Senthil Kumar


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  • Cache Meory is a special high-speed storage mechanism. It can be either a reserved section of main memory or an independent high-speed storage device . Two types of caching are commonly used in personal computers : memory caching and disk caching . A memory cache , sometimes called a cache store or RAM cache , is a portion of memory made of high-speed static RAM (SRAM) instead of the slower and cheaper dynamic RAM ( DRAM ) used for main memory. Memory caching is effective because most programs access the same data or instructions over and over. By keeping as much of this information as possible in SRAM, the computer avoids accessing the slower DRAM . Some memory caches are built into the architecture of microprocessors . Such internal caches are often called Level 1 (L1) caches . Most modern PCs also come with external cache memory , called Level 2 (L2) caches . These caches sit between the CPU and the DRAM. Like L1 caches, L2 caches are composed of SRAM but they are much larger. Disk caching works under the same principle as memory caching, but instead of using high-speed SRAM, a disk cache uses conventional main memory. The most recently accessed data from the disk (as well as adjacent sectors ) is stored in a memory buffer. When a program needs to access data from the disk, it first checks the disk cache to see if the data is there. Disk caching can dramatically improve the performance of applications , because accessing a byte of data in RAM can be thousands of times faster than accessing a byte on a hard disk . When data is found in the cache, it is called a cache hit, and the effectiveness of a cache is judged by its hit rate. Many cache systems use a technique known as smart caching, in which the system can recognize certain types of frequently used data
  • Senthil Kumar

    1. 1. “ Emerging Memory Trends and Career Opportunities” By Chinnu Senthilkumar General Manager Engineering India Device Design Centre Private Limited
    2. 2. <ul><li>Down the Memory Lane… </li></ul>
    3. 3. Early Stages of Memory - Punch cards
    4. 4. Early Stages of Memory - Tape Drive
    5. 5. Early Stages of Memory - Magnetic disc
    6. 6. Semiconductor Memories - Volatile <ul><li>Present Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Features: Fast access, Low Power, High Cost, Volatile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications: Cache Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Features: Med access, High Power, High density, Low Cost, Volatile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications: DIMM and RIMM cards in PC </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Semiconductor Memories: Non-Volatile <ul><li>FLASH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Features: Random Access, Med Density, Med Power, Multi-Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications: Boot block, Code storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Features: Sequential access, High Density, Reliability, Low Cost/bit, Low Power, Multi-Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications: MP3 Players, Digital Camera, Cell Phone SD Cards, PDAs, USB Sticks etc… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Consumer Electronics Requirements <ul><li>Reasonable Access Time </li></ul><ul><li>High Density meeting Mass Storage requirements (in 10s of GB range) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Volatility Feature as in Flash Memory </li></ul><ul><li>All the above with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Process Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Standby Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Semiconductor Memories Comparison <ul><ul><li>Comparative Study of Semiconductor Memories </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. NOR Vs. NAND flash
    11. 11. NAND Flash - Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
    12. 12. Flash Memory – How does it work? WL =0V I  0nA V TH = 4V Programmed Cell WL =0V I = Sense Current V TH = -1V Erased Cell
    13. 13. SLC Vs MLC
    14. 14. NOR vs. NAND Flash - Applications
    15. 15. NOR vs. NAND Flash – Market Growth
    16. 16. Looking Forward…
    17. 17. Where are we in this key segment?… <ul><li>SanDisk Market Presence… </li></ul>
    18. 18. SanDisk Mega Markets… <ul><li>NAND flash Primarily used for bulk data storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music - MP3 players </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Images - Digital cameras </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videos - Camcorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phone book/multimedia/ applications - Mobile Phones & PDA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data - USB drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Games - PSP </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 22. Opportunities… <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>- Opportunities in Flash Memory/Applications Sector </li></ul>
    20. 23. Engineering Opportunities <ul><li>VLSI Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog/Mixed Signal Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASIC Design/Arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VLSI CAD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Si characterization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System HW design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FW/SW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS Process </li></ul>
    21. 24. Non-Engineering Opportunities <ul><li>IT </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Management </li></ul><ul><li>Business Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Sales/Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Support Center </li></ul>
    22. 25. Companies in this sector… <ul><li>SanDisk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India operations started in Bangalore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toshiba </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung </li></ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul><ul><li>Portal Player </li></ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul><ul><li>AMD </li></ul><ul><li>ST Microelectronics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. SanDisk India Business Objective <ul><li>Incorporated in March 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Signal Chip design & development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System design and Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded SW development/Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise SW (Supply Chain Management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer return material QA </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. Why SanDisk? <ul><li>Fastest Growing Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortune ranked SanDisk as the 8 th Fastest Growing Company in US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fosters Creativity and Innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds 400+ Key Patents in Flash Memory & Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005 Royalty amounted to $200+ Million USD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muti-Geographical Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence in US, Japan, Israel, India, Scotland, Taiwan, Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to work in Cutting Edge Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced CMOS NAND Technology in Deep Sub-Micron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader in NAND Technology & Controllers </li></ul></ul>
    25. 28. Key Executives <ul><li>Top Notch Management Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CEO Dr. Eli Harari Ph.D, Princeton University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer in Non-Volatile Memory (from 1970s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded SanDisk and Wafer Scale Integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listed in Forbes “America’s Most Powerful People” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COO Mr. Sanjay Mehrotra, MSEE, UC Berkeley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer in EEPROM & Flash Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co-Founder of SanDisk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VP Dr. Khandker Quader, BSEE MIT, Ph.D UC Berkeley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer in Flash Memory and Key Contributor in NAND Memory Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds Several Patents and published articles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 29. India Management <ul><ul><li>SanDisk India GM, Chinnu Senthilkumar, BE Anna University, MSEE University of Utah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12+ Years of Experience in Analog/Mixed Signal Design & Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worked in Intel(Folsom, California) and Texas Instruments(India) in Technical & Managerial capacities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds 12 Patents (Approved and Pending) in the areas of Analog/Mixed Signal Design </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 30. Thank You…. <ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
    28. 31. Back-up Slides
    29. 32. NOR Vs. NAND flash