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Flcwgrsis

SOLUTIONS
1

--: n

INDUSTRIAL FLOORING
INSTALLATION.  .. 

The Problems,  Causes and Solutions

www. flowcrete...
|ndus’rria|  flooring is subject to daily
abuse including the use of heavy
plant machinery,  dropped fools and
equipment, ...
While all of these can cause damage
to the floor finish,  there are a host of
other reasons why flooring in industrial
fac...
Here,  Flowcrete India explores the
pitfalls of flooring installation for
industrial environments,  highlights the
causes ...
, 5.
V‘ E
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,  )
It:  i
l §~ (' C
J :  ‘~~ -r 
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2 K,  1‘
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.  L:  V!  c
F...
- Air pockets in pourus
concrete can escape during

_ the curing process.  These
air bubbles can then
become trapped in th...
Excessive air in the
concrete substrate. 

Moisture vapour
escaping from the
concrete slab. 

Changes in temperature
and b...
HOW TO AVOID
OUTGASSING

Check the temperature and humidity conditions of the
substrate as well as the surrounding air. 

...
PROBLEM 2

Poor Intercoat Adhesion

 

‘. 

wwm:  :Il<iwc: r'; iir; ».. .|n
WHAT IS POOR

INTERCOAT ADHESION? 

Poor intercoat adhesion occurs when
one layer of the coating material

does not adhere...
I Ill/ .t. l.é”. ll Cl ir: ::t: :1 rm:  .im: .itrlj; l.mt Al Ir} ;  ‘iL. ll. tll‘l
All I I fl I I W CA N ll E?  if I/  I l...
WHAT CAUSES POOR INTERCOAT ADHESION

AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? 

CAUSE:  Recoating

outside of recoat
window without
the ...
WHAT CAUSES POOR INTERCOAT ADHESION

AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? 

CAUSE:  Surface

moisture caused
by installing
coatings ...
PROBLEM 3

Bond Failure at the Substrate

 

www. flowcrete.  in
WHAT IS BOND FAILURE

AT THE SUBSTRATE? 

Bond failure at the substrate occurs
when the coating or flooring system
delamin...
I T.  ; , I7LE.  N I N I I ? Al l_. l, .  .

Inadequate surface preparation, 
preventing a good mechanical bond

or leavin...
HOW TO AVOID BOND FAILURE
AT THE SUBSTRATE

The foundation of any flooring system is the surface
preparation,  removing al...
PROBLEM 4

Poor Hardness or Tackiness

 

www. flowcrete. i n
WHAT IS POOR
HARDNESS OR TACKINESS? 

After the recommended curing time —
(outlined on the manufacturer's data
sheet),  th...
WHAT CAUSES POOR
HARDNESS OR TACKINESS? 

Poor hardness or tackiness is usually
caused either by improper mixing or
inadeq...
HOW TO AVOID POOR
HARDNESS OR TACKINESS

Ensure that materials are applied
within the temperature range
recommended by the...
PROBLEM 5

Amine Blush or Greasy Film

 

www. flowcrete. i n
WHAT IS AMINE BLUSH
OR GREASY FILM? 

Amine blush is a normal chemical
reaction between amine-curing agents
and carbon dio...
WHAT CAUSES AMINE BLUSH
OR GREASY FILM? 

The main contributing factors are. ..
/  High humidity

/  Presence of excess ca...
HOW TO AVOID AMINE BLUSH

OR GREASY FILM

Check the environmental conditions
and only apply the materials when
the tempera...
PROBLEM 6

~  Blistering

 

www. flowcrete. i n
WHM er

   

*1 U ‘IT?  Re 1

li%

Debonding in the form of blistering
occurs when 0 bump or series of
bumps form in the f...
Moisture in the pores of concrete

can migrate toward the warm dry

air,  causing loss of adhesion and
blistering.  Near-s...
l H «W rm M llltl

lll lifl: rl

I I3
.  _l 

A damp proof membrane (DPM) can
be installed over the concrete substrate
— p...
vi/ Wrmi. f:lr? ‘WC: r': ilf: i fin
WHAT IS
COLOUR SHADING? 

Colour shading occurs when the
cured floor finish appears to contain
different shades or tones, ...
WHAT CAUSES COLOUR SHADING
AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? 

§

$5
‘? .!l. l'iE.  Retouching ‘illlal.  fflffll- If the flooring
...
WHAT CAUSES COLOUR SHADING

AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? 

CAUSE:  Pigments can vary SOLUTION:  Always check
slightly from b...
PROBLEMB
' “  Bubbling

 

www. fIowcrete. i n
WHAT IS

-

Air bubbles may appear throughout
the entire coating or in clusters,  and

can vary in size — from a pinhead t...
I/ HAfI CAI

 

r(—i KL‘, -
JLJ

Air trapped during the
mixing process

Improper casting and
moulding techniques

Excessiv...
recommended
equipment for mixing

  V Use the manufacture’s

and application

V Try to avoid elevated
temperatures

V Cove...
PROBLEM 9

Imperfections and Fish Eyes

 

‘. 

wwm:  :II<iwc: r'; iir; ».. .|n
WHAT ARE IMPERFECTIONS

AND FISH EYES? 

Fish eyes are imperfections in the floor
surface that resemble fish eyes. 

www. ...
WHAT CAUSES
IMPERFECTIONS
AND FISH EYES? 

Contaminants on the
surface of the floor such
as silicone blush,  oils, 
animal...
II IIII II I MI I II I III PE . II! _FE§If.  I
II II  "LII Jr : :r: I

L

I I N l. T3

Remove all petroleum based
contamin...
PROBLEM I0

 Cloudiness

 

www. fIowcrete.  in
WHAT IS

-

Cloudiness refers to the white or
cloudy appearance of an epoxy
coating immediately after installation. 

www....
WHAT CAUSES
CLOUDINESS? 

Cloudiness is caused by exposing the
installed materials to water prior to
complete cure,  eithe...
HOW TO AVOID
CLOUDINESS

Ensure that the installed floor coating
has been allowed to cure for the time
recommended by the ...
PROBLEM II

°  Lumps and Bumps

 

www. fIowcrete. i n
WHAT ARE
LUMPS AND BUMPS? 

Lumps and bumps in the surface of
the floor that are made up of 100%
solid epoxy material. 

w...
I, I/TIMI‘ IIf‘, ,IIIi, II, *“_ « Inadequate mixing of

the coating materials
ml  or by using dirty

equipment during

   ...
V Always use a lint-free
6mm roller. 

V If epoxy component A is
frozen,  make sure that

 

it is completely thawed, 
the...
PROBLEM I2
‘  A Dull Finish

 

www. fIowcrete. i n
WHAT IS A

-

A dull finish occurs when a normally
glossy flooring material has cured
without its usual sheen. 

www. fIow...
V A dull finish after more
than 24 hours can be

- « Humidity above 60%. 

due to condensation
during the cure. 

V Improp...
HOW TO AVOID A Do  om 

coating during periods

DULL FINISH?  of high humidity. 

Ensure that application
is performed acc...
PROBLEM 13

”  Yel lowing

 

www. flowcrefe.  in
WHAT IS

-

Clear or light coloured pigmented
epoxy coatings can become yellow, 
either across the entire surface of the

...
l ii/ imgil mi rig; 
l iriuii Wt M an

Yellowing in lighter coloured epoxies is
coused by over-exposure to ultra violet

(...
‘ Select colours that are

dark or contain a lot of

  yellow (such os green). 

Add an aliphatic (non-
yellowing) seol co...
For more intormcition on
avoiding floor failure in
industrial environments, 
contoct the flooring experts. ..

+91 44 4202...
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Flowcrete India Presents - Industrial Flooring Installation - The Problems, Causes and Solutions!

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Industrial flooring is subject to daily abuse including the use of heavy plant machinery, dropped tools and equipment, foot or fork lift traffic, chemical spillages and much more...

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Flowcrete India Presents - Industrial Flooring Installation - The Problems, Causes and Solutions!

  1. 1. Flcwgrsis SOLUTIONS 1 --: n INDUSTRIAL FLOORING INSTALLATION. .. The Problems, Causes and Solutions www. flowcrete. i n
  2. 2. |ndus’rria| flooring is subject to daily abuse including the use of heavy plant machinery, dropped fools and equipment, foot or fork lift Traffic, chemical spillages and much more. .. www. flowcrefe. i n
  3. 3. While all of these can cause damage to the floor finish, there are a host of other reasons why flooring in industrial facilities can fail. www. flowcrete. i n
  4. 4. Here, Flowcrete India explores the pitfalls of flooring installation for industrial environments, highlights the causes and discusses the methods of prevention. www. flowcrete. in
  5. 5. , 5. V‘ E 2% U , ) It: i l §~ (' C J : ‘~~ -r § : I‘ r U “ U , 2 K, 1‘ l «E3 J’ : 'tj' 5 f” l $'l . L: V! c F [( E1 § : F ~2 I | ’ F ‘,2 xi, : (‘:3 l 4 _ , . U I % ‘ V ‘ J 1 i I . 3. F L ‘l I: . { ‘ f F 1: E ; -l'l. >“] U xéé It > . ‘ : i'4J‘}'t: .‘: _ _ . lltji i r‘ if F 17 ( { ~§ : ,— " u : : , J i it: Q ‘Q’: r ) é ’. $- LI 3 F’ ‘.5: E. l$'l 2 (A I l 2 ’ I; (- ‘, F ‘E’ §- : E3 , l i‘ 2 r ‘F’ ” I psi 2 ‘ V ltj) /1%‘ I »»V£»/ K»/ “V/ ‘y/ y ‘ § (: VAV/ l(‘: y+= ‘i . . f‘ r I?
  6. 6. - Air pockets in pourus concrete can escape during _ the curing process. These air bubbles can then become trapped in the film, creating bubbles in the surface of the floor. These bubbles typically have a pinhole that penetrates directly to the substrate. www. flowcrete. i n
  7. 7. Excessive air in the concrete substrate. Moisture vapour escaping from the concrete slab. Changes in temperature and barometric pressure, causing air to pass through the concrete. lnsufficiently cured, soft concrete. www. flowcrete. i n
  8. 8. HOW TO AVOID OUTGASSING Check the temperature and humidity conditions of the substrate as well as the surrounding air. If the temperature is rising do not apply the coating materials. Instead, wait until the temperature is falling. Try using a water based/ moisture insensitive epoxy primer to seal off trapped air in the concrete, perhaps applying two coats. —-mils www. flowcrete. i n
  9. 9. PROBLEM 2 Poor Intercoat Adhesion ‘. wwm: :Il<iwc: r'; iir; ».. .|n
  10. 10. WHAT IS POOR INTERCOAT ADHESION? Poor intercoat adhesion occurs when one layer of the coating material does not adhere correctly or sufficiently to the previous cured coat. www. fIowcrete. i n
  11. 11. I Ill/ .t. l.é”. ll Cl ir: ::t: :1 rm: .im: .itrlj; l.mt Al Ir} ; ‘iL. ll. tll‘l All I I fl I I W CA N ll E? if I/ I ll I Efl ll’ ‘ :5? % E J: TL Improper I? ll. It'll IL‘; Prior to applying materials, preparation the previous coating must be properly of the previous prepared and free from contaminants, coating. including dust, dirt and water. www. flowcrete. in
  12. 12. WHAT CAUSES POOR INTERCOAT ADHESION AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? CAUSE: Recoating outside of recoat window without the required additional preparation. SOLUTION: Check the manufacturer's product data sheet for the recoat window and ensure that this is not exceeded. If the window has been exceeded, consult the manufacturer's recommended recoat procedure. www. fIowcrete. in
  13. 13. WHAT CAUSES POOR INTERCOAT ADHESION AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? CAUSE: Surface moisture caused by installing coatings less than 50°F above dew point. SOLUTION: Avoid surface moisture by ensuring that the substrate temperature is at least 50°F above dew point, and that the humidity of the substrate and surrounding air is suitable for application. www. fIowcrete. in
  14. 14. PROBLEM 3 Bond Failure at the Substrate www. flowcrete. in
  15. 15. WHAT IS BOND FAILURE AT THE SUBSTRATE? Bond failure at the substrate occurs when the coating or flooring system delaminates at the bond line. www. fIowcrete. in
  16. 16. I T. ; , I7LE. N I N I I ? Al l_. l, . . Inadequate surface preparation, preventing a good mechanical bond or leaving a surface contaminant, which acts as a bond breaker. . ,_ . . v, Av, yAv, », ay. mm: :‘';1(; . 4|‘ «
  17. 17. HOW TO AVOID BOND FAILURE AT THE SUBSTRATE The foundation of any flooring system is the surface preparation, removing all contaminants and creating a surface profile that promotes adhesion. Debonding from the substrate at the termination or at transitions is related to the installation detail. Traffic edges require a keyed termination. www. fl owcrete. i n
  18. 18. PROBLEM 4 Poor Hardness or Tackiness www. flowcrete. i n
  19. 19. WHAT IS POOR HARDNESS OR TACKINESS? After the recommended curing time — (outlined on the manufacturer's data sheet), the material has not developed proper hardness or may appear tacky on the surface. www. fIowcrete. in
  20. 20. WHAT CAUSES POOR HARDNESS OR TACKINESS? Poor hardness or tackiness is usually caused either by improper mixing or inadequate blending of floor coating components. The coating is likely to remain tacky after the recommended cure time and will never be fully cured. www. flowcrete. in
  21. 21. HOW TO AVOID POOR HARDNESS OR TACKINESS Ensure that materials are applied within the temperature range recommended by the manufacturer. Applying coatings outside of this range is likely to result in a soft or tacky flooring finish. www. flowcrete. in
  22. 22. PROBLEM 5 Amine Blush or Greasy Film www. flowcrete. i n
  23. 23. WHAT IS AMINE BLUSH OR GREASY FILM? Amine blush is a normal chemical reaction between amine-curing agents and carbon dioxide that forms a carbonate, appearing as a greasy film. This is especially true at low temperatures and high humidity. www. flowcrete. i n
  24. 24. WHAT CAUSES AMINE BLUSH OR GREASY FILM? The main contributing factors are. .. / High humidity / Presence of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere / Low curing temperatures www. flowcrete. in
  25. 25. HOW TO AVOID AMINE BLUSH OR GREASY FILM Check the environmental conditions and only apply the materials when the temperature is a minimum of 50°F above dew point and rising. Do not use propane heat in closed environments because they emit CO2. www. fl owcrete. i n
  26. 26. PROBLEM 6 ~ Blistering www. flowcrete. i n
  27. 27. WHM er *1 U ‘IT? Re 1 li% Debonding in the form of blistering occurs when 0 bump or series of bumps form in the flooring material. r" , .| , A “Am, Hr mm: :‘—'; u;. "lg
  28. 28. Moisture in the pores of concrete can migrate toward the warm dry air, causing loss of adhesion and blistering. Near-surtace alkali reaction (NASAR) gel has also been reported as the cause of debonding and blistering of epoxy coatings. www. fl owcrete. in
  29. 29. l H «W rm M llltl lll lifl: rl I I3 . _l A damp proof membrane (DPM) can be installed over the concrete substrate — prior to the installation of the final tloor coating — to prevent moisture vapour transmission causing blistering. www. flowcrete. i n
  30. 30. vi/ Wrmi. f:lr? ‘WC: r': ilf: i fin
  31. 31. WHAT IS COLOUR SHADING? Colour shading occurs when the cured floor finish appears to contain different shades or tones, sometimes dark or light streaks. www. flowcrete. i n
  32. 32. WHAT CAUSES COLOUR SHADING AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? § $5 ‘? .!l. l'iE. Retouching ‘illlal. fflffll- If the flooring pigmented epoxies after material needs to be rolled 15 minutes or longer can or re-touched for any cause colour floating, reason, it should be done potentially resulting in within 10 minutes of the different shades in the floor. initial application. www. flowcrete. i n
  33. 33. WHAT CAUSES COLOUR SHADING AND HOW CAN IT BE AVOIDED? CAUSE: Pigments can vary SOLUTION: Always check slightly from batch to batch, to ensure matching batch so using different batches numbers on the pigmented on the same project may side of the product prior to result in colour variation. adding the activator. www. fIowcrete. in
  34. 34. PROBLEMB ' “ Bubbling www. fIowcrete. i n
  35. 35. WHAT IS - Air bubbles may appear throughout the entire coating or in clusters, and can vary in size — from a pinhead to much larger. www. fIowcrete. in
  36. 36. I/ HAfI CAI r(—i KL‘, - JLJ Air trapped during the mixing process Improper casting and moulding techniques Excessive heat during the curing process Direct sunlight during the curing process www. fIowcrete. i n
  37. 37. recommended equipment for mixing V Use the manufacture’s and application V Try to avoid elevated temperatures V Cover windows and doors to prevent direct sunlight exposure during the curing process www. flowcrete. i n
  38. 38. PROBLEM 9 Imperfections and Fish Eyes ‘. wwm: :II<iwc: r'; iir; ».. .|n
  39. 39. WHAT ARE IMPERFECTIONS AND FISH EYES? Fish eyes are imperfections in the floor surface that resemble fish eyes. www. fI owcrete. I n
  40. 40. WHAT CAUSES IMPERFECTIONS AND FISH EYES? Contaminants on the surface of the floor such as silicone blush, oils, animal fats or grease. Applying epoxy coating materials over epoxy primer that has not properly cured. The use of mineral sprit either for cleaning the floor or as a thinner. www. fIowcrete. in
  41. 41. II IIII II I MI I II I III PE . II! _FE§If. I II II "LII Jr : :r: I L I I N l. T3 Remove all petroleum based contaminants with an oil & grease emulsifier, followed by a thorough chemical cleaning with caustic soda, acid and detergent. r" 7___ . I 1'’ mAv, yAv, v, ~r‘jI xml _‘ ; ,u; . ‘I, I
  42. 42. PROBLEM I0 Cloudiness www. fIowcrete. in
  43. 43. WHAT IS - Cloudiness refers to the white or cloudy appearance of an epoxy coating immediately after installation. www. fI owcrete. i n
  44. 44. WHAT CAUSES CLOUDINESS? Cloudiness is caused by exposing the installed materials to water prior to complete cure, either due to moisture from the concrete / substrate or environmental conditions, or from placing the coating into wet service prior to complete cure. www. fIowcrete. i n
  45. 45. HOW TO AVOID CLOUDINESS Ensure that the installed floor coating has been allowed to cure for the time recommended by the manufacturer before trafficking the floor or prior to the installation of subsequent coatings (e. g. seal coat). www. fI owcrete. i n
  46. 46. PROBLEM II ° Lumps and Bumps www. fIowcrete. i n
  47. 47. WHAT ARE LUMPS AND BUMPS? Lumps and bumps in the surface of the floor that are made up of 100% solid epoxy material. www. fIowcrete. in
  48. 48. I, I/TIMI‘ IIf‘, ,IIIi, II, *“_ « Inadequate mixing of the coating materials ml or by using dirty equipment during F I. / II mixing or application. V Lint from the roller sleeve used. V Cold conditions causing epoxy component A to freeze. . 5‘ . --»- A V7 m, L xml _‘ _. "_. ‘LI
  49. 49. V Always use a lint-free 6mm roller. V If epoxy component A is frozen, make sure that it is completely thawed, then blended thoroughly before use. www. fIowcrete. i n
  50. 50. PROBLEM I2 ‘ A Dull Finish www. fIowcrete. i n
  51. 51. WHAT IS A - A dull finish occurs when a normally glossy flooring material has cured without its usual sheen. www. fIowcrete. in
  52. 52. V A dull finish after more than 24 hours can be - « Humidity above 60%. due to condensation during the cure. V Improper mixing. V Applying the coating in low temperatures or onto a cold substrate. www. flowcrete. i n
  53. 53. HOW TO AVOID A Do om coating during periods DULL FINISH? of high humidity. Ensure that application is performed according to the air and substrate temperatures recommended by the manufacturer. www. fIowcrete. i n
  54. 54. PROBLEM 13 ” Yel lowing www. flowcrefe. in
  55. 55. WHAT IS - Clear or light coloured pigmented epoxy coatings can become yellow, either across the entire surface of the floor or in patches. www. flowcrete. in
  56. 56. l ii/ imgil mi rig; l iriuii Wt M an Yellowing in lighter coloured epoxies is coused by over-exposure to ultra violet (uv) light. www. flowcrete. i n
  57. 57. ‘ Select colours that are dark or contain a lot of yellow (such os green). Add an aliphatic (non- yellowing) seol coot. www. flowcrete. i n
  58. 58. For more intormcition on avoiding floor failure in industrial environments, contoct the flooring experts. .. +91 44 42029831 indio@t| owcrete. com CALL €, ’ Gs‘ EMAIL YOU ENQUIRY R www. flowcrete. i n

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