Folio Biosciences Alzheimer’s Tissue and Biofluids CapabilitiesAbout:Alzheimer’s Disease tissue and biofluids are invaluable research material tounderstand the underlying physiology of the disease, discover biomarkers,and test drugs that may potentially retard plaque development, preventplaque formation, and treat the progressive degenerative destruction of thebrain.Folio Biosciences offers quality tissue and biofluids from clinically andpathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s Diseased donors and Mild CognitivelyImpaired (MCI) donors. Folio certifies the Alzheimer’s pathology andensures that the tissue is suitable for gene and protein expression studies. Thediagnosis and classification of Alzheimer’s disease is based on clinicalfindings and neuropathology. We use histochemical, immunocytochemical,and in situ hybridization techniques to ascertain the pathology and RNAintegrity of the Alzheimer’s brain tissue. The brain is diagnosed and qualifiedby a board-certified neuropathologist.
Alzheimer’s Brain Procurement:Folio’s extensive partner network allows us to collect Alzheimer’s brains andnormal brains that are matched for age and gender from legallyconsented donors. Brains are validated for Alzheimer’s pathology by Folio’sneuroanatomists and neuropathologists. Each case is linked with extensiveclinical and pathologic information. All brains can be micro-dissectedwith regions of the hippocampus laser capture micro-dissected to yourspecifications. Alzheimer’s Bio-fluid Procurement:Again, Folio’s extensive partner network is leveraged to provide matchedcerebral spinal fluid, plasma, serum, and whole blood from clinicallydiagnosed Alzheimer’s and Mildly Cognitively Impaired patients, as well asCognitively normal patients. Patients are rigorously screened by board-certified neurologists with extensive clinical and medical history available.Biofluids are procured on an on-going basis to serve all your longitudinalstudy needs.
Available Data:Brain Clinical: Age, Sex, Race, Comprehensive Medical History, Surgical History,Medications at time of death, Environmental and Occupational Exposures, FamilyHistory, OB GYN History, and Cause of death. Additionally, MMSE and TICS are scoredseveral months prior to death and is available for most donors.Brain Pathology: NIA/Reagan Institute Score, CERAD score, ADRDA/Khachaturianscore, Braak score, Quantification of Neuritic and Diffuse Plaques, Brain Weight, andAutolysis.Biofluids Clinical: Age, Sex, Race, Years of Education completed, Marital Status,Comprehensive Medical History, Surgical History, Medications at time of collection,Environmental and Occupational Exposures, Family History, OB GYN History. MMSE,CDR, and ADL assessments are performed every six months by a board certifiedneurologist.Control Specimens: Control subjects self-reported no history of neurological disease;the great majority had Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) data indicating no cognitiveimpairment; a subset of these subjects have had a full neurological work-up.Imaging: PET and MRI imaging scans are available from Alzheimer’s and MildlyCognitively Impaired bio fluid donors.
Longitudinal Studies:Created and priced on a case by case basis, Folio recruits, clinicallycharacterizes and longitudinally follows individuals with Alzheimer disease, MildCognitive Impairment (MCI ), other dementias and healthy controls. Studiescan be designed as prospective procurement following a subject for a shortmonthly period of time or yearly all the way to autopsy.In addition, Folio has access to a longitudinal relational research database thatcurrently holds data for over 4,000 research subjects with an average of 5evaluations each. 1,503 research subjects have 4 or more evaluations and themaximum number of evaluations per subject is 37.
Sample Longitudinal Study Data Collected 24 cases of AD to include:Gender CSF - IGG LevelsAPOE Status Serum IGG Baseline 3 months 12 MonthsBlood Pressure Intracranial VolumeBMI VentricularVolume 2mls CSF, 2 mls of 2mls CSF, 2 mls of 2mls CSF, 2 mls ofMMSE Hippocampal Volume serum and/or serum and/or serum and/or Temporal Lobe Volume plasma, plasma, plasma,CDR neuropsychological neuropsychological, neuropsychological,CSF Albumin Total Brain Volume , blood chemistry blood chemistry blood chemistry White Matter Hypersensitivies data imaging data, data , imaging data and imagingBLOOD Albumin genetic data data, genetic data data, genetic data Hachinski Ischemia Scores
Folio’s Neuroscience Capabilities: Brain TissueTissue Preparations:•Fresh quick-frozen tissue blocks or coronal sections (nitrogen vapor or dry ice frozen)•Passive frozen hemispheres (Dissection of specific anatomic regions)•Formalin-fixed hemispheres (specific anatomic regions) Fixed Tissue ProtocolFlash Freezing Protocol right mid frontal gyruMidfrontal gyrus left mid frontal gyrusInferior parietal lobule frontal lobe white matter (1cm anterior to lat vent)Posterior superior temporal gyrus right inferior parietal lobulePrimary visual cortex left inferior parietal lobuleHippocampus (rostral to caudal) right superior and middle temporal gyrusAmygdala left superior and middle temporal gyrusPutamen (1 precommissural, 1 at anterior anterior cingulate gyruscommissure, 1 postcommissural) right primary visual cortexGlobus pallidus (1 precommissural, 1 at left primary visual cortexanterior commissure, 1 postcommissural) hippocampus at level of uncusCaudate (1 precommissural, 1 at anterior hippocampus at the level of the lateral geniculatecommissure, 1 postcommissural) amygdala rightMidbrain (rostral to caudal) striatum at the level of the anterior commissurePons (rostral to caudal with first including left striatum at the level of the anterior commissurethe locus ceruleus) right thalamusMedulla (rostral to caudal) left thalamusCerebellar cortex midbrain with substantia nigra pons medulla cerebellar cortex spinal cord/pituitary (as available)
Tissue Preparations:Frozen Tissue: Over 450 autopsy brains including AD, PD, tauopathy, Huntingtonsdisease, Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, other neurodegenerative diseases, andcontrols. The fresh quick-frozen specimens are optimally preserved with minimal iceartifact formation. These specimens are suitable for the widest variety of applications,including receptor binding, immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, virus detection,polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, mRNA isolation, and certainneurochemical assays. Micro-dissections can be performed before freezing or afterfreezing by laser capture micro-dissection by qualified neuro-anatomists.Brain Biopsies: ~30 frozen specimens and ~50 paraffin blocks including AD, PD collectedduring pallidotomy surgery, tauopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and other diagnosesFormalin Fixed Tissue: Over 400 cases of AD, PD, tauopathy, Huntingtons disease,Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and Paraffin Blocks from other neurodegenerativediseases, and controlsParaformaldehyde-fixed Tissue: Paraffin Blocks of AD, PD and other neurodegenerativediseases, and controlsCryopreserved Tissue: Over 2,000 cases of AD and thousands of PD, tauopathy,Huntingtons disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and other neurological andpsychiatric conditions