’ is different from being part of a ‘group’: the core of the community is the awareness of being educators and the sequence of relations stems from participation. Participation implies that the actors do not delegate the task of educating only to schools but operate with them in a circular way. This perspective, the ECC I san “articulated and complex” system operating a continuous evolution in order to be adapted to the organizational model that fits better with the role the members have in it.
  34. 34. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 33 The world is quickly changing: … The education and training are key factors for personal and social growth The values ​​guide the educational process “The values ​​are the children of the emotions " (D. Goleman) “To educate a child it takes a village”: (African proverb) The "peace code" can be an efficient tool for: Re-building the educational community to improve education and training for: 3. Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship 3.2 The meaning of the re-construction of the educational community Education is the activity which aims at the development of mental, social and physical skills. Its etymology derives from the Latin verb educare (to pull), which stems from the verbs educĕre (to take out, to get out sth from sth else) and ducĕre (to lead). The word education is often considered as complimentary of the word teaching. The difference is that: education concerns a “communicative” way of teaching, whereas teaching includes a wider way of educating, involving techniques aimed to enhance qualities and discover hidden talents. To educate means “to start from” and not “to achieve something”, since the arrival point depends on the learning subject. To educate is a way to make a person “more person”, a way towards the humanization of individuals. To educate means supporting a person during the construction of one’s own culture. Regarding this aspect J. Bruner pointed out that man’s evolution is composed of two “histories”: the genetic one, which made mankind competitive and the cultural one, since every man builds his culture from the culture of pre-existing generations. This characteristic makes our species adaptable and allows it to be winning (or maybe loosing since, at times, man can be its own enemy). Thinking about it, there’s only one generation separating modern man from barbarity. If the opportunity of educating oneself suddenly did not exist any longer man would have to start from scratch, from the stone age, despite its self-educating skills. Therefore, to educate means helping an individual to self-build culture, and pedagogy and didactics are the main sciences which can achieve this goal. In order to learn we need emotional and relational competences
  35. 35. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 34 and in modern day society, in which culture is dynamic and global (P. Levy), it is necessary to change the traditional teaching approach from transitive to cooperative. To better understand why we deem necessary to re-build the educating community in order to develop learning processes, we should give a brief description of the dynamics that arise in the educational environment. At its centre there is the learner acquiring information through interaction with other learners and with the environment. To educate a child we need a village (African proverb); the Community educates, not the teacher. A learner is nourished by formal education through school, by non-formal education through family and social organisations etc. and by informal education such as the environment in which he/she lives. The learner has innate learning skills (Montessor’s absorbing mind) and finds the cooperation between teacher and educational group an incredible catalyst. Our idea of educating community is broader than that of Don Lorenzo Milani (a Catholic priest and pedagogue who in the 1960s promoted mutual and cooperative learning in a rural school in Barbiana, Italy) whose ideas are central in the modern western approach to education. Define a new concept of (intercultural) dynamic community : Shared ​​ and practiced values define the community (Who is “us” / who is the “other from us”) Rebuild the educational community: • To answer to the emergency education (emergenza educativa) • To build social inclusion Common framework “To educate a child it takes a village”: (African proverb)
  36. 36. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 35 3.3 How to rebuild the Educating Community A strong need to rebuild an Educating Community is felt both at local and global level: the school alone cannot take the responsibility of the education of children since nowadays they live in a complex and ever changing society. Social elements often act in a different and sometimes even in a contradictory way; this has a negative impact on children. Therefore, it is paramount to increase opportunities for dialogue and for the search for common educative ways. We must re-launch the idea of an ‘educating community’ (which refers to the idea of ‘belonging’) as a school and out of school integrated educational context which can help to develop social competences: these are in fact the dynamics of ‘active citizenship’. This implies that: • teachers and school staff should have and practise a positive relational interpersonal style, a style that arises from mutual recognition and from active appreciation of the ‘other’ (we teach ourselves); • we should introduce methodological innovations in education in order to systematize this approach with students, families and the local community; • we should promote a wider dialogue between school, families and the local community in order to boost social dynamics; • we should design and activate pathways for personal grow through the recognition, the representation and the handling of our emotions; • we should promote the culture of legality through operational situations in which students can experiment and discover the necessity of commonly accepted rules, rules conceived as ‘ordered freedoms’ and based on two essential principles: the principle of ‘right’ and the principle of ‘duty’; • we should extend this process from local to global aiming at constructing the ‘cosmopolitan global community’ (A. Giddens) by promoting the values of universal brotherhood and meeting the needs for inclusion which characterize our times.
  37. 37. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 36 Within an approach like this, it is evident that the school has to change radically: it should have a new central position in society to  design and develop knowledge tools which can enable the students to understand the natural, social, cultural, anthropological contexts in which they will live and operate in the future;  pursue a double formative mission both in horizontal and in vertical continuity. The vertical dimension expresses the need for training that could continue for a lifetime; the horizontal dimension points at the need of a well-organized collaboration between the school and extra-school educating actors;  constantly pursue the aim of building positive relationships, based on the recognition of everyone’s roles and in harmony with community educational goals;  be and act as the consciousness and the driving force of the ‘Educating Community’ to train people able in handling their existential actions and therefore to invest in the education in order to be active citizens.
  38. 38. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 37 Therefore, the aim of prosociality includes building an Educating community BECAUSE:  Education is not just about traditional educational problems, such as curriculum, assessment and tests.  SCHOOL only makes sense within the broader context of goals that the community seeks to reach through its trust in education THE AIM IS TO CONNECT MORE AND MORE SCHOOLS WITH THEIR TERRITORIES, IN ORDER TO:  share a common value framework  activate educational processes fully and consciously shared  develop the concept of ‘common interest’ at school  raise awareness of the culture of legality, of ethics and solidarity.  promote training,  support projects,  spread partnership Foreseeable long term outcomes, as the main goal of the project’s educational process, refer to the areas beyond the school context: School vs. Parents and families The interaction between the school, the families and the wider community is meant for: Sharing of children’s educational courses Getting involved in Action Research activities Signing the “Patto educativo di corresponsabilità” (agreement signed by parents and school, based on shared values and strategies) Meetings to discuss and clarify the subjects students will face in class.
  39. 39. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 38 3.4 Main strategies for the ECC implementation Strategy 1. Create a Caring Community The implementation Strategy 1 of the Caring Community aims to create a caring community working towards involvement and inviting all stakeholders to participate in the changing process of the school. This includes all school personnel, students, families and community. When everyone has a voice in the negotiation of the values and the creation of the school’s action plan, this increases active involvement in the implementation of school change and sustainability over the long term, which have a positive impact on the students’ outcomes. Strategy 2. Give Values Voice, Hands and Feet Strategy 2 aims at giving values voice, hands and feet through intentional interactions and use of best practices that make the five core values concrete and visible in all aspects of the school’s culture and climate. This includes direct teaching of the five core values in the classroom, modelling of the values by adults, and using the school environment as strengthening of the five core values. Strategy 3. Share Responsibility with Families, Community and Students Strategy 3 is to share responsibility with families, community, and students for creating a School Caring Community. While strategy 1 is about taking the initiative to reach out to and include families and community, strategy 3 is about moving the community and the families from guests to members of the community itself. Strategy 4. Share Leadership Strategy 4 is to lead the Caring Community through modelling, empowerment and shared leadership. Whether he knew it or not, Mahatma Gandhi’s suggestion to “Be the change you want to see in the world,” is excellent evidence-informed advice for school leaders who want to positively change their school culture and climate. This Caring Community strategy advises school leaders to model change of the core values and the implementation strategies with students, teachers, school staff, families and community members since it influences behavioural change in those who observe it. Strategy 5. Empower Values With Practice and Policy
  40. 40. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 39 Strategy 5 is to empower the five core values with intentional best practices that are evidence based and proven, along with specific policies which address the institutional factors that create sustainable school culture and climate change. Policy puts the concept on paper so that it becomes part of practice. 4 Teaching Prosociality: from pedagogic literacy to didactic methodology 4.1 How and where to teach Prosociality A prosocial behaviour brings positive effects both on the sender and on the receiver. In this framework, the school is the best ground where children and teenagers, in addition to learning important issues for their personal development, can experience activities for building relationships both with adults and people of their same age. School experience can favour the development of pro-social behaviour through an intentional and systematic education realized with specific planned curricula. RESULTS OF PRO-SOCIAL ACTION SITUATION ENVIRONMENT Social values and rules SENDER PRO-SOCIAL ACTION RECEIVER
  41. 41. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 40 However, it would be really illusory thinking you can “educate to pro-sociality” limiting and implementing a series of didactic units, leaving unchanged the gap that distinguishes the behaviour of educator from teaching as proposed to the pupil. The latter is constantly stimulated by the educator’s behaviour, both directly when he/she is in relation with children, and indirectly when the pupil can observe his educator’s interactions with other people, both in school and extra-school situations. The teacher who understands the other’s point of view and emotions, who wants to pursue own purposes respecting others, who can voice his/her own opinions and emotions, who creatively faces and solves his own problems, tensions and interpersonal conflicts, who takes decisions involving a satisfaction delay, he will really increase the probability that his pupils interiorize and have similar pro-social behaviours (emulation learning). At the centre of a child’s learning there isn’t only the school. It is important that the values of prosociality are found also in the environment the child lives in: family, sport association, social context, formal and informal education. What is needed is a village (African proverb): who educates the child is not the teacher but the ‘community’. A learner acquires his/her competences through formal education from the school and at the same time informal education through the educational organisations in the territory (family, parish recreational centres etc.). Educating towards prosociality implies sharing the prosocial peace code purposes which in turn means: - Increasing the frequency of positive conducts; - Favouring communication and positive development; - Developing collaboration; - Increasing empathy; - Developing the ability in solving problems and relational creativity; - Promoting an emotional “schooling”, that is the activation of a personal growth process through the recognition, representation and management of emotions; - Promoting living together universal values (“values are emotions’ children”, D. Goleman): solidarity, peace, sociality, sharing, cooperation, respect, reception and recognition of diversity, wealth, psychological wellness, unity; -developing the sense of belonging and increasing learning competences. Model approach (tentativo di codice condiviso) (a possible e-book chapter summary) Same possible social scenes (scenari sociali) A new concept of community A model to rebuild the educational community  Model for developing social inclusion  Model "code of dynamic learning community" more suited to a dynamic social system and weak ties  Prevention of violence Education and Training 2020 (ET 2020) 3. Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship;
  42. 42. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 41 All this aims also at training a “citizen” who accepts the challenges of the current age, towards a more multicultural, multi-ethnic and multireligious society. These actions allow students to know the rules on which social organizations are based and the value frameworks. It’s also possible to create the basic elements to understand, share, help and cooperate, according to the fundamental values of our Constitution and the European one. “Giving and receiving, receiving and giving” are two important actions that could be put into practice in our society. 4.2 The role of the school staff motivation Since the school is the centre of the prosocial process, motivation of the school staff becomes an essential element in order to reach the educational goals. The Prosocial Peace Code: i. Develop professional and human competences of the school staff ii. Give school a major role iii. Set the school at the centre Transition towards a ‘fluid society’ (Z. Bauman) gives young students new opportunities but at the same time attenuates the values and the teaching practices needed to build and manage positive relationships with others. This phenomenon has increased during recent years and has brought to an educational emergency. In primary school, for example, there are more children who show difficulty in concentrating and paying attention; they have also little motivation and they are so self-centred that they are unable to acknowledge the emotions and needs of others. All this generates aggressiveness and disrespect which are the first signs of bullying. A traditional educational approach centres on decisiveness, rewards, punishments, compromises, reproaching and an endless flow of words that result in a waste of time from both sides. Teachers are often disappointed and feel they haven’t pursued the right path. Experiences from the use of the Prosocial Peace Code can help to tackle the problem by
  43. 43. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 42 Developing educational strategies centred more on prevention. A prosocial approach allows to positively modify relational dynamics amongst students and between students and teachers. This helps communication and learning. This in an important approach also in communicating with the families and the out-of-school organisations since it allows spreading trust and collaboration. It is never easy to talk about children’s problem with their parents without them becoming defensive. Sharing experiences from school and out-of-school and organising them in one behavioural code becomes a good tool to be used for educational purposes and a way to think and enrich oneself. In other words, the Prosocial Peace Code “IMPROVES THE PROFESSIONAL LIVES” of both teachers and school staff in a period in which being a teacher is quite difficult. It also gives the school a major role and puts it at the centre of the community. 4.3 Three propaedeutic activities In order to carry out a prosocial method we should take the following important steps: a. Draw up the necessary documents for the schools in every participating country b. Develop sharing within the educational team. Relational competences are learnt through emulation, the educational path of PPC will not have any efficacy if not shared by the team. For instance, greeting techniques and active listening will not produce good results if not continuously put into practice by the school staff together with the parents and amongst parents themselves. It is therefore necessary to develop a first level training programme for teachers to allow them to share a vision on social dynamics as well as an educational mission thus making the best use of their professional skills. c. Develop a communication strategy. Another element to increase success is the implementation of a communication strategy, both internal and external, as well as those documentation processes which are very important for both a widespread prosocial approach and for the reaching of active involvement by an increasing number of social- educational actors.
  44. 44. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 43 4.4 The operational didactic protocol The didactic operational protocol is developed through a number of activities enacted before didactic experimentation:  how to organise the classroom Classrooms should be organised before didactic experimentation in a “cooperative” setting rather than in a “frontal” one. The development of the students’ sense of autonomy and responsibility is “induced” also by how space and furnishing are arranged (this subject will be dealt with later on).  include the Peace-Code in the curricula This is a “kaleidoscopic” approach, the PPC represents the base on which the activities are founded. These are moments when the themes are dealt with in a “frontal” approach (introductive lessons, weekly meetings, etc.) but in general terms the PPC is used as an integration frame work in which didactics are developed. The Code is present during all activities and in all disciplines. It must also be a uniform practice for both teachers and school staff.  kindle emotions (values spring out of emotions) it is advisable that a structured activity be carried out for at least some hours followed by a more comp0lex daily routine on the subject. It would be a good practice to work for 10/15 minutes at the opening of each school day on the welcoming of the students and on creating a good relational atmosphere. In this way, relational competences favouring an improvement in learning could be acquired. The “metheomood” and “emotion” hats (see details under Didactic tools) or any other daily opening routine can allow the teachers to quickly assess the students’ mood of the day and intervene if necessary.
  45. 45. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 44 4.5 Welcoming spaces and activities To create a school environment that is welcoming to families is an important element to establish connections and relationships between the school and the parents of the pupils. Feeling welcome at school can encourage families to become more involved in prosocial activities. It’s also important to plan regular events to bring families and school staff together for positive interaction in support of learning and prosociality. Planning social events that bring together school faculty and staff with families is an effective way to create a family-friendly school environment. Schools can create effective ways to build a bridge connecting teachers and families. The message these strategies convey to parents should be: “You are welcome, you are important to us, and we want to work with you to educate your children”. An Educational Pact of Co-Responsibility between the School and the Families should also be created. Working Group of Parents and Teachers Promoting a Parents active participation to the school’s activities Work together with Joy for a common goal It can be an example for our Children
  46. 46. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 45 WELCOMING The school welcomes you as you are, as a person, since before being a boy, a girl, black or white, you are unique, rich in values and autonomy. SETTING UP THE PARENTS’ AREA ACTIVITY Preparing the classrooms OBJECTIVE Foster a good climate in order to live relationships, work experiences and learning paths positively. . LOCATION Entrance, classrooms, corridors etc. SCHEDULE Period preceding the start-up of activities with the students. MATERIALS Posters, balloons, paint, carpets, cushions, etc. DEVELOPMENT Teachers organise the rooms in order to favour a positive emotional approach. USEFUL TIPS All teachers should agree and be operative in the welcoming approach. WEB Italian, PE, Arts
  47. 47. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 46 4.6 The Listening Points The listening points are boxes into which parents, children, non-educative staff can post letters of complaint or letters of appreciation  the letters showing a complaint will be marked with  the letters showing an appreciation will be marked with The school can single out two (or more) teachers with the specific task of:  Gathering the letters   Answering if it is the case  (The folder can be anonymous or can have the name of the sender) Close to the box, a sign can be hung in order to show the rules:  be kind, not offensive (even if you are very angry)  never be your letter just a tool to show your being upset, but a way to improve the school environment  be kind with everybody you are addressing the complains to ANALISYS AND ASSESSMENT Teachers assess the reaching of the objectives through methodical observation and conversations. This is achieved if the students are happy when entering the school.
  48. 48. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 47 4.7 The setting of the classroom According to the prosocial activities, a new approach to the school setting has to be realized. Students need to be close enough to interact and they also need to have enough personal space to accomplish their own tasks. Students also work more effectively in well-organized classrooms rather than cluttered ones. Eye-to-eye contact should be maintained, materials shared without bumping into each other, and communication easy. Barriers should be minimized: pupils must be able to hear and see the teachers instructions from their workstations and in the meantime they gave to be able to work and stay together. The class set up should be flexible enough for students to work separately when necessary. When pupils work together, within each group students still need to have a sense of personal space. Each group member carries out a task to meet the group's common goal. Personal space gives each student within the group room and freedom to perform the tasks. Some basic ideas about the setting of the classroom could be the following: - allow both group and individual work - let all students see and hear the instruction from the teacher from their workspace - facilitate interaction and freedom of movement by removing unnecessary barriers between students both over and under the work surface - any adjustments of the configuration must be simply changed by the students and teachers in a short amount of time with little noise - allow also students with special needs to work in the groups
  49. 49. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 48
  50. 50. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 49 Setting of the classroom and of the activity areas The school welcomes you as you are, as a person, since before being a boy, a girl, black or white, you are unique, rich in values and autonomy. ACTIVITY Preparing the classrooms OBJECTIVE Foster a good climate in order to live relationships, work experiences and learning paths positively. . LOCATION Entrance, classrooms, corridors etc. SCHEDULE Period preceding the start-up of activities with the students. MATERIALS Posters, balloons, paintings, carpets, cushions, etc. DEVELOPMENT Teachers organise the rooms in order to favour a positive emotional approach. USEFUL TIPS All teachers should agree and be operative in the welcoming approach. WEB Italian, PE, Arts ANALISYS AND ASSESSMENT Teachers assess the reaching of the objectives through methodical observation and conversations. This is achieved if the students are happy when entering the school.
  51. 51. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 50 SCHOOL IS WAITING: A NEW ADVENTURE BEGINS The school welcomes you as you are, as a person, since before being a boy, a girl, black or white, you are unique, rich in values and autonomy. ACTIVITY Preparing the classrooms OBJECTIVE Foster a good climate in order to live relationships, work experiences and learning paths positively. . LOCATION Entrance, classrooms, corridors etc. SCHEDULE Period preceding the start-up of activities with the students. MATERIALS Posters, balloons, paintings, carpets, cushions, etc. DEVELOPMENT Teachers organise the rooms in order to favour a positive emotional approach. USEFUL TIPS All teachers should agree and be operative in the welcoming approach. WEB Italian, PE, Arts ANALISYS AND ASSESSMENT Teachers assess the reaching of the objectives through methodical observation and conversations. This is achieved if the students are happy when entering the school.
  52. 52. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 51 5 The Prosocial Educative Tools 5.1 What are the Prosocial Educative Tools The general objectives of the tools are a) revive the idea of “teaching community” as an integrated educational school-after school context aiming at the development of rational competences which are the basis of an “active citizenship”. This implies a series of intermediate results such as:  a new interpersonal and positive approach by both teachers and school staff which stems from the active acknowledgment and enhancement of the other (teaching ourselves);  the introduction of new methodologies in order to make this approach systematic with both students and families;  the promotion of a better relationship among the schools, families and the territory in order to revive the social dynamics of an “teaching community”;  the setting up paths for personal growth through emotional identification, representation and management in a socially efficient method in order to find a value framework of reference (Values stem from emotions – D. Goleman)  to promote the culture of legality through a series of processes in which students are able to experiment and discover the need of shared rules meant as “orderly freedom” based on two main assumptions: “rights” and “duties”. b) extend this process from local to global aiming at building a “global cosmopolitan community” (A. Giddens) and promoting the values of universal brotherhood and the need of inclusion required by our day and age; The specific objectives of the tools are: For the School staff  Refine the way of relating with the team, the families and the students.  Promote a positive relationship based on empathy, respect and cooperation.  Create the right conditions to foster the active participation of both students and their families to school activities.  See oneself as a positive reference model in the school
  53. 53. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 52 For the Children: - Emotional and relational axes  Taking care of oneself  Develop a good relationship with oneself and acknowledge one’s mistakes as an experience to learn from  Acknowledge one’s own actions and their consequences  Promote a positive relationship based on empathy, respect and cooperation  Listen and respect others  Interact through dialogue and debate  Solve conflicts being civil  Recognize one’s own emotions and learn how to manage them  Learn how to transform negative thoughts into constructive ones - Democratic participation axes  Discover the first social rules: family, friendship, play, school  Promote responsible attitudes towards oneself, the other, the school  Encourage constructive debate  Enhance team work by respecting roles  Foster relational dynamics based on mutual respect and on peaceful solutions of conflicts  Acquire behaviours based on legality  Acquire awareness of equal social dignity and equality among all citizens  Learn the rights and duties to become active and responsible citizens within the framework of the principles defined in the Constitution  Learn about the UN, UNICEF, FAO, EU, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Child  Learn about the main forms of political organisations: Municipality, District, State and European Union  Learn to respect the rules of the Highway Code and those pertaining to safety at home, at school and in the workplace For the Families  Increase their participation to school activities  Coherently practice with the school the shared educational model (also through the signing of an educational co-responsibility pact and/or a “peace-code”).
  54. 54. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 53 For the Local community Sign territorial pacts aimed at integrated actions of a “teaching community” 5.2 Methodologies and activities The activities follow a general Road-map that can be summarized as follows: 1. General organisational process of the school included in the curricula 2. Setting of relational dynamics within the educational team and school board (work in progress) 3. Classroom organisation and space management: a. Setting up a “Welcoming Area” in the schools taking part in the project b. Setting up the classroom c. Communication in outside locations d. Communication in out-of-school locations 4. Methodical work on perception/recognition/relation a. Methodical work on Greeting b. Methodical work on Active Listening 5. Structuring activities fostering “Emotional training” 6. Structuring activities fostering the rebuilding of the “Teaching Community” a. Common slogans b. School-family and pro-social activities c. Parent and teacher training 7. Methodical external communication 8. The Peace code a. Shared setting up of activities with families and out-of-school operators b. Respect of shared rules 9. Graduated and shared development with the educational communities on all axes according to the students’ characteristics and those of the community. 10. Assessment of efficiency and efficacy of education with shared indicators 11. Re-planning and modifying interventions
  55. 55. With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union 54 MAIN EDUCATIVE METHODS  Simulation activities  Linguistic-expressive activities and workshops  Use of the circle time as a tool for self-regulation and to develop the power of thought  Debates in order to analyse and compare experiences (narration and argumentation) according to the following four steps: o Narrate one’s own experiences o Sharing them o Connecting their meaning o Extracting rules from the debate with others  Building civil common living at school through a shared set of rules  Gathering specific information and documentation (reports, drawings, posters, books etc.) ACTIVITIES  Informative lessons  Meetings with experts and representatives from the local authorities  Team work and simulations  Direct experiences  Guided tours  Personal accounts  Free discussions and debates of daily experiences  Conferences and debates  External cooperation: the Police, Local Authorities, Civil Protection, territorial associations…  Preparation and signing of the peace code  Preparation and signing of territorial pacts for integrated actions by the “teaching community” LOCATIONS The first tool to structure the activities is the setting of the classroom and of outside locations.

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