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IT Hardware Left: The on-board L2 cache. Right: The Pentium® Pro processor core with 5.5 million transistors. Source:  Intel
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the major...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>4.  Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a busines...
Computer System Categories
Microcomputer Systems <ul><li>Personal Computer  (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop  ...
Microcomputer Systems <ul><li>Workstation  – a powerful, networked PC for business professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Network...
Information Appliances <ul><li>Hand-held microcomputer devices </li></ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants (PDA) </li></...
Motherboard: components bus , chipset, CPU, memory
Motherboard: bus system <ul><li>data  bus   </li></ul><ul><li>address bus </li></ul><ul><li>system/control bus </li></ul><...
Motherboard: chipset <ul><li>components of the chipset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Semiconductor memory <ul><li>Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips </li></ul><ul><li>Used for primary storage </li></...
Two types of semiconductor memory <ul><li>RAM: random access memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely used primary storage...
Bit and Byte <ul><li>Bit  (short for binary digit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest element of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Representing characters in bytes
Computers use binary system to calculate Binary Octal Decimal
Measuring storage capacities <ul><li>Kilobyte  (KB): one thousand bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte  (MB): one million byte...
Main Memory <ul><li>basic concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory banks (0,1,2): 64  Meg to 1 Gig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Disk drives <ul><li>Hard-drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Magnetic Disks <ul><li>Used for secondary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Fast access and high storage capacity </li></ul>Source...
Types of magnetic disks <ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket </li></ul></ul><u...
Optical Disks
Uses of optical disks <ul><li>Image processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term storage of historical files of images </li>...
Disk drive performance <ul><li>Fragmentation :  overview  and defragmentation software. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression:  ov...
Others <ul><li>graphics cards: BIOS and memory  </li></ul><ul><li>monitors: resolution, size, analog vs. digital </li></ul...
Radio Frequency Identification  <ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Tag and identify mobile objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.,...
RFID versus bar codes <ul><li>RFID  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan from greater distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can store ...
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IT Hardware

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IT Hardware

  1. 1. IT Hardware Left: The on-board L2 cache. Right: The Pentium® Pro processor core with 5.5 million transistors. Source: Intel
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and give example of the components and functions of a computer system. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>4. Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selections. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Computer System Categories
  5. 5. Microcomputer Systems <ul><li>Personal Computer (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop – fit on an office desk </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop – small, portable PC </li></ul>
  6. 6. Microcomputer Systems <ul><li>Workstation – a powerful, networked PC for business professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Network Server – more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small networks </li></ul>
  7. 7. Information Appliances <ul><li>Hand-held microcomputer devices </li></ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants (PDA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BlackBerry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video-game consoles </li></ul><ul><li>Internet enabled cellular phones </li></ul>
  8. 8. Motherboard: components bus , chipset, CPU, memory
  9. 9. Motherboard: bus system <ul><li>data bus </li></ul><ul><li>address bus </li></ul><ul><li>system/control bus </li></ul><ul><li>expansion slots </li></ul><ul><li>ISA, EISA, VESA,SCSI, PCI, AGP </li></ul><ul><li>How local bus works? PCI vs VESA </li></ul><ul><li>Bus speeds : Pentium 4 and AthlonXP </li></ul>
  10. 10. Motherboard: chipset <ul><li>components of the chipset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I/O controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bus controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cache controller </li></ul></ul><ul><li>types of chipsets </li></ul>
  11. 11. Semiconductor memory <ul><li>Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips </li></ul><ul><li>Used for primary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock and temperature resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility: must have uninterrupted electric power or lose memory </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Two types of semiconductor memory <ul><li>RAM: random access memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely used primary storage medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/write memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM: read only memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be read but cannot be overwritten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently used programs burnt into chips during manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called firmware </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Bit and Byte <ul><li>Bit (short for binary digit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest element of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either zero or one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Byte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of eight bits which operate as a single unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents one character or number </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Representing characters in bytes
  15. 15. Computers use binary system to calculate Binary Octal Decimal
  16. 16. Measuring storage capacities <ul><li>Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB): one million bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Main Memory <ul><li>basic concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory banks (0,1,2): 64 Meg to 1 Gig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMMs (single in-line memory modules) , DIMMS (dual in-line memory modules) , SDRAM ( synchronous DRAM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMMs older, DIMMS old, SDRAM newer PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organization: conventional and extended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>additional references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c|net RAM Primer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PNY Electronics: configure memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial memory selector </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Disk drives <ul><li>Hard-drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaces: IDE , SCSI , SATA , IDE vs SCSI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD and DVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basics : CD standard and DVD standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x A measurement of CD or DVD drive speed. Each x translates to either 153,600 bytes of data per second, the data rate of the CD-audio or 1,250,000 bytes per second, the data rate of the DVD-video. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USB flash drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Magnetic Disks <ul><li>Used for secondary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Fast access and high storage capacity </li></ul>Source: Quantum. Source: Corbis.
  20. 20. Types of magnetic disks <ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard disk drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic disk, access arms, and read/write heads in sealed module </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAID (Redundant arrays of independent disks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk arrays of interconnected hard disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerant with multiple copies on several disks </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Optical Disks
  22. 22. Uses of optical disks <ul><li>Image processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term storage of historical files of images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan documents and store on optical disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogs, directories, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive multimedia applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video games, educational videos, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Disk drive performance <ul><li>Fragmentation : overview and defragmentation software. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: overview and file, folder and drives compression in Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache: overview and hardware vs. software </li></ul><ul><li>Swap file (paging file): overview and changing its size </li></ul>
  24. 24. Others <ul><li>graphics cards: BIOS and memory </li></ul><ul><li>monitors: resolution, size, analog vs. digital </li></ul><ul><li>printers: ink, laser, color, speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Modems: phone lines, cable and DSL </li></ul><ul><li>scanners </li></ul><ul><li>digital cameras </li></ul>
  25. 25. Radio Frequency Identification <ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Tag and identify mobile objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., store merchandise, postal packages, pets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use RFID chips to transmit and receive radio signals </li></ul><ul><li>Chips half the size of a grain of sand </li></ul><ul><li>Passive chips: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do not have power source and derive power from signal in reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active chips: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-powered </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. RFID versus bar codes <ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan from greater distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can store data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows more information to be tracked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy concerns due to invisible nature </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Controversy </li></ul>

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