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Oxford University
Scientific Society
May 14, 2014
Crowdfunding Fusion—
Focus Fusion
as the Short Route to Fusion Power
Eric J. Lerner
Chief Scientist, LPPFusion, Inc.
Overview
What would happen?
Why Crowdfund it?
How can it be so small and cheap?
How does it work?
Where are we in getting ...
What Would Happen
If We had Cheap Clean Energy?
What if we could develop in the
next five years a 5 MW energy
source 10 ti...
LPPFUSION.com
Economic Benefits
17% increase in real income for median
industrialized country resident
44% increase in rea...
LPPFUSION.com
JOBS, Services and Infrastructure
$5 TRILLION per year not spent
on energy
100-150 million new jobs
globally
LPPFUSION.com
Environmental Benefits
• End 7 million deaths per year from
pollution by coal, diesel, gasoline
• End oil sp...
LPPFUSION.com
Benefits for Peace
No more war to prop up the price of oil
Fission energy is obsolete—
lock up the uranium m...
LPPFUSION.com
Distributed Power
• 5 MW generators, safe enough to
put in neighborhoods
• far more reliability in disasters...
Would You Chip In?
What if this new ideal energy
source could be demonstrated to
be scientifically feasible for only
$1 mi...
LPPFUSION.com
CROWD-funding for Fusion
Launched on Indiegogo May 6
By June 15: Goal $200,000 for vital parts
Need $1 milli...
LPPFUSION.com
Why Crowd-funding For Fusion?
International fusion effort
concentrated on single device, ITER
Over 50 scient...
LPPFUSION.com
ITER TOKAMAK
LPPFUSION.com
Dense Plasma Focus :
small inexpensive device
LPPFUSION.com
Dense Plasma Focus :
small
inexpensive
device
LPPFUSION.com
FOCUS FUSION – 1, Experimental DEVICE
LPPFUSION.com
Focus-Fusion-1 Experimental Device
12-CAPACITOR BANK
Stored energy 100kJ
(vs 10 GJ for JET)
Capacitor potent...
LPPFUSION.com
Spiral GalaxyQuasars
Beam From Star
Formation
REPRODUCING NATURAL INSTABILITIES
Solar Flares
LPPFUSION.com
Key plasma parameters-- such as
velocity--are scale-invariant
In Lab: 10 cm , msec
Solar flare: 10,000 km, 1...
LPPFUSION.com
Force-Free Vortex Filaments
LPPFUSION.com
How A DPF Device Works
LPPFUSION.com
PLASMOID
8ns after pinch
LPPFUSION.com
WHAT IS ANEUTRONIC FUSION?
It’s a fusion using aneutronic fuel, ideally made of
hydrogen and boron, pB11, wh...
LPPFUSION.com
ENERGY CAPTURE DEVICE
X-rays, Ion Beams
LPPFUSION.com
SAFE
• NO neutrons from main reaction
• NO high energy neutrons
• NO radioactive waste—electrodes contain
le...
How Do we Reduce X-ray Cooling?
X-ray emission increases as z2
Boron 25 x as emissive as hydrogen
How do we avoid this?
LPPFUSION.com
Reducing X-ray Cooling
Quantum Magnetic Field Effect
LPPFUSION.com
Quantum Magnetic
Field Effect
QMEF reduces Te by
>20x
Cuts X-ray by >4x
Allows ignition of pB11
BUT only wit...
LPPFUSION.com
WHERE ARE WE?
Ion temperature— goal achieved —over
1.8 billion degrees, enough to ignite pB11
Confinement ti...
Ion energy of 160 keV
LPPFUSION.com
Generated Interest
How Does it Get so Hot?
Main Mechanism is Viscous
Heating—Haines, others
Ordered Motion Into
Random Motion
Higher Densitie...
Fusion Comparison
Fusion Yield/Energy Input
Energy output per 1,000 J input
DT: DD:
JET 2.2 J 0.01 J
Sarov DPF 0.2 J 0.000...
Why Does DPF
Fusion Yield Plateau?
LPPHYSICS.COM
y = 1E-08x6.7542
1.00E+06
1.00E+07
1.00E+08
1.00E+09
1.00E+10
1.00E+11
1....
Impurities from Electrode Vaporization
LPPFUSION.com
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
Impurity/Dmassratio
Charging voltage (kV)
LPPFUSION.com
Plasma 1/3 metal by mass, mostly Ag,
1% by number
Uneven impurity distribution causes
asymmetric sheath, poo...
LPPFUSION.com
What We Should See
LPPFUSION.com
What We Actually See
LPPFUSION.com
Why More Effect with
Higher Current?
1) Arcing above 2 MA/cm2
2) Magnetization of filaments easier
to disrup...
LPPFUSION.com
Monolithic Tungsten Anode
LPPFUSION.com
Monolithic Cathode
LPPFUSION.com
Steps To Increase Density
50x-- Achieve theoretical density—tungsten
electrodes to eliminate impurity
10x-- ...
Getting the B Field
• FF-1Now– 0.06 GG
With filaments—0.6 GG
Full current—1.3 GG
With pB11—10 GG
LPPFUSION.com
Needed:
Beryllium electrodes
Tungsten is fine for impurity, but
absorbs too many x-rays
Beryllium far more t...
LPPFUSION.com
Biggest Engineering Challenges
Heat Removal—Electrode Erosion
• Sputtering may limit electrode lifetime
but ...
LPPFUSION.com
Why Has it Taken So Long?
Massive Underfunding:
Tungsten too expensive
Too few large experiments
Under staff...
LPPFUSION.com
Let Focus Fusion
emPOWERtheWORLD
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Oxford University Scientific Society - May 14, 2014

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This presentation was given by LPPFusion's Chief Scientist, Eric J. Lerner, on May 14, 2014 at Oxford University. It was presented to the Scientific Society.

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Oxford University Scientific Society - May 14, 2014

  1. 1. Oxford University Scientific Society May 14, 2014
  2. 2. Crowdfunding Fusion— Focus Fusion as the Short Route to Fusion Power Eric J. Lerner Chief Scientist, LPPFusion, Inc.
  3. 3. Overview What would happen? Why Crowdfund it? How can it be so small and cheap? How does it work? Where are we in getting to fusion power? What do we need to do to get there?
  4. 4. What Would Happen If We had Cheap Clean Energy? What if we could develop in the next five years a 5 MW energy source 10 times cheaper than any now available that was safe and non-polluting?
  5. 5. LPPFUSION.com Economic Benefits 17% increase in real income for median industrialized country resident 44% increase in real income for median person in the world
  6. 6. LPPFUSION.com JOBS, Services and Infrastructure $5 TRILLION per year not spent on energy 100-150 million new jobs globally
  7. 7. LPPFUSION.com Environmental Benefits • End 7 million deaths per year from pollution by coal, diesel, gasoline • End oil spills, mining devastation • Total recycling with plasma torch • Money released to end deforestation, environmental clean-up • No greenhouse gases • No radioactive waste
  8. 8. LPPFUSION.com Benefits for Peace No more war to prop up the price of oil Fission energy is obsolete— lock up the uranium mines
  9. 9. LPPFUSION.com Distributed Power • 5 MW generators, safe enough to put in neighborhoods • far more reliability in disasters, • rapid deployment to towns and villages throughout the world
  10. 10. Would You Chip In? What if this new ideal energy source could be demonstrated to be scientifically feasible for only $1 million and a prototype generator developed for only about $50 million?
  11. 11. LPPFUSION.com CROWD-funding for Fusion Launched on Indiegogo May 6 By June 15: Goal $200,000 for vital parts Need $1 million, 12-18 months to scientific feasibility
  12. 12. LPPFUSION.com Why Crowd-funding For Fusion? International fusion effort concentrated on single device, ITER Over 50 scientists have signed an open letter urging broader approach Only brave investors for fusion research—not enough Benefits all, so crowdfunding asks all to contribute
  13. 13. LPPFUSION.com ITER TOKAMAK
  14. 14. LPPFUSION.com Dense Plasma Focus : small inexpensive device
  15. 15. LPPFUSION.com Dense Plasma Focus : small inexpensive device
  16. 16. LPPFUSION.com FOCUS FUSION – 1, Experimental DEVICE
  17. 17. LPPFUSION.com Focus-Fusion-1 Experimental Device 12-CAPACITOR BANK Stored energy 100kJ (vs 10 GJ for JET) Capacitor potential 45 kV Capacitance 75 mF Peak current 1.4-2.8 MA Electrodes: 5 cm cathode, 2.8 cm anode
  18. 18. LPPFUSION.com Spiral GalaxyQuasars Beam From Star Formation REPRODUCING NATURAL INSTABILITIES Solar Flares
  19. 19. LPPFUSION.com Key plasma parameters-- such as velocity--are scale-invariant In Lab: 10 cm , msec Solar flare: 10,000 km, 100 sec Galaxy: 30 kpc, 15 My Super-cluster: 100 Mpc, 100Gy The Cosmic Connection
  20. 20. LPPFUSION.com Force-Free Vortex Filaments
  21. 21. LPPFUSION.com How A DPF Device Works
  22. 22. LPPFUSION.com PLASMOID 8ns after pinch
  23. 23. LPPFUSION.com WHAT IS ANEUTRONIC FUSION? It’s a fusion using aneutronic fuel, ideally made of hydrogen and boron, pB11, which produces no neutrons and thus no radioactive waste. Aneutronic → No neutrons → No Radioactive waste
  24. 24. LPPFUSION.com ENERGY CAPTURE DEVICE X-rays, Ion Beams
  25. 25. LPPFUSION.com SAFE • NO neutrons from main reaction • NO high energy neutrons • NO radioactive waste—electrodes contain less radioactivity than a roomful of people. • Generator safe to service without protection 9 hours after turn-off
  26. 26. How Do we Reduce X-ray Cooling? X-ray emission increases as z2 Boron 25 x as emissive as hydrogen How do we avoid this?
  27. 27. LPPFUSION.com Reducing X-ray Cooling Quantum Magnetic Field Effect
  28. 28. LPPFUSION.com Quantum Magnetic Field Effect QMEF reduces Te by >20x Cuts X-ray by >4x Allows ignition of pB11 BUT only with B>~3 GG
  29. 29. LPPFUSION.com WHERE ARE WE? Ion temperature— goal achieved —over 1.8 billion degrees, enough to ignite pB11 Confinement time— goal achieved 20 ns—more than 8 ns goal Energy transfer to plasmoid— over 50% of goal Density—must increase by 10,000
  30. 30. Ion energy of 160 keV LPPFUSION.com
  31. 31. Generated Interest
  32. 32. How Does it Get so Hot? Main Mechanism is Viscous Heating—Haines, others Ordered Motion Into Random Motion Higher Densities, Electron Beam Wave Heating
  33. 33. Fusion Comparison Fusion Yield/Energy Input Energy output per 1,000 J input DT: DD: JET 2.2 J 0.01 J Sarov DPF 0.2 J 0.00045 J NIF 0.03 J FF-1 DPF 0.0025 J
  34. 34. Why Does DPF Fusion Yield Plateau? LPPHYSICS.COM y = 1E-08x6.7542 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08 1.00E+09 1.00E+10 1.00E+11 1.00E+12 1.00E+02 1.00E+03 NeutronYield Current I (kA) Buenos Aires(PFI) FF-1 Frascati(1MJ) Limeil NTSC Swierk U of Illinois LPP Stuttgart(HV) Darmstadt Stuttgart(Poseidon)
  35. 35. Impurities from Electrode Vaporization
  36. 36. LPPFUSION.com 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Impurity/Dmassratio Charging voltage (kV)
  37. 37. LPPFUSION.com Plasma 1/3 metal by mass, mostly Ag, 1% by number Uneven impurity distribution causes asymmetric sheath, poor compression Increase in collision rate with zeff 4 prevents magnetization of filaments, disrupts them How Do Impurities Affect Performance?
  38. 38. LPPFUSION.com What We Should See
  39. 39. LPPFUSION.com What We Actually See
  40. 40. LPPFUSION.com Why More Effect with Higher Current? 1) Arcing above 2 MA/cm2 2) Magnetization of filaments easier to disrupt Magnetization depends on B/n. For B2/n constant, B/n declines with increasing B
  41. 41. LPPFUSION.com Monolithic Tungsten Anode
  42. 42. LPPFUSION.com Monolithic Cathode
  43. 43. LPPFUSION.com Steps To Increase Density 50x-- Achieve theoretical density—tungsten electrodes to eliminate impurity 10x-- Increase current to 2.8 MA 20x-- Better compression with heavier pB11
  44. 44. Getting the B Field • FF-1Now– 0.06 GG With filaments—0.6 GG Full current—1.3 GG With pB11—10 GG
  45. 45. LPPFUSION.com Needed: Beryllium electrodes Tungsten is fine for impurity, but absorbs too many x-rays Beryllium far more transparent But costs-- (single unit)--$250,000
  46. 46. LPPFUSION.com Biggest Engineering Challenges Heat Removal—Electrode Erosion • Sputtering may limit electrode lifetime but with re-deposition a few weeks may be OK • Anode will be heated by x-rays - key upper limiting factor in repetition rate • Deposition of boron - key lower limit on repetition rate
  47. 47. LPPFUSION.com Why Has it Taken So Long? Massive Underfunding: Tungsten too expensive Too few large experiments Under staffing slows progress
  48. 48. LPPFUSION.com Let Focus Fusion emPOWERtheWORLD

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