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  1. 1. CIL 102 Spring 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Make good purchasing decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot computer, as well as maintain and upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid hackers, viruses and spyware </li></ul><ul><li>Protect privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain security </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace new technologies </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop (single location) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop or Notebook (mobile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet (mobile, touch screen, stylus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netbook (smaller mobile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistant/Smart Phones (handheld) </li></ul></ul>Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  4. 4. <ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-range computers that handle the computing needs of smaller organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mainframe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems designed to handle large processing jobs in larger organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airlines, Banks, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer used to solve complex scientific and military problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NASA, National Weather Service, US Dept of Energy, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>IBM’s Roadrunner (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest supercomputer today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid – combo of IBM and AMD processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 quadrillion calculations per second (1.105 petaflops) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs Red Hat Linux operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IBM Sequoia (2011) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequoia Article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 quadrillion calculations per second - the equivalent of more than 2 million laptops!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Energy </li></ul></ul>IBM Roadrunner Wikipedia IBM Roadrunner CNET Article - June 2009
  6. 6. <ul><li>Dell </li></ul><ul><li>Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Hewlett-Packard </li></ul><ul><li>Acer </li></ul><ul><li>Toshiba </li></ul><ul><li>Lenovo </li></ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul><ul><li>Sony </li></ul><ul><li>ASUS </li></ul><ul><li>Alienware </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary task is storing and retrieving large quantities of data (network) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High end-computer running a variant of UNIX designed to be used by one person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embedded Computer System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General CPUs that run single programs; embedded in consumer devices such as automobiles, microwave ovens, DVD players, electric toothbrushes. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004 power supply ports drive bays processor memory sound card video card modem card network card
  9. 9. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004 processor chip adapter cards memory chips memory slots motherboard Expansion slots for adapter cards
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Intel® Core TM   i7 Quad Core Processor (1.6GHz, 6MB L3 Cache, 1333MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 7 Home Premium 64 bit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6GB 1333MHz DDR3 SDRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15.6” WLED LCD (1920x1080) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATI Mobility RADEON – 1 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500GB Hard Drive 7200 RPM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD/CD burner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 MP Camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dell Laptop Starts at $1599 </li></ul></ul>© Dell © Intel
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Intel Atom Z520 1.33 GHz, 533 MHz FSB, 512 K Cache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 GB DDR2 SDRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10.1” display with 1024x600 resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Graphics Media Accelerator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>160 GB 5400 RPM Hard Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WLAN 802.11n WiFi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Home Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery: 3-cell or 6-cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dell Mini Netbook Starts at $299 </li></ul></ul>©
  12. 12. <ul><li>Central Processing Unit  - &quot;Brain&quot; of the computer; directs all operations in the computer and performs the processing steps for the data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes data user inputs into computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Intel® Core 2 Duo Processor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Memory (RAM) - temporarily holds the data and instructions that the computer uses during processing; primary storage (example: 6 GB DDR3 SDRAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Input/Output Devices - such as keyboards, monitors, printers         </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Intel Core 2 Duo </li></ul><ul><li>AMD Opteron (server) </li></ul><ul><li>AMD Athlon (desktop) </li></ul><ul><li>AMD Turion 64 X2 (mobile) </li></ul><ul><li>AMD Phenom II (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Xeon (server / workstation) (8 core) </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Core 2 Quad (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Core i7 (mobile - 2010) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A custom-PowerPC CPU is used in Xbox 360 and Nintendo Wii gaming systems </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Intel® Core TM   i7 Processor </li></ul><ul><li>(1.6GHz, 6MB L3 Cache, 1333MHz FSB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quad Core technology - offers better multitasking capability due to 4 processing cores on one CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaming, multimedia software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system and applications need to recognize dual processors (‘ multi-thread aware’ or capable of running multiple tasks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Multi-core </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>1.6 GHz – speed of system clock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pace by which the computer moves from process to process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System clock emits pulses at regular intervals enabling computer’s activities to be synchronized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of speed: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gigahertz – one billion clock ticks per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Megahertz – one million clock ticks per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1333 MHz – Speed of Frontside Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System bus – circuitry (path) which runs between memory and CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hertz – cycles per second </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Overclocking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of running computer component at higher clock rate (more cycles per second) than it was designed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processors, video cards, RAM, motherboards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generates heat (need better cooling) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All electronic circuits produce heat generated by movement of electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very Risky – operating component outside of manufacturer’s recommended operating conditions; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Void warranty, risk of fire, higher power consumption, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Cache  - high-speed memory usually on the CPU chip; small, but quite effective.  Used for most commonly used instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1 (L1) - sample size 32KB (SRAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 (L2) – sample size 2 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3 (L3) – sample size 6 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Demo machine: 6MB Level 3 cache (Good!) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Front Side Bus Connects CPU and RAM
  20. 20. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  21. 21. <ul><li>Motherboard – primary circuit board inside of computer; used to connect components together </li></ul><ul><li>Registers - special, high-capability storage locations used by the CPU to store data </li></ul><ul><li>Cache  - high-speed memory usually on the CPU chip; small, but quite effective.  Increases computer’s performance. Used for most commonly used instructions. Level 1 usually on CPU chip and Level 2 usually on chip near CPU. L3 used for multi-core CPUs. Example: Level 1(L1) or  Level 2 (L2) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Slots - represent additional connecting places to an internal bus, allowing connections for future components  (example: network card, video card, sound card, fax/modem card) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Supply – supplies power to computer; converts AC to DC for use by the components </li></ul>
  22. 22. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  23. 23. <ul><li>Fastest  Faster  Fast </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>4GB 1067MHz DDR3 SDRAM </li></ul><ul><li>Slowest to Fastest </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM (60ns- billionths of a second ) dynamic RAM </li></ul><ul><li>SDRAM – synchronous dynamic RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100-133 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DDR SDRAM – (2 word minimum read/write rate)) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200-400 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DDR2 SDRAM (4 word minimum read/write rate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400-1066 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DDR3 SDRAM (8 word minimum read/write rate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800-1600 MHz (data transfer speed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRAM ( Static RAM ) Fastest – Expensive – Used for Cache memory ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access time 10-30 nanoseconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ‘refresh’ signal needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note : Word size is 32 or 64 bits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Devices (USB) </li></ul><ul><li>External vs. Internal </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Input device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A peripheral device used to provide data to a computer. Together with output devices, these peripherals make up the interface between the computer and the “outside world” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web Camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game controller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Output Device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral device used to represent information from a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>What applications do you want to run on a new computer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of processor do you need? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much memory do you need? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of storage requirements do you need? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other considerations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio capabilities, video capabilities, printer , etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of use (PC, Macintosh) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Look at Web sites ( Example: Dell, PCWorld ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine specifications and computer reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC World: Selecting The Right Laptop For You </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC World: Making Sense of the Specifications </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>If evaluating two comparable computers, how do you know which one performs better? </li></ul><ul><li>Run Benchmark tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers obtained by running a program or group of programs on a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to compare performance of computers with different hardware and/or software combinations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, measures speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take an average of performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Add more memory </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up software issues (via operating system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete unnecessary files & Defragment hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganizes files on hard drive; improves access time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean up Startup folder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove unnecessary programs from Startup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resident in RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run antispyware and antivirus programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In extreme cases, backup computer, reformat hard drive and re-install operating system and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upgrade motherboard / processor </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade graphics card </li></ul><ul><li>Install faster hard drive or CD/DVD drive </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Adapter Cards </li></ul><ul><li>ALU </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>Bus or FSB </li></ul><ul><li>Cache </li></ul><ul><li>Computer applications </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Control Unit </li></ul><ul><li>CPU – examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Core Duo / AMD Athlon, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-Core </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion slot </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>I/O devices (examples) </li></ul><ul><li>Main Memory (RAM) – size and speed </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Overclocking </li></ul><ul><li>Ports (Examples) </li></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Quad-Core </li></ul><ul><li>Registers </li></ul><ul><li>Roadrunner (IBM) </li></ul><ul><li>Sequoia (IBM) </li></ul><ul><li>Speed up computer? </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices (examples) </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul><ul><li>System Bus – Front Side Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors (examples) </li></ul>