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• They have a lack of self-confidence.              not, however, have the authority to enter your                        ...
COERCIVE POWER. —Coercive power                      said. . ." Phrase and present the order in aresults from the expectat...
Leadership is often talked about and discussed        leaders plan well, establish an effective organiza-without thoroughl...
You can adapt the six different leadership         Democratic leaders usually reward averagestyles (coercer, authoritarian...
The affiliator style of leadership is especially     important. If power is important to you, you maywell adapted to the r...
Helping Resource                                            CapabilityNavy Relief Society                                 ...
or forgotten if the supervisor or subordinate fails     Information to be Obtainedto document them.    At the end of the f...
PERSONAL INTERESTS. –You should ask                 as to kinds of ability, but they all require aquestions to find out th...
— Keep the emphasis on the positive aspects          are evaluating. You should pay careful attentionof the person’s abili...
the commanding officer in the accounting and              year. Things like replacing bunk curtains, mattressreporting of ...
Periodically, you and your division officer           if they are to be achieved. The importanceshould discuss the divisio...
that are not of the recurring type would fall into            Ashore, standardizing supply procedures isthis category.    ...
project, the product will only be as good as the        assistant must be trained in and knowledgeableinput from you and y...
When this occurs the leading chief is referred to                 Reviewing maintenance requirement cardsas the group supe...
• flexible on-line management responsive and         Provide supervisors with a                                    tool fo...
sympathetic listener, their tensions begin to            and it is easy to do. But is it effective? Doessubside. They beco...
PERSONAL COUNSELING                                      officer, and medical officer. The effective CPO                  ...
Any changes that are made to the evaluation by              Another thing to consider, which is almost asthe chain of comm...
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)
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Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)


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Chiefs-in-Training (CiT) Leadership Tools (NAVEDTRA 14144)

  1. 1. • They have a lack of self-confidence. not, however, have the authority to enter your work center or division and make changes that •tional responsibility. the pressure of addi- They want to avoid only you and your superiors have the authority to make. NAVEDTRA 12144 FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY. —Certain staff Counsel any of your subordinates who show organizations are granted functional authority tothese signs of unwillingness. Help them overcome direct line units within the area of the staffstheir fears and learn to accept authority and specialty. Examples of staff organizations withresponsibility. functional authority include the Legal, Equal Opportunity, and Safety Departments.AUTHORITY AND POWER Power With authority comes power. Power is theability to influence people toward organizational In conjunction with your authority, you useobjectives. However, you have limits on your power to influence others toward the accomplish-authority and power. View your authority and ment of command goals. You can use power forpower as a funnel, broad at the top and narrow personal gain or for the good of the the bottom. Always assume you have enough However, if your subordinates believe you useauthority and power to meet your obligations, but power for personal gain, you will soon suffer ando not exceed that limit. erosion of that power. On the other hand, if subordinates believe you use power to accomplishAuthority the organizational goals, your power to influence them will become stronger. Your power will also Authority only exists when subordinates become stronger when you share it throughaccept the idea that the supervisor has authority delegation of authority.over them. Subordinates can fail to recognize Of the six types of power—reward, coercive,authority through disobedience, denial, or work legitimate, informational, referent, and expert—delays. Subordinates usually accept authority you may use one or more in various combinations.readily; however, abusing your authority as a Each situation will determine the one or ones yousupervisor can make you ineffective. use. Although most authority in the Navy resultsfrom a member’s rank or position in the chain REWARD POWER. —Reward power stemsof command, many types of authority exist. Most from your use of positive and negative rewardsauthority in the Navy is delegated. to influence subordinates. Positive rewards range from a smile or kind word to recommendations LINE AUTHORITY. —Line authority is the for awards. Negative rewards range from corrective-authority you have over subordinates in your type counseling to placing a person on report.chain of command. This type of authority You will find one of the best ways to influencecorresponds directly to your place within the chain your subordinates is through the use of yourof command and does not exist outside the chain reward power. As a chief, you are responsible forof command. starting the positive reward process. First, write a recommendation for the award. Once the STAFF AUTHORITY. —Staff authority is recommendation is typed in the command’sthe right of staff to counsel, advise, or make standard award letter format, forward it up therecommendations to line personnel. This type of chain of command for approval. Your job doesauthority does not give staff the right to give line not end here. Always follow-up on the recommen-personnel orders that affect the mission of the line dation, using your influence and persuasion to getorganization. the award to the proper command level. A chief from another work center or division Frequent use of positive rewards will amplifycould, by virtue of his or her rank, exercise staff the effect of a negative reward. Give positiveauthority over a person in your work center or rewards freely, but use restraint in giving negativedivision by counseling or advising him or her to rewards. If you use negative rewards frequently,get a haircut. Failure to follow the advice or subordinates will begin to expect a negativecounsel may result in nonjudicial punishment reward. Their expectation of a negative reward(NJP) for the subordinate. The other chief would will lessen your power. 3-13 Leadership1
  2. 2. COERCIVE POWER. —Coercive power said. . ." Phrase and present the order in aresults from the expectation of a negative reward manner that leaves no doubt you initiated it.if your wishes are not obeyed. For example, Rely on your own resources to stay fully informedsuppose you have counseled a subordinate twice instead of depending on others. Subordinates mayfor minor infractions of regulations. At the third present unreliable information in a manner thatcounseling session, you threaten the subordinate makes it appear to be true. Superiors may becomewith NJP. At the next occurrence of the un- so involved with projects they forget to keep youdesirable behavior, you place the subordinate on informed of tasks being assigned or upcomingreport. inspections. Information is power. Stay informed! Coercive power works, but is not the preferred REFERENT POWER. —Referent powermethod of leading subordinates. It works best if derives from your subordinates’ identification orused when all else fails and you feel sure you can association with you. You have this power bycarry through with a threat. Before giving a simply being "the chief." People identify with thethreat, you should have some insight as to how ideals you stand for.the CO will handle the case. You do not want to The chief has a pre-established image. You canrecommend maximum punishment only to have enhance that image by exhibiting charisma,the CO dismiss the case at mast. courage, and charm. An improved image increases LEGITIMATE POWER. —Legitimate power your referent power. Always be aware of howcomes from the authority of your rate and others will perceive your actions. A negative imageposition in the chain of command. You use this in the eyes of others will lessen your power andpower in day-to-day business. Although legitimate render you ineffective. Maintain a positive image!power increases with added responsibilities, you EXPERT POWER. —Expert power comescan decrease that power if you fail to meet all of from your knowledge in a specific area throughyour responsibilities. which you influence others. You have expert To increase your legitimate power, assume power because your subordinates regard you assome of the division officer’s responsibilities. At an expert in your rating. Subordinates may alsofirst, the division officer will be glad to have the have this type of power. When you combinehelp. In time, the division officer will view the expert power with other types of power, you willresponsibilities as yours and formally delegate find it an effective tool in influencing others.additional authority to you. That would increase However, when you use it by itself, you will findyour legitimate power without diminishing the it ineffective.power of the division officer. Just as you can increase your legitimate power LEADERSHIPby assuming more responsibility, you can decreasethat power by losing responsibility. For example,if you permit the division officer to assume some Good leadership is of primary impor-of your responsibilities, the division officer will tance in that it provides the motivatingeventually begin to view your responsibilities as force which leads to coordinated actionhis or hers. You will then have less legitimate and unity of effort. Personnel leadershippower. However, when a subordinate wishes to must be fused with authority since a leaderassume some of your responsibilities, formally must encourage, inspire, teach, stimulate,delegate those responsibilities to the subordinate. and motivate all individuals of the organi-That makes the subordinate accountable to you. zation to perform their respective assign-You then increase the subordinate’s power while ments well, enthusiastically, and as a team.retaining your power. Leadership must ensure equity for each member of the organization. Concerning INFORMATIONAL POWER. —Informational actions in his or her area of responsibility,power depends on your giving or withholding of the leader should never allow a subordinateinformation or having knowledge that others do to be criticized or penalized except bynot have. Use informational power when giving himself or herself or such other authorityorders to subordinates. Give orders in such a as the law prescribes.manner that your subordinates presume the orderoriginated at your level. When forced to comply —Standard Organization andwith orders you do not agree with, don’t introduce Regulations of the U.S. Navythe order by saying "The division officer 3-14 Leadership2
  3. 3. Leadership is often talked about and discussed leaders plan well, establish an effective organiza-without thoroughly being explained. Exactly, tion, set up an efficient and effective controlwhat is leadership? Are leaders born or can they system, and staff required jobs with the rightbe trained? Management specialists have been people. Finally the leader excels at inspiring andsearching for the correct answers for over 90 motivating subordinates.years. The Navy defines leadership as the ability to Leadership Stylesinfluence others toward achieving the goals andobjectives of the organization. Leadership What’s your style of leadership? Do youinvolves inspiring, motivating, and developing practice one style of leadership all the time, orothers. do you vary your actions according to the Many theories have been developed to explain particular situation or type of people with whomthe leadership process. The theories range from you are working? You might have asked yourself,Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y to How do I maintain respect for my position ofWilliam Ouchi’s Theory Z. The Japanese used authority and at the same time allow my peopleTheory Z to develop the Total Quality Manage- to voice their opinions? How can I take the timement (TQM) leadership style, discussed later in to get their point of view when I’m under pressurethis chapter. to get the job done? These questions are puzzling, Based on Theory X, the leader assumes people and they have no easy answers. A leader mustare basically lazy; will avoid working if possible; walk a tightrope when it comes to solving thesemust be coerced, controlled, directed, or dilemmas of leadership.threatened; wish to avoid responsibility; have no As a leader, you can practice leadership inambition; and want security. People who base many ways. Research on leaders and leadershiptheir leadership style on that theory use threats has identified several leadership styles. Mostto motivate subordinates. people have a preferred range of styles. No one Theory Y proposes that the leader assumes leadership style is right or wrong; the appropriatepeople like to work; will seek additional style depends on the people being led, theresponsibility when the proper work environment situation, and the requirements of the job.exists; will exercise self-direction and self-control; In any situation, a leader must perform sixand have a high level of imagination, ingenuity, tasks that in some way involve or affect subor-and creativity. People who pattern their leadership dinates. A good leader takes the following actions:style after this theory help subordinates performwork assignments. According to Theory Z, people who don’t fit •solve problems Listens to subordinates to diagnose oreither Theory X or Theory Y are really acombination of the two. People who develop aleadership style based on Theory Z use different •range goals and develops short- and long- Sets action plansstyles of leadership with different people,depending on the situation. •tasks todirections about who is to do which Gives what standardsRelation to Management Civilian management sees leadership as just • Provides feedback on task performanceone of its five functions. It expects its managersto plan, organize, control, staff, and then apply •and personal disciplines task performance Rewards or characteristicsleadership to motivate employees. The Navy seesleadership as all-encompassing. The Navy leader • Develops subordinatesfirst and foremost motivates subordinates. TheNavy then applies the management functions of The way these six tasks are handled at any oneplanning, organizing, controlling, and staffing as time varies with the nature of the jobs. A differentneeded to meet organizational goals. leadership style should be used for routine tasks Although the views of the civilians and the than for innovative tasks or for situations thatNavy seem to be different, both have one element require crisis management. Similarly, tasks ofin common. Effective leadership involves planning, short duration often warrant a different style fromorganizing, controlling, and staffing. Good those that extend over long periods. 3-15 Leadership3
  4. 4. You can adapt the six different leadership Democratic leaders usually reward averagestyles (coercer, authoritarian, affiliator, demo- performance and rarely give negative feedback orcratic, pacesetter, and coach) to meet the punishment.requirements of different situations. PACESETTER. —Pacesetter leaders would COERCER. —In this style of leadership, rather do the job themselves. They set highsubordinates are expected to do the job the way standards, and they lead by example. They arethe leader tells them to do it. Coercer leaders loners. They expect self-direction of themselvesprovide clear directions by telling subordinates and others. Pacesetter leaders have troublewhat to do and how to do it. They don’t listen delegating because they believe they can do theto the subordinates nor permit much subordinate job much better than their subordinates. Theyinput. They expect immediate compliance and become coercive when their subordinates haveobedience to orders, and they control the jobs very difficulty or when things go wrong. Pacesettertightly. This style of leadership requires many leaders don’t develop subordinates because theydetailed reports on the job, including progress and are continually taking away the subordinates’problems with the job. Coercer leaders give more responsibility and exerting their own authority.negative and personalized feedback than positivefeedback and frequently resort to name calling to COACH. —In the coach style of leadership,accomplish the job. They motivate their subor- leaders are concerned with the development ofdinates by threats of discipline or punishment. their subordinates. They are concerned with high standards but have trouble communicating these AUTHORITARIAN. —Authoritarian leaders high standards to subordinates. Coach leaders seeare firm but fair. They tactfully provide clear their job as developing and improving thedirection but leave no doubt about what is performance of their subordinates. They directexpected or who makes the final decisions. They by having subordinates set their own goals. Theysolicit some input from subordinates on how to get their workers to develop plans and identifydo the job and ways to make the job easier. solutions instead of giving them clear, conciseAuthoritarian leaders see their influence as a key instructions on what to do and how to do it.part of their job. They persuade subordinates todo the job by explaining the “whys” behind Advantages and Disadvantagesdecisions. They monitor all jobs closely and of the Leadership Stylesprovide negative and positive feedback to theirsubordinates. Each of the six leadership styles has advantages and disadvantages. Usually a good leader is a AFFILIATOR. —In this leadership style the combination of several of these styles. You mustpeople are the leader’s first concern. Affiliator tailor your personal leadership style to fit eachleaders consider concern for subordinates and situation.personal popularity as the most important aspect The coercer style is especially effective duringof their job. They don’t provide clear direction, a wartime situation when the command is instandards, or goals. They provide for job security combat or under fire. However, this style ofand fringe benefits to keep their subordinates leadership can have some negative effects if thehappy. Affiliators avoid conflicts that might cause command, work center, or individual is performinghard feelings. They reward personal characteristics at a high rate of efficiency. Subordinates will notrather than job performance, and they rarely respond well to the repeated use of threats duringpunish subordinates. normal situations. You might find the authoritarian leadership DEMOCRATIC. —This style of leadership style useful when seeking information on a particularrelies on participation of the group. Democratic situation or before inspections. However, it isleaders believe subordinates should take part in normally not a good style to use in personalthe decision-making process. They base decisions counseling sessions. This leadership style doesn’ton the consensus of opinion of the entire group. allow enough flexibility to provide alternativeThey consider specific direction and close super- solutions to subordinates’ personal unnecessary in completing the job when Using this style by jumping in and taking over intrust has been established. They frequently hold situations when you have technically competentmeetings and listen to their subordinates. workers is counterproductive. 3-16 Leadership4
  5. 5. The affiliator style of leadership is especially important. If power is important to you, you maywell adapted to the role of counselor. It is also emphasize the coercer style of leadership. If youeffective when you need to recognize someone for value friendship, you may tend to emphasize thedoing a good job. However, the affiliator has a democratic or affiliator style of leadership.negative effect when the work center has a tightdeadline or when you are in a leadership role for PAST EXPERIENCES. —If a particularlong periods. leadership style has worked in the past, you will People who use the democratic leadership style probably use it again in similar situations. If alisten to subordinates. Therefore, you could certain style didn’t work, you will avoid using itbenefit from this style when showing a new again. Therefore, past experiences influence yourmaintenance procedure or how a new piece of leadership works. You would also find it helpfulwhen planning social events based on a consensus PAST AND PRESENT SUPERVISORS. —of opinion. Using this style when preparing for Since supervisors serve as role models, subor-an inspection would be harmful because you dinates frequently imitate their behavior;would lack control. It would also be harmful therefore, your supervisors influence yourduring drills or combat because you would not dominant leadership style.have time to hold meetings. You would have to JOBS OR TASKS. —The job or task yourtell subordinates what to do or the entire work center performs affects your leadershipcommand could be lost. style. A new procedure or the installation of a Using the pacesetter style of leadership is piece of equipment may call for the pacesetterhelpful when you are working with a new work style of leadership. An emergency situation maycenter or teaching a new maintenance procedure cause you to be example. However, if you begin doing otherpeople’s work, rather than training, monitoring, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES ANDand developing subordinates, the pacesetter style NORMS. —Civilian businesses provide a servicebecomes harmful to the work center. or product to society. Since the products and The coach style of leadership is helpful when services provided by businesses differ, the needsa worker is attempting to learn a new procedure and requirements of their workers also differ. Theor master a new technique. It is also effective same is true for the Navy. The Navy provides awhen you need to counsel a subordinate who service to its country. Each organizational levelfrequently arrives late at the work center. of the Navy performs a specific job or providesHowever, this style of leadership has no effect on a product that contributes to that service.a subordinate who knows how to perform a job Therefore, the needs and requirements of theor task but refuses to do the work. workers at each level also differ. This difference creates different work environments (cultures) andFactors Affecting Leadership Styles different relationships (norms) between the workers. The culture of your organization has a The following six elements interact to deter- great impact on your leadership style. Yourmine your leadership style: leadership style changes to fit the organizational • Motives and values culture of your work center. In short, you will change your leadership style to meet the • Past experiences expectations of your superiors. SITUATIONS. —Specific situations determine • Past and present supervisors your leadership style because each one could involve a different number of people and a • Jobs or tasks different amount of pressure or stress. For example, you might use the democratic style when • Organizational culture and norms assigning a daily task because you would have time to explain the "why" of doing it. However, • Situations you would be unable to use that style during an emergency. Can you imagine explaining why you MOTIVES AND VALUES. —Your leadership want the electrical power secured during a firestyle reflects those motives and values you see as aboard ship? 3-17 Leadership5
  6. 6. Helping Resource CapabilityNavy Relief Society Loans and outright grants to alleviate financial emergencies; also family budget counselingNaval Legal Service Offices Legal advice, to include wills, powers of attorney, and notarizing servicesAmerican Red Cross Emergency assistance of all types, to include NAVEDTRA 12144 emergency leave verification and travel assistanceNaval Hospitals Physical and psychological problems and disorders diagnosed and treatedVeterans Administration (VA) Veterans benefits and survivors benefits adviceCivilian Health and Medical Program of the Health care benefits and eligibility adviceUniformed Services (CHAMPUS)Command Career Counselor Career information, to include Navy rights and benefitsPROFESSIONAL, PERFORMANCE, performers or cause more capable performers toAND ENLISTED EVALUATION become bored. Remember to individualize theCOUNSELING target performance. An example would be giving your star performer 1 week to complete a specific Professional, performance, and enlisted personnel qualification standard (PQS). Theevaluation counseling all have several things in 1-week target may be too difficult for your leastcommon. Standards should be set; standards capable performer, so you might allow him or hershould be clear and understood by the counselee; 1 month to complete the PQS. All other personneltargets should be set for each individual; and would fall somewhere within this range, dependingboth good and poor performance of subor- upon their capabilities.dinates should be documented and the subor- As your personnel progress, you will need todinates counseled. Professional and performance adjust the targets to keep them challenging butcounseling takes place throughout the year. realistic. Counsel your personnel on their goodEnlisted evaluation counseling should take place and poor performance. Document the counselingonce a quarter to allow personnel a chance to sessions for at least 3 months.improve before receiving the formal evaluation. You have been documenting the professional A good place to start is at the end of the and performance counseling for the last 3 months.formal evaluation period. You can outline the Now it is time to conduct an enlisted evaluationminimum required performance you expect from counseling session. Write a rough evaluation oneach paygrade and rating within the work center each subordinate, using their counseling sheetsor division. This is setting a clear standard and other documentation taken from personalof performance. Professional and performance observation over the last 3 months. Do not refercounseling will be based on these standards. to the last formal evaluation (or rough evaluationEnsure each subordinate understands the required for latter sessions).level of performance you expect from him or her. These quarterly counseling sessions will allow Set performance targets for each individual. you to provide positive reinforcement for correctPeople are different and have different capabilities. behavior and corrective action for substandardBy setting performance targets above the required behavior. You will also be able to documentminimum, you will be able to maximize subor- items that are sometimes forgotten at the yearlydinate output. Setting a standard target of evaluation. Schools attended, courses completed,performance could discourage less capable and assistance provided are sometimes overlooked 4-29 Evaluation 1
  7. 7. or forgotten if the supervisor or subordinate fails Information to be Obtainedto document them. At the end of the formal evaluation period, During the interview, the interviewer obtainsyou should have enough documentation to write all the information possible about the member’san objective evaluation on each subordinate. education, personal interests, and occupational experience. INTERVIEWING, ASSIGNING, EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION. –Educa- AND EVALUATING PERSONNEL tional information includes the kind and extent of formal education; where and when it was As a chief petty officer, your administrative acquired; subjects liked and disliked and why, andduties will include interviewing personnel, the amount of time spent studying each; anyassigning them to jobs, and evaluating their occupation followed during the period of educa-performance. The purpose of interviewing is to tion; and an explanation of unusual features ofobtain information that will help you make the education.most effective use of the skills and abilities ofnaval personnel. The best way you can do this is Educational attainment indicates to a certainto assign people to work they do well and enjoy; degree the member’s ability to absorb training.people who enjoy their work usually put forth Success in technical or special subjects in hightheir best efforts in doing the job. The end result school usually indicates aptitude for continuedof proper interviewing and assignment is a positive training in related subjects in Navy schools. Tradeevaluation for the subordinate. schools, business schools, and correspondence courses are important, especially if they are related to a Navy rating.INTERVIEWING Do not assume, however, because a person has The interview has three major objectives: to been trained in a certain field, that the occupa-establish your position of leadership and respon- tion is necessarily suitable or desirable for thatsibility in the sailor’s mind, to discover special person. The person may have been urged to entercharacteristics or aptitudes about the member that a field by parents or teachers without particularlymay not be included in the records, and to show desiring it. Or the person may have chosen a fieldthat you have a personal interest in the person. without sufficient knowledge of the work involved.The interview should be friendly, not too formal, It is also possible that after actually working inbut thorough. a job, the person did not like it or was not suited for it.Beginning the Interview Here are some questions to help you obtain a more accurate picture of a member’s educational To obtain all the necessary information from and training background.a member during an interview, you must put themember at ease and in the mood to talk. This is Why did the person choose this particularaccomplished by using a pleasant, easy manner field of study?and by making it clear that you are interested in,and responsible for, finding the member a suitable What progress was made? What gradesjob assignment. were received? Before beginning, you should have had achance to read whatever information is available Would the member choose this fieldon the member. From this, facts can be found to today?open the interview, such as the location of themember’s home. Did the person obtain, or attempt to The interview is not only for the purpose of obtain, employment related to this par-giving you information, but also to help members ticular study field?understand themselves. You and the membershould work as a team to find the most If given the opportunity, would thesatisfactory assignment possible within the Navy’s person choose a vocation that would makeneeds. use of this study field? 4-30 Evaluation 2
  8. 8. PERSONAL INTERESTS. –You should ask as to kinds of ability, but they all require aquestions to find out the personal interests of the considerable amount of ability.member. This could include questions about Do not close the door to training on theleisure time activities, sports in which the member member because the cutting scores required forhas participated, the level of achievement in each a school have not been achieved. If a member issport, any talents for public entertainment, and genuinely interested in a type of work, the memberpositions of leadership held. The latter usually will probably be able to get on-the-job training.refers to office or committee jobs in organizations This process, which is quite likely to be availableto which the person has belonged. These activities, to a member as a striker aboard ship, may bebeing largely voluntary, sometimes present a truer within the member’s capabilities even though thepicture of the person’s interests than the educa- member could not keep up the speed required intion or work experience. In any case, they add a a complete picture of the person. OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION. –You CLOSING THE lNTERVIEW. –Before closingshould obtain a brief record of the person’s the interview, you should summarize theexperience on jobs held since entering the Navy member’s qualifications and inform the memberand before entering the Navy, length of time held, of his or her assignment. Show the member allinterests in each job, and success in each job. the advantages that can be gained from the assign-Care must be exercised both in recording work ment. It is part of your duty to help the memberexperience and interpreting it. With experience, see all the ways in which the assignment can beas with education, you should not assume that an used in furthering long-range ambitions. Youoccupation is suitable for a member merely should make certain that the member understandsbecause some background in it has been shown. all the duties and responsibilities of the assign-The member’s interest and success in an occupa- ment and that the person has been given helpfultion must be considered before you decide whether information. You should help the memberto assign similar work to the person. develop a positive attitude toward the new assign- ment; this will promote the person’s effectiveness GIVE THE PERSON HONEST ANSWERS. – in the immediate job and his or her own bestRemember that it is your responsibility to guide interest in the future.and assist the person as much as possible. At timesyou may be tempted to evade or give indefiniteanswers because you expect the person to react Some Final Thoughts for the Interviewerunfavorably to what you have to say. Keep inmind, however, that even though working out a As a brief review, here are some recommen-solution to a member’s problems means a lot of dations to keep in mind for successful inter-hard work, it is your job. viewing: Look at the situation from the member’s pointof view. Few situations are more discouraging — Get a mental picture of the WHOLEthan attempting to get information and receiving person, not just one side.evasive answers or no help from the person whoshould be helping you. In other words, if you are — Be alert for the possibility that the personsupposed to be a counselor, tackle the problem may be suffering from some physical or mentaland try to do something to help. Tell the person illness. Navy people are generally fine physicalwhen you do not know the answers, but try to specimens and well adjusted mentally, but yourhelp find them. job may put you in contact with exceptional cases. These belong to the professional specialist—the EMPHASIZE THE PERSON’S ABILITY. – medical officer.You will be most effective as a counselor and aninterviewer if you take a positive approach, — Be more concerned with the causes thanputting emphasis on the abilities of personnel and wit h surface symptoms. Do not assume that allthe kinds of jobs in which they can best be put members OUGHT TO BEHAVE in a certain way,to use. The more you learn about the various types and do not condemn the nonconformists. Try toof Navy duty, the greater respect you are likely find out what makes a member behave in a certainto acquire for all the various jobs. They differ way. 4-31 Evaluation 3
  9. 9. — Keep the emphasis on the positive aspects are evaluating. You should pay careful attentionof the person’s abilities and character. Show that to detail and treat each evaluation as if it wereyou appreciate the member’s good qualities and going in your service the person how to take advantage of these Military standards indicate that the evaluationqualities. writing process should begin at the petty officer second class level. Delegate the initial preparation — In your efforts to be friendly and under- of evaluations to the petty officer second class orstanding, do not give the impression that you one level above the person being evaluated. Haveare an easy mark or that friendly talk is all you the next level in the chain of command review thehave to offer. Do what you can, definitely and evaluation.positively. Expect members to do their part. You should use your counseling file to double check the evaluation. Make sure the marks given — Remember that it is your duty to help the are realistic. Some discrete checking in yourNavy make the best use of its personnel. command will reveal the appropriate marking range for personnel. Do not be afraid to give 4.0 — Above all, remember that you are dealing marks if they are called for and can be justified.with HUMAN BEINGS. An interview that is just Your job is to give an objective evaluation basedone event in a day’s work to you may be the on facts. Bullets for blocks 54,55, and 56 of theturning point of a member’s life. evaluation should come from your counseling file, the subordinate’s service record, and the divisionASSIGNING officer’s record. Providing evaluation comments for block 56 Assigning personnel is a staffing function as is a problem for most people. Give a briefdiscussed in chapter 3. Your primary objective is description of the person and his or her job. Theto match the correct person to the job to receive purpose of block 56 is to amplify information inmaximum efficiency and effectiveness. However, blocks 27 through 43, 54, and 55. Use bold,you will also need to account for using on-the- underline, and CAPITALIZATION to make keyjob training (OJT) to cross-train personnel. words and phrases standout. Refer to The NavyYou will lose some efficiency in the short term Enlisted Performance Evaluation System, NAV-through use of OJT, but the long term result is MILPERSCOMINST 1616.1A, and the Enlistedhigher divisional or work center efficiency and Evaluation Manual, BUPERSINST 1616.9, foreffectiveness. additional information. There are no firm rules for assigning personnel.Best results occur when personnel are happy in Reviewing Enlisted Evaluationstheir job. Try to match the personal interest ofthe subordinate to the job requirements when The leading petty officer (LPO) should submitpossible. At other times you will need to employ to you the rough evaluation and a copy of thea skillful use of influence to achieve the desired enlisted evaluation report-individual input formoutcome. (NAVPERS 1616/21), or “brag sheet” as it is known. You should now prepare the evaluation.EVALUATING Your role in the evaluation process is to compile the inputs and assure completion, Evaluating personnel was discussed in the correctness, and consistency among your differenttopic on performance counseling. You should be work centers. Use service records, your notes,counseling your personnel on a regular basis to counseling files, and brag sheets to ensurelet them know how they are doing and where they completion and accuracy of the evaluations.need to improve. This section focuses on your Observe how each work center tends to markresponsibilities in preparing enlisted performance the evaluations. Some evaluations may tend to beevaluations. skewed higher or lower than the normal standard. Make corrections as appropriate.Preparing Enlisted You should now make sure that writtenPerformance Evaluations remarks on the evaluation are in the proper format and void of grammatical errors. When you Enlisted performance evaluations will have a are happy with the way the evaluations read, thenlong-term impact on the career of the person you pass the rough evaluations to the division officer. 4-32 Evaluation 4
  10. 10. the commanding officer in the accounting and year. Things like replacing bunk curtains, mattressreporting of expenditures. 12144 NAVEDTRA Commanding officers covers, lagging, and tile or painting are routineusually delegate the authority to approve tasks that should be budgeted to make sureexpenditures to the department head. funding is available. Other types of periodic We have now arrived at the point in the budget repairs include time-based maintenance. Engines,process where you become involved. Department pumps, and life critical systems are examples ofheads, like commanding officers, need help in items to be replaced on a recurring basis. Certainidentifying budget priorities. Division officers and operating equipment has a life cycle. Items suchleading chief petty officers need to determine both as typewriters, computers, and printers need tothe long- and short -term needs of their division. be replaced every 3 to 5 years.Some of the factors you should consider when The last items to budget are non-essentialplanning a budget are as follows: items. These are things you would like to have if the money is available, but could live without. • losses,number schedules, and school planned The leave of personnel assigned, assign- Examples include replacing worn but serviceable furniture or purchasing servmart items in excess ments. of absolutely essential quantities. The remainder of this section will be devoted • Unit operating schedule, scheduled regular to divisional goals and types of budgeting. An overhaul, maintenance availability, and understanding of these two topics will assist you scheduled inspections. in the preparation of your budget. •toCan the work? Should you havebe trained do your division do the work or an inter- Divisional Goals mediate maintenance activity, shipyard, or Knowing the divisional goals is essential to contractor do the work? effective supervision of your division. Many of the goals will be imposed by the department head, •availability of special funding providedthe Availability of OPTAR funding, or by commanding officer, or higher authority. Again, look to the five-year plan, yearly plan, and type commander (TYCOM) or higher quarterly plan to define goals of the command. authority. Your goals should be the same as those for the command.PREPARATION OF THE Examples of concurrent goals include passingDIVISIONAL BUDGET a supply department inspection even though you are in engineering department. How? you might In preparing the divisional budget, you must ask. You could assist supply by making sure yourhave an idea of the command and departmental pre-expended bins have the required numbergoals and objectives. A good place to start is the parts, your ready service spares are accounted for,command’s five-year plan. The period 01 October and you have turned in all required repairablethrough 30 September in the coming year should items that you are accountable for. Anotherindicate upcoming events with a fair degree of example is helping the medical department passcertainty. The events indicated are the upcoming their inspection. Have all of your subordinatesgoals that the command must meet. Budget these had their shot records updated? Have all medicalitems first. Remember that the budget is a records been returned? You get the idea. Yourcontrol device used to measure performance and division plays a role in assisting other divisionsincludes manpower, material, time, and cost. and departments meet their goals. Next, budget the command objectives. Theobjectives could be receiving the Golden Anchor DEVELOPING. —Why should you developAward, the Meritorious Unit Citation, or passing divisional goals if the Navy and the commandall inspections with no major discrepancies. Talk have already established them for you? The Navywith the division officer, department head, and and command goals discussed in this chapter andcommand master chief to find out what the chapter 3 have been part of “the big picture.”objectives are and what you need to do to meet That is to say, they are broad and general inthem. nature. To help the Navy and command reach You should have a feel for what type of repairs their goals, you should focus on the specific stepswill be necessary in your division in the coming you need to take within your division. Divisional Goal Setting 1 4-3
  11. 11. Periodically, you and your division officer if they are to be achieved. The importanceshould discuss the division’s progress toward the of establishing your divisional goals has beendivision’s goals. And every year before submitting achieved. You now have set a course of actionyour budget, you should decide on where to focus and a method to measure your progress.your energies in the coming year. Do thestrengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats MONITORING. —The final step of theanalyses for your division. This is the first step budget process is to use the budget to monitorin preparing your budget. divisional progress throughout the year. Monitor- ing is important because it lets you know when ESTABLISHING. —You and the division to shift resources. Monitoring can be done by anyofficer have now identified the areas of your number of control types or methods, such as feed-division that require attention. Now you should forward, concurrent, feedback, inventory control,prioritize your goals. Obviously, high-priority or quality control.items will need the greatest resources andattention. This is where you and the division Types of Budgetingofficer need to make some sound decisions. If at all possible, have your subordinates Two types of budgeting are in use in the Navy.contribute to the planning during this stage. You will find it useful to use both types inPresent what you and the division officer perceive estimating your annual problems and let the subordinates presentsolutions. Subordinates are closer to the work and INCREMENTAL. —Incremental budgeting ismay identify additional problems and alternatives the primary budget used by the Navy. You havethat you and the division officer may have over- a certain amount of money as a beginning budgetlooked. This process lets the subordinates become and then increase the amount of money receivedinvolved and personalizes the goals. in later years. A good way to visualize this type You and the division officer should evaluate of budget is to think of the budget as increasingthe problems and proposed solutions. Select the by the amount of inflation each year. Thebest solution for each problem and re-prioritize incremental factor could be tied to growth,the goals if required. Place your goals in writing operating schedule, increase in personnel, or anyand post them where your subordinates can see number of factors that may increase (or decrease)them. Communication of goals and priorities is the amount of funds budgeted.extremely important to your success. In your budget, the incremental method of At this point you know what you want to do, budgeting would apply to your recurring cost. Ashow you want to do it, and the priority you have the cost of inflation drives up the cost ofset. You should now budget time, materials, consumable and repair parts, your budget wouldpeople, and costs to meet your goals. This is the increase to match inflation.second step in preparing the divisional budget. The third step in preparing your budget is to ZERO-BASED. —The Navy uses zero-basedexamine recurring cost. You should be able to budgeting when figuring the cost of majorproduce a fair estimate for the cost of necessary material purchases, such as a ship or, repair costs, and so forth, that have Congress authorizes and appropriates the moneyoccurred over the last 3 years. The supply officer in the first year, and then the Navy is able to makecan supply the information required. a draw against the account to pay for work being The fourth step in preparing your budget is done. This type of budget eliminates worry thatto combine the cost of reaching your goals with an authorized purchase will not have appropriatedyour recurring costs. You are now ready to submit money in follow-on years.your budget request to the department head. In general, zero-based budgeting is startingGoals, objectives, recurring costs, and priorities from zero every year and figuring out the cost ofshould be outlined to provide the department head doing business in the coming year. The dis-with the ammunition required to achieve the advantage of this type of budget is the great dealdesired level of funding for the coming year. of time and accuracy required to perform You and the division officer should reevaluate economic forecasting analysis so that all expensesyour goals after the command has decided on can be predicted.funding. Unfunded goals and objectives may You should use this type of budgeting for onerequire initiative and resourcefulness on your part time expenses. The divisional goals and objectives Divisional Goal Setting 2 4-4
  12. 12. that are not of the recurring type would fall into Ashore, standardizing supply procedures isthis category. difficult because of the physical layout of a station and the variety of missions assigned to a station. Therefore, a good deal of freedom is SUPERVISING RESPONSIBILITIES given each command to choose the supply FOR STORES, EQUIPMENT, procedures that best meet its needs. Aboard ship, AND REPAIR PARTS procedures are becoming more standardized because of the adoption of the Ships’ Maintenance As you already know, all petty officers need and Material Management (3-M) program; how-some knowledge of supply procedures to help ever, some variations between ships still exist.them function effectively with the supply You must become thoroughly familiar withdepartment. As a chief petty officer, you will local instructions that detail the various pro-find yourself with greater supply-related respon- cedures for supply support. An understanding ofsibilities; therefore, you will need additional these instructions will answer most questionsknowledge of the supply organization and about the relationship and responsibility betweenprocedures. the supply department and the customer. In the past, you needed to know how toidentify material and how to complete a requisi- Supply Departments Ashoretion form. You also needed a knowledge of theship’s Coordinated Shipboard Allowance List A supply department, like all other depart-(COSAL) to determine what materials were, ments ashore, is organizationally composed ofrequired to complete a job. You may have been several divisions, branches, and sections. Only theresponsible for the stowage and custody of various organizational components that are of primarymaterials in your department. In the future, you interest to you (the customer) are discussed here.will be working closer with supply department The components of the supply department youpersonnel in estimating supply needs and pro- will have the most contact with are the controlviding the input data needed for procurement. division, material division, and retail issue You have probably participated in depart- organization. The retail issue organization (usuallymental preparation for a shipyard overhaul, a component of the material division) is treatedincluding validation of installed equipment. As separately here because it is the most frequenta CPO, you could become a member of an point-of-contact between you and the supplyintegrated logistics overhaul (ILO) team during department.a period of shipyard availability. If so, you willcontribute to the process that the supply depart- RETAIL ISSUE ORGANIZATION. —Mostment uses to ensure your ship’s material readiness shore activities have supply support respon-when it goes to sea after overhaul. sibilities for multiple departments and units, This section does not attempt to make you an and frequently have off-station support respon-expert in supply—we will leave that detail to the sibilities. To meet the requirements of on-stationStorekeeper. It does, however, provide informa- customers, the Navy has established a retail-issuetion to expand your knowledge of the supply organization. This organization may be foundorganization ashore and afloat. This section also ashore in the form of a shop store, a self-serviceoutlines the procedures and steps of the various store, a rapid communication and delivery system,operations that you are expected to follow when or a combination of these services. The objectivedealing with supply department personnel. is a ready supply of materials and simplified issue procedures that will provide quick delivery ofSUPPLY DEPARTMENTS material requirements to the customer. Supply departments ashore and afloat are Shop Stores. —Shop stores are usuallyresponsible for the supply support of the activity established to support some type of specializedor ship. The supply department procures material; operation, such as public works activities andmaintains storerooms and warehouses; and issues, ground electronics shops. The shop store is aaccounts for, and collects analytical data for all storeroom located close to the user activities.the material under its cognizance. The supply Shops that are widely dispersed may have severaldepartment is responsible for establishing the local shop stores. These stores are stocked with itemsrequisitioning channels and procedures. normally used by the shops being supported. 4-5 Divisional Goal Setting 3
  13. 13. project, the product will only be as good as the assistant must be trained in and knowledgeableinput from you and your personnel. You, as a of the 3-M Systems. The assistant will provideCPO, will have NAVEDTRA 12144 a great deal of influence over this assistance and supervision in all administrativeprocedure. facets of the department’s 3-M Systems program. DIVISION OFFICER THE 3-M SYSTEMS The division officer is responsible to the The average work center aboard ship is department head and must be trained in the 3-Minvolved in the 3-M Systems through the Planned Systems. The division officer assists in managingMaintenance System (PMS) and the Maintenance the maintenance required for the equipmentData System (MDS). Your position in the work within the division. The division officer’s respon-center or division will require you to have a good sibilities include the following:working knowledge of the 3-M Systems. Basic3-M responsibilities of the chief include the Ensuring division MDS documents arefollowing: complete, accurate, and promptly prepared and submitted • Training the division officer and subor- dinates Ensuring qualified senior personnel review PMS maintenance requirement documents • Supervising preventive maintenance admin- istrative procedures such as maintenance index pages (MIPs) or maintenance requirement cards (MRCs) for completeness, applicability, and ac- • Supervising corrective maintenance admin- istrative procedures curacy Supervising preparation, reviewing, and • Submitting equipment configuration changes to update the weapons system file signing of the divisions’s weekly PMS schedules • Managing the division or work center maintenance through use of the current Conducting weekly spot-checks to make sure maintenance requirements are per- formed as indicated on the maintenance ship’s maintenance project (CSMP) requirement card (MRC) An in-depth explanation of the 3-M Systems Ensuring the department quarterlyis beyond the scope of this chapter. Exact pro- schedule is properly updated each weekcedures for administering the 3-M Systems varydepending upon TYCOM instructions, type of Including 3-M Systems training in divisionalcommand, or special programs such as nuclear training planweapons or nuclear power. Working in association with the ship’s 3-M This section will cover the general respon- coordinatorsibilities of the positions you should be familiarwith as a chief. These positions are the depart- Meeting the work center supervisors eachmental 3-M Systems assistant, division officer, week and then informing the departmentgroup supervisor, and work center supervisor. head of 3-M Systems status within the A more detailed description of the 3-M divisionSystems can be found in the Ships’ Maintenanceand Material Management (3-M) Systems Ensuring division 3-M Systems files,Manual, OPNAVINST 4790.4B, and your publications, MRC decks, tag guide listTYCOM 3-M Systems instruction. (TGL), and equipment guide list (EGL) are complete and currentDEPARTMENTAL 3-M SYSTEMSASSISTANT GROUP SUPERVISOR The department head will assign an officer or Sometimes the leading chief is responsible fora petty officer as a 3-M Systems assistant. The the proper operation of two or more work centers. 4-24 Supervision 1
  14. 14. When this occurs the leading chief is referred to Reviewing maintenance requirement cardsas the group supervisor. The group supervisor is and submitting a PMS feedback reportresponsible for the proper performance of the 3-M when maintenance requirements are notSystems in the work centers under their control. fully understood; errors are believed to exist; maintenance requirements are believedWORK CENTER SUPERVISOR to be inadequate or excessive or when performance would cause a hazardous The senior chief petty officer (or senior petty condition to exist; or replacementofficer if no chief is assigned) within the work documents are is the work center supervisor. The workcenter supervisor is responsible for the effective Maintaining an accurate and current listoperation of the 3-M Systems in his or her work of effective pages (LOEP) by comparingcenter. The responsibility can not be delegated to PMS documentation to actual work centersubordinate maintenance personnel. The work equipment supervisor will receive 3-M Systems trainingand is responsible for the following: Ensuring periodic maintenance requirements (PMR) scheduled for the work center are Scheduling and supervising accomplish- completed and reported as stated on the ment of weekly work center maintenance PMS, MRC, or PMR. tasks. Ensuring proper tests and inspections prior Ensuring preventive maintenance status is to acceptance of work done by outside shown correctly on work center PMS activities. schedules. Ensuring delivery of test, measurement, or Informing the division officer or group other portable equipments to testing and supervisor of MDS or PMS actions within calibration work centers as indicated on the work center. scheduling reports. Maintaining an adequate supply of 3-M Systems materials for the work center. SHIPBOARD NONTACTICAL Ensuring prompt documentation of all AUTOMATED DATA PROCESSING (ADP) PROGRAM: SYSTEMS noted material deficiencies in the work (SNAP I AND SNAP II) center work list/job sequence number (JSN) log and on OPNAV 4790/CK Form if required. The Shipboard Nontactical ADP Program (SNAP) concept takes the power of computers Documenting completed maintenance with their ability to process information and puts actions promptly using OPNAV 4790/2K that power in the hands of the work center or OPNAV 4790/CK forms when required. personnel. The SNAP computer systems are highly useful systems. The Navy uses two different Reviewing all 3-M documentation leaving SNAP computer systems to accomplish the same the work center to make sure it is correct, basic functions. SNAP I systems are installed at legible, and prepared and submitted Shore Intermediate Maintenance Activities promptly. Persons discovering deficiencies (SIMAs) and on board larger vessels such as are responsible for completing required aircraft carriers, tenders, amphibious command documentation. ships, and amphibious assault ships. SNAP II Ensuring maximum use of PMS as a systems are installed only on smaller vessels such maintenance training aid for work center as frigates, destroyers, and cruisers. The main objectives of SNAP I and SNAP II personnel. systems are to accomplish the following: Maintaining control and accountability of work center job sequence numbers (JSNs). • workloadthe current shipboard administrative Reduce associated with equipment mainte- Verifying that the work center CSMP is nance, supply and financial management, current and complete. and personnel administration 4-25 Supervision 2
  15. 15. • flexible on-line management responsive and Provide supervisors with a tool for main- during counseling. The things the counselor may view as unimportant may be of paramount tenance, supply, and manpower functions importance to the counselee. We tend to view the •existing off-ship data and timeliness of NAVEDTRA 12144 Improve the accuracy reports without world through our own values, and this can present problems when we are confronted with values that are at odds with our own. If persons increasing user workload in your unit think something is causing them a problem, then it is a problem to them, regardless of how insignificant you might believe the pro- COUNSELING PERSONNEL blem to be. One of the most important aspects of the chief The objective of counseling is to give your petty officer’s job is providing advice and personnel support in dealing with problems so that counseling to subordinates. CPOs who make they will regain the ability to work effectively in themselves accessible to subordinates will find the organization. Counseling effectiveness is they are in great demand to provide information achieved through performance of one or more of and to help in finding solutions to problems. the following counseling objectives: advice, The purpose of this section of the chapter is reassurance, release of emotional tension, clarified to present an overview of the basic principles and thinking, and reorientation. techniques of counseling. This section is not intended to be a course in problem solving, nor Advice is it intended to provide a catalog of answers to all questions. This section will, however, give you Many persons think of counseling as primarily an overview of general counseling procedures, an advice-giving activity, but in reality it is but some guidelines to use in the counseling process, one of several functions that counselors perform. and a listing of resources available as references. The giving of advice requires that a counselor A point to remember is that counseling should make judgments about a counselee’s problems not be meddlesome, and the extreme, of playing and lay out a course of action. Herein lies thepsychiatrist, should be avoided. But neither difficulty, because understanding another person’sshould counseling be reserved only for a complicated emotions is almost impossible.subordinate that is having problems; you should Advice-giving may breed a relationship inalso counsel subordinates for their achievements which the counselee feels inferior and emotionallyand outstanding performance. Counseling of a dependent on the counselor. In spite of its ills,subordinate who is doing a good job reinforces advice-giving occurs in routine counseling sessionsthis type of job performance and ensures because members expect it and counselors tendcontinued good work. Counseling of this type also to provide it.provides an opening for you to point out waysthat a subordinate might improve an already good Reassurancejob performance. Counseling the subordinate who is doing a Counseling can provide members with re-good job is relatively easy, but a different assurance, which is a way of giving them couragetype of counseling is required for a subordinate to face a problem or confidence that they arewhose performance does not meet set standards. pursuing a suitable course of action. ReassuranceThis section teaches you how to counsel the can be a valuable, though sometimes temporary,subordinate whose performance does not meet cure for a member’s emotional upsets. Sometimesestablished job standards. just the act of talking with someone about a In general, this section can be used as a guide problem can bring about a sense of relief that willto counseling personnel on professional, personal, allow the member to function normally again.and performance matters. Also, the basicspresented here apply to counseling subordinates Release of Emotional Tensionon their enlisted evaluations. People tend to get emotional release from theirPRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING frustrations and other problems whenever they have an opportunity to tell someone about them. Counselors should set aside their own value Counseling history consistently shows that assystem in order to empathize with the person persons begin to explain their problems to a 4-26 Counseling 1
  16. 16. sympathetic listener, their tensions begin to and it is easy to do. But is it effective? Doessubside. They become more relaxed and tend to the counselor really understand the member’sbecome more coherent and rational. The release problem? Does the counselor have the technicalof tensions does not necessarily mean that the knowledge of human behavior and the judgmentsolution to the problem has been found, but it to make the “right” decision? If the decision isdoes help remove mental blocks in the way of a right, will the member follow it? The answer tosolution. these questions is often no, and that is why advice- giving is sometimes an unwise act in counseling.Clarified Thinking Although advice-giving is of questionable value, some of the other functions achieved by directive Clarified thinking tends to be a normal result counseling are worthwhile. If the counselor is aof emotional release. The fact is that not all good listener, then the member should experienceclarified thinking takes place while the counselor some emotional release. As the result of theand counselee are talking. All or part of it may emotional release, plus ideas that the counselortake place later as a result of developments imparts, the member may also clarify thinking.during the counseling relationship. The net result Both advice and reassurance may be worthwhileof clarified thinking is that a person is encouraged if they give the member more courage to take ato accept responsibility for problems and to be workable course of action that the membermore realistic in solving them. supports.Reorientation Nondirective Counseling Reorientation is more than mere emotional Nondirective, or client-centered, counseling isrelease or clear thinking about a problem. It the process of skillfully listening to a counselee,involves a change in the member’s emotional self encouraging the person to explain bothersomethrough a change in basic goals and aspirations. problems, and helping him or her to understandVery often it requires a revision of the member’s those problems and determine courses of action.level of aspiration to bring it more in line with This type of counseling focuses on the member,actual attainment. It causes people to recognize rather than on the counselor as a judge andand accept their own limitations. The counselor’s advisor; hence, it is “client-centered.” This typejob is to recognize those in need of reorientation of counseling is used by professional counselors,before their need becomes severe, so that they can but nonprofessionals may use its techniques tobe referred to professional help. Reorientation is work more effectively with service members. Thethe kind of function needed to help alcoholics unique advantage of nondirective counseling is itsreturn to normalcy or to treat those with mental ability to cause the member’s reorientation. Itdisorders. stresses changing the person, instead of dealing only with the immediate problem in the usualTYPES OF COUNSELING manner of directive counseling. The counselor attempts to ask discerning questions, restate ideas, Counseling should be looked upon in terms clarify feelings, and attempts to understand whyof the amount of direction that the counselor gives these feelings exist. Professional counselors treatthe counselee. This direction ranges from full each counselee as a social and organizationaldirection (directive counseling) to no direction equal. They primarily listen and try to help their(nondirective counseling). client discover and follow improved courses of action. They especially “listen between the lines”Directive Counseling to learn the full meaning of their client’s feelings. They look for assumptions underlying the Directive counseling is the process of listening counselee’s statements and for the events theto a member’s problem, deciding with the member counselee may, at first, have avoided talkingwhat should be done, and then encouraging and about. A person’s feelings can be likened to anmotivating the person to do it. This type of iceberg. The counselor will usually only see thecounseling accomplishes the function of advice; revealed feelings and emotions. Underlying thesebut it may also reassure; give emotional release; surface indications is the true problem that theand, to a minor extent, clarify thinking. Most member is almost always initially reluctant toeveryone likes to give advice, counselors included, reveal. 4-27 Counseling 2
  17. 17. PERSONAL COUNSELING officer, and medical officer. The effective CPO should be able to recognize situations in which All personal problems should not be referred referral is necessary and to assist the counseleeto a specialist. Your first duty as a chief is to in obtaining maximum benefit from theserecognize whether the problem is beyond your referrals. Examples of situations in whichability to help or not. Many times you can solve referral would be appropriate include drugpersonal problems with a telephone call. If the and alcohol abuse, psychological problems orproblem is beyond your ability to solve, then give behavioral disorders, medical problems, personalthe division officer a chance to solve the problem. limitations, such as a personality conflict with theStay informed of the progress made toward counselor and the inability of the counselor tosolving the problem. If the problem requires relate to or comprehend a counselee’s problem.assistance from outside the command, you can In each instance, the key to successful referralsmooth the process by making appointments and lies not in the ability to diagnose a problem butensuring the counselee gets help. Keep informed rather in the ability to recognize those signs orof progress and follow-up! symptoms that indicate referral to appropriate As a CPO, you may encounter situations in sources.which persons being counseled must be referred To assist CPOs in fulfilling their advising andto other sources for assistance. There will be times counseling responsibilities with regard to referral,when a person will have special problems that will the Navy has developed an impressive array ofrequire special help. These problems should be helping resources. A listing of these helpinghandled by such specialists as the chaplain, legal resources is provided for reference. Helping Resource CapabilityAlcohol Rehabilitation Centers/Alcohol Alcohol abuse and related physical disordersRehabilitation Departments (ARCs and ARDs)Counseling and Assistance Centers (CAACs) Drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and psychological disordersDrug and Alcohol Program Advisor (DAPA) Primary command point of contact for drug and alcohol abuse problemsNavy Alcohol and Drug Safety Action Pro- Education program for those with drug/alcoholgram (NADSAP) abuse problemsNavy Relief Financial counselingChaplain Corps Personal problem and religious counselingCommand Ombudsman Community orientation and family orientation to the command and Navy lifeFamily Service Centers (FSC) Comprehensive family-related information, pro- grams, and services for Navy families and single service membersFederal Credit Unions Financial assistance, to include savings and loan advice as well as family financial planningEducational Services Educational assistance, to include degree-granting programs, correspondence courses, and in-service educational benefits 4-28 Counseling 3
  18. 18. Any changes that are made to the evaluation by Another thing to consider, which is almost asthe chain of command above you should be important as the content, is the technical aspectsdiscussed with the division 12144 As always, stay NAVEDTRA officer. of the presentation itself. Your visual aids shouldinformed! be as good as you can make them and, above all, they should be correct. Slides containing errors in spelling, grammar, and computations distract your audience and undermine your credibility. COMMUNICATION Speak clearly and distinctly to your audience. If you do all these things and have your briefing well The chief petty officer is often called upon to organized, you will be successful.provide briefings, write messages, and preparenaval correspondence. You may at some point be Organization of a Briefingasked to perform these functions also. Thissection should provide you with a knowledge base The special requirements of a briefing imposefrom which you can build your communication certain limitations upon the speaker. Theskills. traditional plan of organization, with an introduction, a body, and a conclusion, is adaptable to the clarity, accuracy, and brevityTHE MILITARY BRIEFING necessary in a good briefing. An additional administrative duty you may INTRODUCTION. —Since your listenershave as a CPO is to prepare a briefing. The need and want to know about your subject, youprimary purpose of a briefing is to inform, but will not need time-consuming, attention-gettingit also may have other purposes: first, to ensure devices. If another speaker introduces you andthe listener’s understanding of a particular your subject, you need only give a quick overviewmission, operation, or concept; second, to enable of the subject and proceed immediately tothe listener to perform a specific procedure; and the main points. If you are not introduced, youthird, to provide the listener with information on might simply say, “Good morning. I’m Chiefwhich to base decisions. Petty Officer Jones; I’ll be briefing you Often several people participate in a briefing. on _____________ .”In a briefing for an operational plan, for instance,one group may cover the administrative, tactical, BODY. —The information for the body oflogistical, and operational phases; and another your briefing requires careful consideration fromgroup may explain the mission. To enable the the standpoint of content as well as delivery. Iflisteners to grasp all this information as a possible, present only the facts. Your facts shouldunit, each briefer must give only the essential be provable, and you should have the proof withinformation in as few words and as few minutes you in case your listeners ask for it. Because youas completeness and clarity will permit. must be brief, you may have to omit many details In preparing to brief others, you must analyze from your talk. This can cause you to oversimplifya mass of data, choose the really significant facts, a difficult subject. One way to avoid over-and organize them carefully. Your explanation simplification is to prepare a folder of’ “documen-should be simple, precise, and factual. Jokes and tation” for your listeners to refer to after youanecdotes rarely have a place in a briefing. The finish the briefing. In your opening remarks, telllisteners are ready for a serious talk. They want them it is available. You gain in several ways fromto hear the vital information on a specific letting your listeners know at the outset that theysubject presented as clearly as possible. If you are will have access to complete information on yourable, however, you may occasionally use humor subject. First, your listeners are more apt toto help you make a point or clarify a problem. accept the validity of your information becauseWhen you give a briefing, you are likely to face they know they can check your evidence. Second,a captive audience. Analyze the rank and they are less likely to ask needless questions orexperience of the people you are to brief, and try to interrupt for other reasons. And third, they willto determine what your best approach will be. You go along with very simple visual aids because theycannot always say what your listeners want to know they can get more detailed information ifhear, but you can try to speak in the manner they they need it. Another way is to prepare “backup”will most easily understand. slides that present detailed information on specific Communication 1 4-33