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  • Slide to stay on screen until class starts
  • Infopeople has provided five cameras for use in the class. We will be forming into teams that share the use of one camera. Review packet of materials Sign your floppy disk
  • Mention that information links located on the bookmarks file
  • Take time to discuss red-eye. Ask class – has this happened to you? What has worked for you to avoid this?
  • Take time to discuss red-eye. Ask class – has this happened to you? What has worked for you to avoid this?
  • NOTE: We will be connecting cameras during the second exercise. If your camera is not able to connect and download images at the end of the second exercise, we will ask you to join a team and use one of the FujiFilm cameras
  • Infopeople course materials available for Fireworks Don’t spend much time on this… more details on Handout #3
  • ppt

    1. 1. Digital Photography 101 for Library Applications Instructor: Jeanne Moje [email_address] An Infopeople Workshop Winter 2004
    2. 2. Workshop Agenda <ul><li>Digital Camera Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Hints on Taking Photos </li></ul><ul><li>Who Owns That Image? </li></ul><ul><li>Photo Design and Repair </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Your Digital Photo Collection </li></ul>
    3. 3. Digital Camera Overview
    4. 4. Why Digital Photography? <ul><li>Advantage over film cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback / results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t need to develop film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of image manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add interest to your web site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicize and document library events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures are worth a thousand words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide material for library displays </li></ul>
    5. 5. Overview of Digital Cameras <ul><li>Lens types </li></ul><ul><li>Case sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Pixel depth </li></ul><ul><li>Zoom power </li></ul><ul><li>Storage media types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older memory formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer memory formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative memory formats </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Lens Types <ul><li>Regular fixed lens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with or without zoom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital SLR (single-lens reflex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More control over depth of field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interchangeable lenses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For incredible detail in a large image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge file sizes </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Digital Camera Case Sizes <ul><li>Listed in order of price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Pixel Depth <ul><li>Why would you want more pixels? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 megapixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 megapixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 megapixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foveon technology 3.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three layers to each pixel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent to 10 megapixels </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Pixel Print Comparison <ul><li>To maintain quality, choose higher megapixel settings if you need larger print sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 megapixels ≅ 4 x 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 megapixels ≅ 5 x 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 megapixels ≅ 8 x 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 megapixels ≅ 11 x 14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 megapixels ≅ 12 x 16 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Zoom Power <ul><li>Optical zoom changes the image by moving the lens </li></ul><ul><li>Digital zoom changes the image by cropping (enlarging the pixels) </li></ul><ul><li>Interchangeable lenses on SLR digital cameras – expensive! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives you more shutter speed control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide-angle, panoramic, specialty lenses </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Types of Storage Media <ul><li>Some can be used in multiple portable devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital cameras, notebooks, PDAs, music players, car stereo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardize on a flash memory type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Digital (SD) - up and coming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact Flash (CF) - still a good choice </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Older Memory Formats <ul><li>These formats are being phased out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SmartMedia (SM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MultiMediaCard (MMC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mini-CDs, floppy disks </li></ul><ul><li>Compact Flash (CF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More devices use CF that any other media type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High capacity </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Newer Memory Formats <ul><li>Memory stick (MS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only used by Sony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>xD-Picture Card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fujifilm, Olympus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projected highest capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secure Digital (SD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projected highest use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadest support </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Alternative Memory Formats <ul><li>CF Mini hard drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM microdrive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 1 GB in storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital camera off-load units </li></ul>
    15. 15. Now For Our Camera Tour…
    16. 16. Finally, Taking Photos…
    17. 17. Before You Start <ul><li>Practice with the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Double-check your camera settings </li></ul><ul><li>Carry extra batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment with flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How close to subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test red-eye settings </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Hints On Taking Photos <ul><li>Use a tripod or lean against stationery object </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve batteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit use of screen viewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is camera turned off when not in use? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Automatic & Forced Flash <ul><li>Automatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires automatically as required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for ordinary photography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced Flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photograph backlit scenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use outside in shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color correct fluorescent light </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Suppressed & Red-Eye Flash <ul><li>Suppressed Flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoors where flash is ineffective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos taken through glass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red-Eye Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-flashes so subject’s eyes appear more natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires automatically as required </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Slow-Synchro Flash Types <ul><li>Slow-Synchro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow shutter speed for taking pictures of people at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will show both subject and night time backdrop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend tripod </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red-Eye Reduction plus Slow-Synchro </li></ul>
    22. 22. Example of Flash Icons Red eye reduction Forced flash Suppressed flash Red eye reduction plus slow synchro Slow synchro
    23. 23. White Balance Control <ul><li>Will attempt to correct the color for given light sources such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daylight fluorescents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm white fluorescents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool white fluorescents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shade </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Delayed Shutter Response <ul><li>Anticipate shutter lag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shutter delay varies between cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask your subject to hold still! </li></ul><ul><li>Image-writing delay while the camera stores the photo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cameras are able to store images more quickly </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Taking Photos of People <ul><li>Avoid red-eye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use red-eye flash function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask subject to look away from flash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use natural light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t get too close </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can crop image later </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Flattery Or Kindness? <ul><li>Avoid harsh shadows </li></ul><ul><li>Try different viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Use natural light instead of flash </li></ul><ul><li>Red clothing will overpower skin tones </li></ul>
    27. 27. Hold Still! <ul><li>Posing versus natural action </li></ul><ul><li>Take numerous photos of same pose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject may relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pose will look more natural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shutter lag makes natural action shots difficult </li></ul>
    28. 28. Connect That Camera…
    29. 29. Connecting to a Computer <ul><li>Install camera software </li></ul><ul><li>Check camera battery charge or plug in power adapter </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera to computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory media to computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copy or move files from camera to computer </li></ul>
    30. 30. Problems? <ul><li>Where to go if you have problems with your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Camera batteries weak? </li></ul><ul><li>What if your computer won’t talk to the camera? </li></ul><ul><li>Software updates and other annoyances </li></ul>
    31. 31. Indoor Lighting <ul><li>Fluorescent light is green </li></ul><ul><li>Incandescent light is red </li></ul><ul><li>North light bulbs are blue </li></ul><ul><li>“Color-corrected” light bulbs are best </li></ul><ul><li>Use two light sources if possible </li></ul>
    32. 32. Photographing Objects <ul><li>Avoid parallax effect if object has straight lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Align camera to object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Align lines of object with frame of viewfinder or LCD monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a tripod or stand </li></ul><ul><li>Macro lenses </li></ul>
    33. 33. Lighting Objects <ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two lights are best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45° angle to object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure distance of lights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a “color key” for fine reproductions </li></ul>
    34. 34. Camera Purchase Decision
    35. 35. Before You Choose <ul><li>What is your budget? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it connect to your computer? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate your photographic needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixel depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory needs (16 MB to 1 GB+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have other portable devices? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom capability needed? </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. How To Choose A Camera <ul><li>Try out cameras for a good fit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it fit your hands? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls easy to locate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display screen large enough? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light enough to carry? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom power? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchase at a store or buy online? </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an eye on sale prices </li></ul>
    37. 37. Bookmarks Topics to Visit <ul><li>Digital camera glossaries and dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera overview </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor web sites for digital cameras and photography </li></ul>
    38. 38. Taking Photos Outdoors
    39. 39. Outdoor Lighting <ul><li>Sunlight causes shadows </li></ul><ul><li>North light is blue </li></ul><ul><li>Overcast days </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect lighting best for people </li></ul><ul><li>Use fill-in flash or reflector </li></ul>
    40. 40. Taking Photos Outdoors <ul><li>Sunrise, sunset </li></ul><ul><li>High noon </li></ul><ul><li>Overcast </li></ul><ul><li>Fill-in flash </li></ul><ul><li>Few filters available for digital cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glare and reflections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust and smog </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Legal Issues…
    42. 42. Do The Right Thing! <ul><li>Get a signature release from your subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Infopeople course materials available </li></ul>
    43. 43. Signature Releases <ul><li>Who owns that photograph? </li></ul><ul><li>If you put a photo of a person on the web, get a signature release </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Sample signature releases </li></ul>
    44. 44. Copyright Considerations <ul><li>Again, who owns that photograph? </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Get permission! </li></ul><ul><li>Protect your images </li></ul>
    45. 45. Bookmarks Topics to Visit <ul><li>Infopeople course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Laws For The Web Environment - 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signature release samples </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright law </li></ul>
    46. 46. The Art Part…
    47. 47. Photo Design and Repair <ul><li>Design and color hints </li></ul><ul><li>Cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Resizing </li></ul><ul><li>Color correction </li></ul>
    48. 48. Design Hints <ul><li>View as abstract artwork (turn the photo upside down) </li></ul><ul><li>Save as black & white for a fresh view </li></ul><ul><li>Look at negative spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid clutter </li></ul>
    49. 49. The Rule of Thirds in Design <ul><li>Hum Beethoven’s Fifth </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine a tic-tac-toe grid on your image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line objects on the grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offset the focal point within the composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for proportions of two-to-one </li></ul>
    50. 50. Value, Contrast & Luminance <ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative lightness or darkness of a color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black & white photography helps you see value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between highest and lowest luminance values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luminance relates to light </li></ul>
    51. 51. Hue, Saturation & Brightness <ul><li>Hue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity or gradation of color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatic purity - has color been diluted with white? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brightness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brilliance of a color relating to hue or saturation </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Color Impact <ul><li>Emotional impact of color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of message do you wish to convey? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reds “bleed” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May overpower other parts of the image </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Color Hints <ul><li>The rule of threes in color </li></ul><ul><li>Squint to see the values in the image </li></ul><ul><li>Check proportions of color of two-to-one </li></ul>
    54. 54. Cropping and Resizing <ul><li>Focus on the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of clutter </li></ul><ul><li>The web can only show so much! </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce image file size </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your design </li></ul>
    55. 55. Software Can Correct Color <ul><li>Balance your color </li></ul><ul><li>Correct bad lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Punch up the values </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the hue </li></ul>
    56. 56. Photo & Graphics Software
    57. 57. Types of Software <ul><li>Beginner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple iPhoto, Hypersnap, LviewPro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PaintShop Pro, Photoshop Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fireworks, Photoshop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Camera software </li></ul>
    58. 58. Exporting for Web and Print
    59. 59. Exporting For The Web <ul><li>Use “save as” - keep original safe </li></ul><ul><li>PC vs Macintosh color differences </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce image and file size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resize image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change file format to jpg or gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set resolution to 72 dpi </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Exporting For Print <ul><li>Use “save as” - keep original safe </li></ul><ul><li>Use largest pixel size setting available for camera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You won’t be able to take as many photos at a time, but the print quality will be greater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Save to highest quality TIFF format setting </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with your printer! </li></ul><ul><li>Color-correct your monitor </li></ul>
    61. 61. File Extensions <ul><li>JPEG (*.jpg) web graphics </li></ul><ul><li>GIF (*.gif) flat color web graphics </li></ul><ul><li>TIFF (*.tif) print graphics </li></ul><ul><li>PSD (*.psd) Adobe Photoshop </li></ul><ul><li>PNG (*.png) Fireworks </li></ul><ul><li>PDF (*.pdf) Adobe Acrobat </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary extensions </li></ul>
    62. 62. Digital Photos Can Be Huge! <ul><li>Managing disk space </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing your photos </li></ul><ul><li>Types of file management software </li></ul><ul><li>Infopeople course materials available on digitization projects </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget metadata! </li></ul>
    63. 63. Bookmarks Topics to Visit <ul><li>Graphics software vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Digital collections projects </li></ul><ul><li>Infopeople course materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning To Digitize Your Treasures, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning Your Digitization Project, 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating Web Images With Fireworks, 2002 </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Planning A Photo Session
    65. 65. Back To Reality… <ul><li>What photos do you need (or want) to take for your library? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How / where will you use these photos? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What camera settings to use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the subject matter? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of lighting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal issues? </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Summary and Evaluation <ul><li>Overview of digital cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Hints on taking photos </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns that image? </li></ul><ul><li>Design and color hints </li></ul><ul><li>Managing your files and disk space </li></ul>