Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product Tutorial Questions A1 to A7 George South Involves material for Q1 and Q...
Some companies involved in microprocessor technology <ul><li>Microsoft  $251 billion  Market Capitalisation </li></ul><ul>...
A1 – Major stages in PC Product IBM-PC 8088 PC-bus IBM-AT 80286 AT-bus IBM-PS/2 80386 MCA-bus !!! ISA-PC 80386 ISA-bus ISA...
A1 Success of PC Product <ul><li>Simple design  – no ASICs </li></ul><ul><li>PC-bus  allowed very easy reconfiguration </l...
A1 PC as de facto standard <ul><li>PC was  very popular  so a volume market </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent  performance/ pric...
A1 Modern PC performance <ul><li>A modern PC may have  10,000 times  the performance of the original PC </li></ul><ul><li>...
A2 Success of PC/ISA Architecture <ul><li>Developers want a  stable hardware platform </li></ul><ul><li>However there is  ...
A2 Compliance <ul><li>If you are a hardware manufacturer, the basic rules for the design of a PC require compliance with t...
A2 Alternatives to the PC <ul><li>Apple Mac  products </li></ul><ul><li>Now use same x86 processors/ chipsets as PCs </li>...
A2 Alternatives to the PC <ul><li>Games consoles </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Xbox 360/ PS3/ Wii </li></ul><ul><li>These use pro...
A3 x86 Legacy <ul><li>Legacy  – e.g. retention of low level hardware features means that:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>old softw...
A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A  - Intel® Celeron® Processor 900  (2.20 GHz, 1MB L2 Cache, 800MHz FSB, Intel 64) 45...
A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>budget   prof   enthusiast </li></ul><ul><li>Turbo Boost  No Yes Yes </li></ul><ul><l...
A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A – budget (older technology) – slide 22 </li></ul><ul><li>GM45 chipset (2 chips) plu...
A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A – budget PC </li></ul><ul><li>DDR2 DRAM – 3 GBytes (max = 4 GBytes) </li></ul><ul><...
A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A – budget PC </li></ul><ul><li>Disks - 4 SATA 1.5 Gbits/sec </li></ul><ul><li>250GB ...
A5 Trends in PC Product <ul><li>MID Mobile Internet Device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer with a fast internet connection ...
A6 Future of non-Windows OS <ul><li>Windows is  dominant  in the desktop and notebook market </li></ul><ul><li>There will ...
A6 Future of non-Windows OS <ul><li>There are many distributions of Linux (over 30 ?) the following are used for smartphon...
A7 PC maintenance  – First Lab <ul><li>PCs are very popular (e.g. in professional environments) but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
A7 PC maintenance <ul><li>There are a range of admin tools which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify taking a  hardware invent...
Memory Controller Hub DDR/ DDR2 LVDS to display High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 Celeron DDR2 Flash BIOS SATA 1.5 Gbps WiFi interf...
Pentium 4 Intel Q57 Express Chipset DDR/ DDR2 Intel HD Graphics High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 DDR3 1333 MHz Flash BIOS + *ME Fi...
Pentium 4 X58  IOH DDR/ DDR2 High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 DDR3 1333 MHz Flash BIOS 6 SATA 3.0 Gbps 6 PCI Express x1 USB 2.0 12...
Pentium 4 Memory Controller Hub DDR/ DDR2 LVDS to display High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 Celeron DDR2 Flash BIOS SATA 1.5 Gbps W...
SATA eSATA Smart Storage Core i3, i5, i7 Q57 for Professional Market  PCIe x16 PCIe x1
X58 chipset – Core i7-9xx 04/15/10 Enthusiast's PC
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Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product

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  • Last edited 17 March 2010 Worldwide Computers-in-Use (#M) 5.0 35.2 105.6 237.6 459.5 543.2 721.6 1,044 An estimated 835 million PCs were sold worldwide between 1981 and 2000. (Source: International Data Corp.)
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  • Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product

    1. 1. Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product Tutorial Questions A1 to A7 George South Involves material for Q1 and Q2 - compulsory questions in exam
    2. 2. Some companies involved in microprocessor technology <ul><li>Microsoft $251 billion Market Capitalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Apple $186 billion </li></ul><ul><li>IBM $171 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Google $168 billion </li></ul><ul><li>HP $120 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Intel $113 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Dell $26 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia $50 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Microchip Technology Inc $5 billion </li></ul><ul><li>AMD £5 billion ARM £5 billion (1-Mar-10) </li></ul>
    3. 3. A1 – Major stages in PC Product IBM-PC 8088 PC-bus IBM-AT 80286 AT-bus IBM-PS/2 80386 MCA-bus !!! ISA-PC 80386 ISA-bus ISA-PC 80486 ISA/VL bus PC Pentium Era PCI/ AGP PC Core 2 PCI/ PCIe PC Core i3/i5/i7 PCIe netbook x86-Atom WiFi Clock speed sells x86-Atom Smartphone Nokia ?? PowerPC Not x86 RISC-1994
    4. 4. A1 Success of PC Product <ul><li>Simple design – no ASICs </li></ul><ul><li>PC-bus allowed very easy reconfiguration </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost 8-bit motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>8088 processed 16-bit data internally with hardware multiply, divide etc </li></ul><ul><li>8087 co-processor could perform 80-bit arithmetic (1981 !) </li></ul><ul><li>8088 had 20-bit address bus ( 1 MByte) </li></ul>
    5. 5. A1 PC as de facto standard <ul><li>PC was very popular so a volume market </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent performance/ price ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Application developers considered PC product would be long lifed – hence many innovative products e.g. Office tools, low cost networking </li></ul><ul><li>Having invested effort in learning Windows skills users wanted same environment at home </li></ul>
    6. 6. A1 Modern PC performance <ul><li>A modern PC may have 10,000 times the performance of the original PC </li></ul><ul><li>As we saw in the lab most PCs have about 50 tasks active e.g. Windows Update/ Virus checker etc </li></ul><ul><li>However unless processing serious multimedia content - a PC may be running the System Idle Process for 99% of time </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is of course crucial for mm </li></ul>
    7. 7. A2 Success of PC/ISA Architecture <ul><li>Developers want a stable hardware platform </li></ul><ul><li>However there is no standards authority for PCs </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for the PC were initiated by IBM and continue to be updated by Intel/ AMD (x86 processors and chipsets) and Microsoft (OS) </li></ul>
    8. 8. A2 Compliance <ul><li>If you are a hardware manufacturer, the basic rules for the design of a PC require compliance with the design rules embedded in, say, the Intel chipsets </li></ul><ul><li>The BIOS then ensures that the hardware is initialised usually to provide basic operation prior to the loading of the OS </li></ul><ul><li>Windows provides basic device drivers for compliant hardware </li></ul>
    9. 9. A2 Alternatives to the PC <ul><li>Apple Mac products </li></ul><ul><li>Now use same x86 processors/ chipsets as PCs </li></ul><ul><li>Well regarded for good design and usability </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively expensive </li></ul><ul><li>No clones </li></ul><ul><li>10% of Personal Computer market </li></ul>
    10. 10. A2 Alternatives to the PC <ul><li>Games consoles </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Xbox 360/ PS3/ Wii </li></ul><ul><li>These use processors based on the IBM PowerPC e.g. 3.2 GHz PowerPC Tri-Core </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware is optimised for graphics </li></ul>
    11. 11. A3 x86 Legacy <ul><li>Legacy – e.g. retention of low level hardware features means that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>old software will run on new hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new software will run on old hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit applications can migrate smoothly to a 64-bit environment as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware designs cannot take advantage of latest architectural ideas – e.g. RISC - ARM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware gets complex </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A - Intel® Celeron® Processor 900 (2.20 GHz, 1MB L2 Cache, 800MHz FSB, Intel 64) 45 nm, $70, 410 million transistors, Core 2 Penryn, released Q1 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>B - Intel® Core™ i5-650 (3.2 GHz, 2 Cores, 4 Threads, turbo boost up to 3.46 GHz, 4 MB smart cache) 32 nm, $176, 382 million transistors, Nehalem Clarkdale released Q1 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C - Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-920 quad-core processor (2.66GHz, 1MB L2 + 8MB shared L3 cache) 45 nm, $284, 731 million transistors, Nehalem Bloomfield released Q2 2009 </li></ul>
    13. 13. A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>budget prof enthusiast </li></ul><ul><li>Turbo Boost No Yes Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper-Threading No Yes Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization Tech No Yes Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Intel 64 Yes Yes Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Speedstep No Yes Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Disable Bit Yes Yes Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted Execution No Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>  AES (encryption) No Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>Active Management No Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>Product B for the Professional Market </li></ul>
    14. 14. A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A – budget (older technology) – slide 22 </li></ul><ul><li>GM45 chipset (2 chips) plus ICH9 for IO support – FSB technology </li></ul><ul><li>B – Professional PC – slide 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Q57 chipset (one chip) - See Topic 7 pack – DMI technology </li></ul><ul><li>C – Enthusiast’s PC – slide 24 </li></ul><ul><li>X58 (2 chips) plus ICH10 - QPI technology </li></ul>
    15. 15. A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A – budget PC </li></ul><ul><li>DDR2 DRAM – 3 GBytes (max = 4 GBytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated graphics - GMA 4500MHD </li></ul><ul><li>B – Professional PC </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3 DRAM – 4 GBytes (max = 8 GBytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated graphics - Intel ®  HD Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>C – Enthusiast’s PC </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3 DRAM - 6 GBytes (max = 24 GBytes) </li></ul><ul><li>PCIe graphics - 1GB ATI Radeon HD 4650 </li></ul>
    16. 16. A4 Comparison of PC Products <ul><li>A – budget PC </li></ul><ul><li>Disks - 4 SATA 1.5 Gbits/sec </li></ul><ul><li>250GB (5,400rpm) Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>B – Professional PC </li></ul><ul><li>Disks - 6 SATA 3 Gbits/sec </li></ul><ul><li>mobile - 320GB (5,400rpm) </li></ul><ul><li>C – Enthusiast’s PC </li></ul><ul><li>Disks - 6 SATA 3 Gbits/sec </li></ul><ul><li>750GB 7200 rpm </li></ul>
    17. 17. A5 Trends in PC Product <ul><li>MID Mobile Internet Device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer with a fast internet connection WiFi , WiMAX or G3/G4/LTE mobile comms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netbook using the Intel Atom processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPad using the Apple A4 RISC processor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Cloud (internet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using remote servers e.g. from Google to run applications and store data </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. A6 Future of non-Windows OS <ul><li>Windows is dominant in the desktop and notebook market </li></ul><ul><li>There will be a massive battle in the MID market e.g. netbooks/ Pads or Slates or Tablets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>these are less about “Office” and more about mobility and battery life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many of the smartphone products see this as a potential market e.g. Apple iPad </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. A6 Future of non-Windows OS <ul><li>There are many distributions of Linux (over 30 ?) the following are used for smartphones/ MIDs etc </li></ul><ul><li>Maemo (Nokia)/ MobLin (Intel)/ MeeGo / Android (Andriod Inc: Google: Open Handset Alliance/ LiMo (LiMo Foundation)/ WebOS (Palm) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids OS license fees e.g. to Microsoft </li></ul>
    20. 20. A7 PC maintenance – First Lab <ul><li>PCs are very popular (e.g. in professional environments) but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involve processors which are burdened by x86 legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use a complex architecture which has to maintain 1980’s ISA legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>run a complex OS and applications which are full of potential security holes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PC System administrators require help !! </li></ul>
    21. 21. A7 PC maintenance <ul><li>There are a range of admin tools which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify taking a hardware inventory without opening the box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow conflicts in device requirements to be identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate identification of hardware limitations e.g. lack of physical memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist version control e.g. OS, applications, device drivers, codecs </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Memory Controller Hub DDR/ DDR2 LVDS to display High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 Celeron DDR2 Flash BIOS SATA 1.5 Gbps WiFi interface USB 2.0 DDR2 I/O Controller Hub Integrated Graphics GM45 chipset with Celeron A4 - Budget PC FSB Interface LVDS - low voltage differential signalling – laptop display
    23. 23. Pentium 4 Intel Q57 Express Chipset DDR/ DDR2 Intel HD Graphics High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 DDR3 1333 MHz Flash BIOS + *ME Firmware 6 SATA 3.0 Gbps 8 PCI Express x1 USB 2.0 14 ports DDR3 1333 MHz A4 - Professional PC based on Q57 chipset PCI Express 2.0 optional * Trusted Execution Tech Core i3/ i5 /i7 cpu+gpu HDMI, DVI, DisplayPort 10/ 100/ 1000 LAN DMI Interface 2 GBytes/sec FDI Interface * Chipset and processor support vPro Professional PC management
    24. 24. Pentium 4 X58 IOH DDR/ DDR2 High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 DDR3 1333 MHz Flash BIOS 6 SATA 3.0 Gbps 6 PCI Express x1 USB 2.0 12 ports DDR3 1333 MHz A4 - PC based on i7-9xx and x58 chipset PCI Express 2.0 x36 Core I7-9xx 10/ 100/ 1000 LAN QPI Interface 25 GB/sec DDR3 1333 MHz ICH10 DMI Interface 2 GB/sec
    25. 25. Pentium 4 Memory Controller Hub DDR/ DDR2 LVDS to display High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 Celeron DDR2 Flash BIOS SATA 1.5 Gbps WiFi interface USB 2.0 DDR2 I/O Controller Hub Integrated Graphics GM45 chipset with Celeron Budget PC
    26. 26. SATA eSATA Smart Storage Core i3, i5, i7 Q57 for Professional Market PCIe x16 PCIe x1
    27. 27. X58 chipset – Core i7-9xx 04/15/10 Enthusiast's PC

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