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  1. 1. Networking for Smart Spaces Kevin L. Mills NIST Information Technology Laboratory The Edge The Core Aroma
  2. 2. The Talk Ahead <ul><li>What’s Changing? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s a Smart Space? </li></ul><ul><li>NIST Smart Spaces Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Multi-Modal Sensing for Smart Spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking for Smart Spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some Research Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Synergies with Sense IT </li></ul><ul><li>Invitation to PC2000 </li></ul>
  3. 3. What’s Changing? <ul><li>Increasing Prevalence of Mobile Work and Ad Hoc Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Population of Embedded and Portable Information Appliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs, Cell Phones, CrossPad, InfoPen … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich and Growing Technologies for Pico-Cellular Wireless Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth, HomeRF, 802.11, 802.11b, IrDA … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emerging Technologies for Dynamic Service Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jini, Universal Plug-and-Play, Service Location Protocol … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leading toward Smart Spaces? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What’s a Smart Space? <ul><li>A Wireless Island in a Global Wired Ocean where </li></ul><ul><li>Available Information Services and Embedded Sensors and Devices are Discovered, Accessed, and Exploited by </li></ul><ul><li>Portable Devices Carried onto the Island and the </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of Imported and Native Devices and Services is Exploited to Support the Information Needs of Current Island Inhabitants </li></ul>
  5. 5. Smart Spaces Project <ul><li>Implement a pilot consisting of multiple smart spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One exploring passive, multi-modal HCI sensing issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two exploring networking and distributed systems issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrate and evaluate current technology available to realize smart spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pico-cellular LANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Service Discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Computing Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-modal Passive Sensing (speech, vision, language) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking for Smart Spaces Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AirJava : Exploring the Edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aroma : Exploring the Core </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Exploring the Edge <ul><li>Deploy embedded and portable, computer-controllable devices within a pico-cellular wireless edge network connected to the wired infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Discover local devices and automatically configure foreign portable computers to use the discovered devices and services- also enable the export of local devices and services to remote correspondents </li></ul><ul><li>Discover local embedded file and compute infrastructures that allow ad hoc injection of transient foreign information and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Claim: Within 5 years Systems-on-a-chip (SOC) costing $10 will include </li></ul><ul><li>pico-cell wireless transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>virtual machine </li></ul><ul><li>run-time environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Jini-based Device Adapter <ul><li>AirJava adapter emulates tomorrow’s SOC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-power microcomputer and flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz wireless LAN PCMCIA Card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux or Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Java VM and Jini </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AirJava adapter provides a platform for investigating challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing and Exploiting Discovered Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Mechanisms for Transient Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Organizing Mesh of Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical Networking Context for Mobile Collaborators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPSON CARD 586 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>133 MHz, 48 MB RAM, 256 KB ROM, 1 MB Video Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus Controller, XGA Controller, FDC, COMBO Controller </li></ul></ul><ul><li>320 MB Flash Memory Card </li></ul><ul><li>320x240 Pixel Color LCD </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz Wireless LAN PCMCIA Type II </li></ul>
  8. 8. Exploring the Core <ul><li>Integrate AirJava -adapted devices and other portable wireless devices with wired networking infrastructure using UCB Ninja Software </li></ul><ul><li>Develop, test, and evaluate algorithms for self-organizing service meshes along spatial, logical, and organization dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and exploit on-demand virtual private network technology to scope and protect communications and to manage information for mobile, ad hoc teams </li></ul>Picture courtesy of David Culler UC Berkeley Aroma
  9. 9. Project Status <ul><li>AirJava adapter constructed and running Jini </li></ul><ul><li>Several Jini services designed and in early prototype form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Http File Upload service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Transfer service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Node Resource Information service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial target, controllable devices identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commercially available digital projector, video camera, audio mixer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maya Design Interstax modules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6-Node Windows NT network of workstations, running Jini and Ninja, about to be assembled. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Challenge – Managing and Exploiting Discovered Services <ul><li>Lease management - What’s the tradeoff between overhead traffic and responsiveness to changes in services? How will leased services and device drivers wither away from client devices? </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness - What’s the tradeoff between number of replicas and associated overhead? What’s the tradeoff between automated shutdown/restart of services and the latency for clients? </li></ul><ul><li>Device driver injection - What’s required to dynamically inject and automatically configure device-driver code into transient end systems (without rebooting)? </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless channel utilization - How can a shared wireless channel be used simultaneously for discovery protocols, code exchange, and streaming data? What’s the tradeoff between compression of mobile code and state, channel utilization, and latency? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Challenge –Security Mechanisms for Transient Interactions <ul><li>Authentication - How should transient users be authenticated? How should services and devices be authenticated? </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization - What capabilities should be available for granting to transient users? What capabilities should transient systems make available for granting to locality services? </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement - How can capabilities be checked quickly? How should capability-denied situations be resolved? </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Mechanisms - How should policies be described for granting capabilities to transient users? How should capability leases be managed? How can various policy decisions be checked for inconsistencies, ambiguities, and omissions? </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity - How will the integrity of mobile code and state be assured? How can mobile systems safely accept foreign device drivers? How much information should be logged about activity in a smart space, and how should integrity and confidentiality be provided for logged information? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Challenge – Self-Organizing Mesh of Services <ul><li>Mesh Creation - How can services self-organize into multiple meshes based on spatial, logical, and organizational relationships, attributes, and constraints? </li></ul><ul><li>Mesh Management - How should service meshes adapt dynamically to transience among services and to changes in the definition of relationships, attributes, and constraints? </li></ul><ul><li>Queries and Event Notifications - How should queries be routed among service meshes? What protocols should be used to distribute event notifications to multiple interested listeners? How should transient event listeners be accommodated? How can event filter networks be organized in relationship to service meshes? How should event filter networks be adapted to changes in service meshes? </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Pattern Recognition - How can event filter networks be deployed among distributed nodes to recognize significant patterns? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Challenge – Logical Networking Contexts for Mobile Collaborators <ul><li>Context Creation - How can virtual overlay networks be created on-demand? What application services and network services should be available within a virtual overlay network? </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility Management - How can virtual overlay networks be dynamically adjusted to accommodate mobile users who exhibit discontinuous connectivity from different locations? How can services be maintained in the face of intermittent connectivity to the machines host the services? How can state changes be synchronized in the face of intermittent connectivity? </li></ul><ul><li>Context Switching - How can end users maintain awareness, switch quickly among, and effectively operate within multiple contexts? How can services, devices, and information leased from the local context be shared across remote contexts? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Possible Synergies with Sense IT <ul><li>Adaptive wireless communications in the 2.4 GHz band </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organization requirements in multiple dimensions (spatial, logical, and organizational) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on mobile code and mobile state </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed system of independent nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Need for well-understood or discoverable application programming interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Security requirements for dynamic tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithms for distributed queries, event notifications, and pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement for robustness in the face of intermittent connectivity, node failures, and redundant nodes </li></ul>
  15. 15. You are invited to PC 2000 <ul><li>Pervasive Computing 2000 Workshop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January 25-26, 2000 at NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keynote Speaker is Bill Joy from Sun Microsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Panels of mainly Industry, but some University Folks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panel Topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pico-cellular Wireless LANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Service Discovery Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative Handheld and Embedded Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming Systems for Adaptive Distributed Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-modal Human-Computer Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact Bill Young ( for more info </li></ul>