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  1. 1. Computers in Your Future 2004 Bryan Pfaffenberger and Bill Daley Copyright © 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc Slides created by Bob Koziel
  2. 2. Tips for using the slide show <ul><li>Use MS Power Point XP to view the presentation. Earlier versions will not show the animations correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Slides with : Click the slide to view all of its sections and animations. Some slides need to be clicked several times. </li></ul><ul><li>will appear once the last object on the slide has appeared. Click to go to the next slide. </li></ul><ul><li>represents an Internet link that will take you to the Web site when you click on it. Internet connection required. </li></ul><ul><li>Clicking on the or icon will take you to the previous or the next slide. </li></ul><ul><li>Slides with videos or sounds: Click on the picture to view videos or listen to sounds. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE I NEXT SLIDE Copyright © 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc
  3. 3. Tips Addendum <ul><li>This set of slides contain video and/or sound files. </li></ul><ul><li>Preview the slide show on the computer that will be used in class. </li></ul><ul><li>If the video or sound does not play, follow one of the set of directions below. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide Show View </li></ul><ul><li>1. Click on the video or sound image. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A dialog box will appear that will enable you to locate the file. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Select the location where the PPTs are stored on the hard drive, server, or CD. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Open the appropriate folder and select the appropriate file. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Click Open. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Click on the video or sound image again. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Save the PPT with the new link. </li></ul>Normal View 1. Right-click on the video or sound image. 2. For videos, point to Media Clip Object and select Play . 3. For sounds, select Play Sound . 4. A dialog box will appear that will enable you to locate the file. 5. Follow directions 3-6 in Slide Show View . 6. Save the PPT with the new link. NEXT SLIDE Copyright © 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc
  4. 4. <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Storing Data: Electronic Filing Cabinets </li></ul>COMPUTERS IN YOUR FUTURE 2004 by Bryan Pfaffenberger and Bill Daley <ul><li>Differences between memory and storage </li></ul><ul><li>How storage media are categorized </li></ul><ul><li>How a storage device’s performance is measured </li></ul><ul><li>How data is stored on hard and floppy disks </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of removable disks </li></ul><ul><li>Types of optical storage media </li></ul><ul><li>New types of storage media </li></ul>Chapter 4 Storing Data: Electronic Filing Cabinets What You Will Learn NEXT SLIDE
  5. 5. Memory vs. Storage <ul><li>Storage , also known as mass media or auxiliary storage , refers to the various media on which a computer system can store data. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices hold programs and data in units called files . </li></ul><ul><li>Files are stored in directories or folders . </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is a temporary workplace where the computer transfers the contents of a file while it is being used. </li></ul>Hard Drive RAM Memory NEXT SLIDE
  6. 6. Why is storage necessary? <ul><li>Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>Retains data when the computer is turned off. </li></ul><ul><li>Is cheaper than memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays an important role during startup. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays an input role when starting applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Is needed for output. </li></ul><ul><li>Devices can hold a large amount of data. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  7. 7. Storage Devices <ul><li>Storage devices are: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware that is capable of retaining data when the electricity is turned off. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to read (retrieve) data from a storage medium (disk/tape). </li></ul><ul><li>Able to write (record) data to a storage medium. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  8. 8. Types of Storage Technologies <ul><li>Sequential – Hardware that reads and writes data in a serial (one after the other) fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Random-Access – Hardware that reads and writes data without going through a sequence of locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic – Hardware that uses disks or tapes that are coated with magnetic material. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical – Hardware that uses laser beams to read data from plastic disks. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid State – Devices that use nonvolatile memory chips to read and write data. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  9. 9. Sequential – Magnetic Storage Random-Access – Magnetic Storage Tape Backup Unit Floppy Drive Hard Drive Jaz Drive Zip Drive NEXT SLIDE
  10. 10. Sequential – Optical Storage Magnetic – Optical Storage CD-ROM / DVD Drive Magneto-Optic (MO) Drive NEXT SLIDE
  11. 11. Solid State Storage CompactFlash Memory Flash Memory Smart Card Micro Drive Memory Stick PC Card NEXT SLIDE
  12. 12. The Storage Hierarchy <ul><li>Storage hierarchy consists of three levels. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Online storage – Also called primary storage , it is made up of the storage devices that are actively available to the computer system. User action is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Near-online storage – Also called secondary storage , it is not readily available to the computer system. The user performs an action, such as inserting a disk, to make it available. </li></ul><ul><li>Offline storage – Also called tertiary storage or archival storage , it is not readily available to the computer system. Devices such as tape backup units store data for archival purposes. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  13. 13. Capacity and Speed of Storage Devices <ul><li>A storage device’s performance is measured by: </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity – The number of bytes of data that a device can hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Access Time – The amount of time, in milliseconds (ms), it takes for the device to begin reading data. </li></ul>Floppy Disk Hard Drive CD ROM / DVD Capacity – 720 KB to 1.44 MB Access Time – 100ms Capacity – Up to 80 GB Access Time – 6 to 12ms Capacity – CD-ROM 650 MB; DVD 17 GB Access Time – 80 to 800ms NEXT SLIDE
  14. 14. Disks and Disk Drives <ul><li>A disk or diskette is a portable storage medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Disks are circular plastic disks coated with a magnetically sensitive film. </li></ul><ul><li>Disks work with a disk drive. </li></ul><ul><li>High-density floppy disks are commonly used today. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disks store 1.44 MB of data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SuperDisk and High FD disks store up to 250 MB of data and are downwardly compatible with floppy disks. </li></ul><ul><li>Zip disks store up to 750 MB of data and are not downwardly compatible with floppy disks. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  15. 15. Protecting Your Data on Disks NEXT SLIDE
  16. 16. How Disk Drives Work <ul><li>Once inserted, the floppy disk spins on a spindle. </li></ul><ul><li>The head actuator moves the read/write head over the surface of the disk to the location of the data to be read. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is read into computer’s memory. </li></ul>Click on picture to view video NEXT SLIDE
  17. 17. Disk Organization <ul><li>A disk is formatted –that is, it is divided into tracks and sectors and a file allocation table ( FAT ) is created. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track – circular band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sector – pie shaped section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster – two or more adjacent sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT – keeps track of specific locations of files </li></ul></ul>Track Sector Cluster NEXT SLIDE
  18. 18. How Hard Disks Work <ul><li>Hard disks are a high-speed, high-capacity storage devices. </li></ul><ul><li>They contain metal disks called platters. </li></ul><ul><li>They contain two or more stacked platters with read/write heads for each side. </li></ul><ul><li>They work similarly to floppy disk drives. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disks can be divided into partitions to enable computers to work with more than one operating system. </li></ul>Platter Read/Write head I NEXT SLIDE
  19. 19. Factors Affecting a Hard Disk’s Performance <ul><li>Seek time or positioning performance – How quickly the read/write head positions itself and begins transferring information. It is measured in milliseconds (ms). </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle speed or transfer performance – How quickly the drive transfers data. It is measured in rotations per minute (RPM). </li></ul><ul><li>Latency – The time it takes for the spinning platter to bring the desired data to the read/write head. It is measured in milliseconds (ms). </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  20. 20. Hard Disk Interfaces <ul><li>A hard disk controller provides an interface which enables the hard disk to communicate with the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of interfaces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) , also called ATA or IDE/ATA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra DMA/66 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra DMA/100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) </li></ul></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  21. 21. Removable Hard Disks <ul><li>Removable hard disks contain platters that are enclosed in a cartridge which can be inserted or removed from a drive. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used for data archiving and data backup. </li></ul>Jaz Drive NEXT SLIDE
  22. 22. Magnetic Tape <ul><li>Magnetic tape backup units store large amounts of data that are not used frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>They use a cassette-type reel-to-reel plastic tape. </li></ul>Tape Backup Unit NEXT SLIDE
  23. 23. CD-ROM Disks and Drives <ul><li>CD-ROM stands for C ompact D isk- R ead O nly M emory. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM drives can not write data to disks. </li></ul><ul><li>They are capable of storing 650 MB of data. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used for storing operating systems, large application programs, and multimedia programs. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  24. 24. CD-R and CD-RW Disks and Recorders <ul><li>CD-R </li></ul><ul><li>Disks that can be read and written to. </li></ul><ul><li>Disks can only be written to “once”. </li></ul><ul><li>Drives that are capable of reading and writing data are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW </li></ul><ul><li>Disks that can be read and written to. </li></ul><ul><li>Disks are erasable. </li></ul><ul><li>Disks can be written to many times. </li></ul><ul><li>Drives that are capable of reading, writing and erasing data are needed. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  25. 25. DVD-ROM Disks and Drives <ul><li>DVD stands for D igital V ideo D isk. </li></ul><ul><li>They use technology similar to CD-ROM. </li></ul><ul><li>They are capable of storing up to 17GB of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Their data transfer rate is comparable to that of hard disk drives. </li></ul><ul><li>They are compatible with CD-ROM disks. </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-RAM – Has the ability to read/write data. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  26. 26. Other Optical Storage Technologies <ul><li>Write Once, Read Many (WORM) systems use 12-inch optical disks that store up to 15 GB. </li></ul><ul><li>Magneto-Optical (MO) disks are erasable and they combine magnetic principles with optical technology. </li></ul>Magnet-Optical Drive NEXT SLIDE
  27. 27. Storage Horizons <ul><li>Florescent multilayer disc - read-only memory (FMD-ROM) uses optical technology to create disks with up to 100 layers of data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser beams strike the disc’s fluorescent layers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 1 terabyte (TB) of data can be stored on each disc. </li></ul></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  28. 28. Solid State Storage Devices <ul><li>Solid state storage devices use nonvolatile memory chips to retain data. </li></ul><ul><li>They do not have moving parts. </li></ul><ul><li>They are small, lightweight, reliable, and portable. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  29. 29. PC Cards <ul><li>PC or PCMCIA card – Credit card-sized device used mainly with notebook computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Their various functions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network adapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional memory or storage </li></ul></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  30. 30. Flash Memory Cards <ul><li>Flash memory card – A wafer-thin card used with cellular phones, MP3 players, and digital cameras. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of flash memory cards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SmartMedia card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CompactFlash card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sony’s Memory Stick </li></ul></ul>CompactFlash Memory Stick SmartMedia NEXT SLIDE
  31. 31. Smart Cards <ul><li>Smart card – Credit card-sized device combining flash memory with a microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as a credit card. </li></ul><ul><li>They offer more functionality, greater convenience, and higher safety than credit cards. </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  32. 32. Enterprise Storage Systems <ul><li>Enterprise storage systems are developed by corporations to cope with their information storage needs. </li></ul><ul><li>They use several storage technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical disc libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape backup systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A new technology being developed is the Storage area network – Links high-capacity storage devices to all of the organizations servers . </li></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  33. 33. Chapter 4 Summary <ul><li>Memory makes software and data available for the CPU’s use. </li></ul><ul><li>RAM is volatile. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices are nonvolatile. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices are categorized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations (read-only or read/write) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data access (sequential or random-access) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology (magnetic, optical, or solid state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy (online, near-online, or offline) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disk organization includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File allocation tables </li></ul></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  34. 34. Chapter 4 Summary cont . <ul><li>Hard disks store more data than other storage devices. </li></ul><ul><li>A hard disk’s performance is measured by its positioning performance and transfer rate. </li></ul><ul><li>IDE and SCSI are two hard drive interfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical storage devices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM– Read-only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R– Record once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW– Erasable, write repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM– Read-only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-RAM– Read/write </li></ul></ul>NEXT SLIDE
  35. 35. <ul><li>Solid state storage devices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corporations develop enterprise storage systems for their information storage needs. </li></ul>Chapter 4 Summary cont. NEXT SLIDE
  36. 36. THE END