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Workshop Facilitation


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Slides to a two day workshop about hosting meetings and large events for communities and organisations. It\'s aimed at participant participation , experience and dialogue orientated.

Workshop Facilitation

  1. 1. The personal appraoch to working with groups Workshop & Meeting Facilitation
  2. 2. Check In <ul><li>A check in is about sharing what you need to share to be fully present. </li></ul><ul><li>Or it can be to answer a question that helps the participants to focus or bring their contributions to the circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Today: What is the most important question you bring to the table and what quality do you bring into this workshop? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Power of participation <ul><li>Collective wisdom, power of diverse angles. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct implementation or follow up is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are supported by those involved in deciding. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas can be tested, new ideas explored </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue and collective thinking empowers, respects and includes (Obama) </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper understanding and wishes can emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Cocreation, feeling owner of the process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Four ways how we grow and learn <ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul><ul><li>Silence </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Informing </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul>Play Practice Experience Participative meetings contain all 4 styles. In all styles powerful questions can unlock new possibilities
  5. 5. Four ways to boost creativity <ul><li>Silence </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Trusting </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>New Paradigms </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction </li></ul>Games Experiment Use of Arts Play In all styles powerful questions can unlock new possibilities Participative meetings contain all 4 styles.
  6. 6. The Four Fold Way <ul><li>Show Up and be Present </li></ul><ul><li>Speak your Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Follow what has Heart </li></ul><ul><li>and Meaning for You </li></ul><ul><li>Let it all Go </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key design principles <ul><li>The Call , Purpose, Capability to be raised, key questions . </li></ul><ul><li>Design , the agenda, the structure and the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing: Divergence and convergence. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tools , location, materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosting & Facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Principles & Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Opening, Check In, starting off </li></ul><ul><li>Divergence : Rounds, workshops, dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Pollination , intensive insight exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence: central presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Closure, Check out : what comes next. </li></ul><ul><li>Your Journey : Personal and collective. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Call what is called for in this context? What would be different in the world if we, as leaders, answered the call? <ul><li>Transform a hot topic into a Call: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your intention (content, mission, or </li></ul><ul><li>direction) for the call. What capacity needs to grow? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the meeting, name key issue, write three </li></ul><ul><li>attracting lines on the why </li></ul><ul><li>Define a purpose that possible participants can </li></ul><ul><li>identify with. Either they share the issue or can </li></ul><ul><li>help out. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Call <ul><li>Inspire them </li></ul><ul><li>Connect them to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Activate them to (come and) participate </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate community of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Think also of Obama’s Respect, Include, Empower </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Identify Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Root Cause Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm Solutions & Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor: Organizations are problems to be solved </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate “What is” (What gives life?) </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine “What Might Be” </li></ul><ul><li>Determine “What Should Be” </li></ul><ul><li>Create “What Will Be” </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor: Organizations are a solution/mystery to be embraced. </li></ul>Problem Solving Appreciative Inquiry
  11. 11. The Art of the Question I <ul><li>Blockers </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the biggest problem here? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did I have to be born in such a troubled family? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do they blow it so often? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we still have those problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Movers </li></ul><ul><li>What possibilities exist that we have not thought about yet? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the smallest change that could make the biggest impact? </li></ul><ul><li>What solutions would have us both win? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes my questions inspiring, energizing, and mobilizing? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Powerful questions: • generates curiosity in the listener • stimulates reflective conversation • is thought-provoking • surfaces underlying assumptions • invites creativity and new possibilities • generates energy and forward movement • channels attention and focuses inquiry • stays with participants • touches a deep meaning • evokes more questions by David Isaacs The Art of the Question II
  13. 13. Design: aspects <ul><li>“ People, organisations and communities move in the direction of what </li></ul><ul><li>we most frequently and systematically ask questions about !” </li></ul>IRC model
  14. 14. Process design : The U Otto Scharmer
  15. 15. Discovery “ What gives life?” (The best of what is) Appreciating Dream “ What might be?” (What is the world calling for) Envisioning Results Design “ What should be--the ideal?” Co-constructing Destiny “ How to empower, learn, and adjust/improvise?” Sustaining Appreciative Inquiry “ 4-D” Cycle Affirmative Topic Choice
  16. 16. Designing Spaces & Corners Create spaces that enhance the process you want. Be creative! Stimulate with names and design.
  17. 17. Design II: processes <ul><li>Define what process meets your purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>One question or shared direction: World café .. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people, issues and topics with central theme: Open Space ... </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making: Council, Circle ... </li></ul><ul><li>Get groups going: Appreciative Inquiry .. </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups; dialogue, counselling .. </li></ul><ul><li>Design your own </li></ul>
  18. 18. Key Instruments <ul><li>Meetings spaces, central and decentralised </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to present conversations and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Shared principles and practices to support process </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitable stimulating environment </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse ways to reflect, exchange and focus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall posters, pictures/banners to help focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papers for news, reflections, questions and practical& personal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools to draw, talk, play, think, reflect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking spaces, hang outs, silent spots, lounge, fire, dream </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Hosting & facilitation <ul><li>Organizing the space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering around intent, get clarity of purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting the infrastructure and environment right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embodying the principles you’d love to see alive at the meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offering clarity and purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating the space, setting the principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting common understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce powerful questions to give direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the will to empower the whole and every voice within </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holding the space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being present and of service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being relaxed with what happens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing, under current listening, nudging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframing obstacles, converging discoveries </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What Participants Need <ul><li>commitment for openness and sharing among the involved people and organisations </li></ul><ul><li>willingness to think ‘out of the box’ and to change </li></ul><ul><li>See benefits for partners / stake holders </li></ul><ul><li>competence, neutrality, independency and credibility of the facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>legitimacy and respect for the facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual respect for cultural and functional differences and willingness and space to equalize them all during the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to co-create and take responsibility and listen to the weak signals and what wants to emerge. </li></ul><ul><li>*the non Italic are from IRC sheets </li></ul>
  21. 21. Other training program factors: <ul><li>Terms of reference for the training and the trainer </li></ul><ul><li>Budget, time, deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the group </li></ul><ul><li>Room (size, setting, windows, curtains, atmosphere, light, location) </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment (flip chart, beamer, video, music, pin boards, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials (pencils, markers, paper, sheets etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks / refreshments </li></ul><ul><li>From IRC sheets </li></ul>
  22. 22. Presenting involves: <ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Soul </li></ul><ul><li>Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Letting go </li></ul>Content determines less than 10% of the Message you send.
  23. 23. Communication “ You can control your action, but can’t control the outcome.” <ul><li>Levels of what’s going on when you present: </li></ul><ul><li>How you relate to them </li></ul><ul><li>How they relate to you </li></ul><ul><li>Your intention and attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Their intentions and attitude(s) </li></ul><ul><li>What you understand </li></ul><ul><li>What you tell them </li></ul><ul><li>What they understand </li></ul><ul><li>What it does with them </li></ul><ul><li>How they react to it </li></ul>
  24. 24. Version A: In our evaluation of a project in Bangladesh we noted a wide variance in the competence of individual villages to develop sustainable and effective solutions to problems encountered, for example developing low cost products. The lessons to be learned are that we should: • work against over-dependence on donors; • note and encourage entrepreneurial approaches to problems; • identify existing and repeatable good practices; • build and strengthen communication between villages to assist cross-fertilisation of ideas at the grassroots level. Version B: I was in a village last year working in water and sanitation. We were trying to promote the use of improved latrines, but could not produce concrete slabs and rings locally for a low cost. Somebody told me to visit the latrines of a lady in the village, so I went along and said, “Can I see your latrines?” She had made a latrine out of a clay pot with the bottom cut off. Then with a potter from the area she developed a small local production of bottomless pots, and they became the latrines. Ingenious. A few weeks later I was in another village and saw a hand pump; it was broken, just a small piece missing. So I said to the villagers, “Why don’t you repair your pump?” And they said, “Oh, we just wait for another donor to bring a new pump.” So I said, “Why don’t you visit the lady in the village over there? She finds ways of getting things done for herself.” The Power of Storytelling By the SDC
  25. 25. Phases in Group Processes what you can expect in group process <ul><li>Pseudo: hesitating to engage and/or forming </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos: conflict, resistance & storming </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue: cohesion, norming and attraction </li></ul><ul><li>The jump: letting go of expectation, accepting what is </li></ul><ul><li>Community: free connection & responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: identifying tasks & performing </li></ul><ul><li>Finishing: adjourning, dissolving of community </li></ul>
  26. 26. Rationality Think Strategy Power Logic Head Sensitivity Feel Dreams Intuition Beauty Body
  27. 27. Beginning Meetings <ul><li>Entry of participants : tuning in </li></ul><ul><li>Inviting into the space , where to speak from. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome : setting the mood </li></ul><ul><li>Practical stuff : lunch, spaces, time table, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreements : principles, rules, practices </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering Attention : Are we here? Who’s Us? </li></ul><ul><li>Focussing Energy : What’s at stake? Intention </li></ul><ul><li>Honour & Respect : Dealing with Status and Custom </li></ul>
  28. 28. Why principles? <ul><li>Principles helps to align attitudes towards the general purpose of the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>A principle can be asked after, can be checked upon, but not enforced. </li></ul><ul><li>Each member has to feel their contribution can effect on the outcomes of the meeting. Principles create common understanding and shared purpose to create space for this . </li></ul>
  29. 29. (some) Key dialogue principles <ul><li>Leadership rotates among all circle members*. </li></ul><ul><li>People place ultimate reliance on inspiration ( or spirit), rather than on any personal agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring all of you and your previous learning and aquaired knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are equal and speak with respect, give trust </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are present hold the answers </li></ul><ul><li>*Responsibility is shared for quality and diversity of input. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Key Dialogue practices : <ul><li>Speak with intention, listen with attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak tot the middle, listen to the middle. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer wat you can, ask for what you need. </li></ul><ul><li>Postpone judgement and beware of the impact of your contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>2 roles: facilitator and guardian </li></ul><ul><li>2 tools: talking stick & the bell </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Guardian </li></ul><ul><li>A guardian volunteers to watch and safeguard group energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Aids self-governance. </li></ul><ul><li>Brings everyone back to center, to focus on the issue or topic, to remind people of respectful practice or agreements, or to suggest a needed break.. </li></ul><ul><li>The guardian has the group's permission to intercede in group process for the purpose of calling the circle back to center, </li></ul><ul><li>The guardian usually employs a gentle noise-maker, such as a chime or bell or rattle, that is the signal for everyone to stop action, take a breath, rest in a space of silence. Then the guardian makes this signal again and speaks to why he/she called the pause. </li></ul><ul><li>The guardian may suggest use of the talking piece, if the conversation has become hurried, jumbled or unproductive. </li></ul><ul><li>The guardian may call for time out or a break as needed, watch timeliness, and help people see conflict arising and face it creatively. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be noted that anyone can call for a time-out, or ask for the talking piece - but the guardian should be especially looking for these opportunities. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ground Rules for brainstorming <ul><li>All ideas are valid </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is captured: notes/ flip charts </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Observe time frames </li></ul><ul><li>Seek common ground and action </li></ul><ul><li>Differences and problems are acknowledged – but not worked on </li></ul>
  33. 33. It’s a great conversation if: <ul><li>People move toward the centre of the circle. They lean into the conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Voices become quieter. The entire room grows more quiet. </li></ul><ul><li>People don't want to stop. Time passes very quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>People express surprise over how quickly they moved into deep conversation, even among strangers, and how satisfying that felt </li></ul><ul><li>People want to do this again. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Rounds <ul><li>Dialogue circles </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting places </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Open Spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Warm Ups </li></ul><ul><li>General assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Forums & markets </li></ul><ul><li>Or several of these at the same time </li></ul>How do you speed up the flow of insight & information exchange? And how does cross pollination help to let the whole grow and see?
  35. 35. Open Space technology I <ul><li>The essential principles </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever comes is the right person. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever happens is the only thing that could have. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever it starts is the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>When it's over, it's over. </li></ul><ul><li>The law of two feet ; feel free to move if you are not learning, contributing or don’t have fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Prepared to Be Surprised . </li></ul><ul><li>Special Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>The Bumble Bee </li></ul><ul><li>The Butterfly </li></ul>Make all these items visible in the main room.
  36. 36. Open Space technology II <ul><li>Introduce the purpose of the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce the principles </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce the matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Invite people to host meetings* </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever hosts a meeting is responsible that it takes place. Make clear how and if outcomes are to be presented. Create this at the end of a meeting. </li></ul>*)You can call a meeting on anything. Rather even something you have questions about than selling expertise. From dialogue on the topic to a real workshop is possible, but expect people to come and leave as they want.
  37. 39. Cross Pollination
  38. 40. It’s: the Inspiration Issue! Tribing Magazine for networkmobilisation Juni 2009 Tools for change Bright new ideas Provoking Questions Selling Don’t think! Look at my legs and hunger for this purse! It makes me a living. Like I care for anything else. My message is: Apathy is sexy.
  39. 41. Corporate Tribing It’s Us or Them What steps will protect our interests? We promise shareholder value. All noses in the same direction. Trust that all moves contribute. Enjoy. Love to play, experiment and cocreate with others Offer value for everyone Don’t talk, dance! Score or get fired!
  40. 42. <ul><li>The secret to positive mobilisation. </li></ul><ul><li>How to make it work in seven great questions </li></ul><ul><li>How to discover the right people? </li></ul><ul><li>How to generate great ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>How to create easy access? </li></ul><ul><li>How to unlock possibility by making fun of it? </li></ul><ul><li>How to host or facilitate rather than lead? </li></ul><ul><li>How are you making a difference? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we help you do that? </li></ul>
  41. 43. 5 tricks to light a spark 5 tricks to light a spark Ask concrete questions Increase impact by letting go Keep it simple Stay compassionate Don’t take it too serious
  42. 45. Convergence: recording outcomes <ul><li>Use a graphic recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Take a gallery tour </li></ul><ul><li>Have artistic presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Post your insights </li></ul><ul><li>Market of next steps </li></ul><ul><li>Create idea clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Make a story </li></ul><ul><li>Invent your own </li></ul>
  43. 46. Possible Outcomes <ul><li>New energy and new actions  </li></ul><ul><li>The native American Tribe story: people decide for themselves what to do with it.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ I will always love you, great meeting, goodbye, now focus on the next direct pressing matters.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Back to ‘realism’  </li></ul><ul><li>The more alive the community the more after effect. The more clear and inviting next steps, the more practical differences you can make, the more visible you can add to the next steps, the stronger any chance of follow up. </li></ul>
  44. 47. Closure <ul><li>Content: What is your main insight about facilitation that you want to put to use or share as soon as possible? </li></ul><ul><li>Report as if we are the editing team of a international facilitation glossy; </li></ul><ul><li>Write down main article titles for the next issue and add some bullets or “quotes” to go with it. </li></ul>The Facilitators Issue Very Old Ideas for a Very New World The Circle Magazine for hosting & facilitation <ul><li>Cooking up the future in this issue: </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the party going </li></ul><ul><li>Undercurrent listening </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting the right people </li></ul><ul><li>The end of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>When shift starts to happen </li></ul><ul><li>Building blocks for a colourful world </li></ul>
  45. 48. Convergence & Feedback <ul><li>For Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Personal evaluation: write down your main learning points, (slow) questions, personal insights. </li></ul><ul><li>For the Others </li></ul><ul><li>What did you see others bring to the circle that you liked? What qualities do you feel they have? </li></ul><ul><li>What question could help them take new steps or what tip would make them great facilitators? </li></ul>
  46. 49. Check Out <ul><li>A check in is about sharing what you need to share to let go or a final gift to the circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Or it can be to answer a question that helps the participants to focus forward or bring their individual learning & insights to the circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Today: What do you take onward to tomorrow and what do you intent to bring home? </li></ul>
  47. 50. Links to (Open) Sources I used. The little hand is added on each page that is fully my work CC Floris Koot 2009 <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Floris Koot, the Netherlands, +31-641317056, [email_address]